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descend from thence upon earth, is evident from the following words in the same book : "I saw a new heaven and a new earth : and I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband; and he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new; and he said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful” (chap. xxi. 1, 2,-5): the new heaven means a new heaven from among

Christians; the New Jerusalem means a new church upon earth, which will make one with that new heaven ; the Lamb, means the Lord as to the Divine Humanity.

To this something shall be added by way of illustration. The christian heaven is below the ancient heavens; into this heaven, from the time of the Lord's abode in the world, were admitted those who worshiped one God under three persons, and who did not at the same time entertain an idea of three Gods; and this, by reason of a trinity of persons being received throughout the whole christian world ; but they, who entertained no other idea of the Lord's Humanity, than as of the humanity of another man, could not receive the faith of the New Jerusalem, which is, that ihe Lord is the only God in whom there is a trinity ; these latter, therefore, were separated and removed; it was given me to see their separation and removal after the last judgment. For upon a just idea of God, the universal heaven and the church universal on earth, are founded, and in general the whole of religion ; for by that idea there is conjunction, and by conjunction, light, wisdom, and eternal happiness.

Any one may see that the Apocalypse could no how be explained but by the Lord alone, since every word of it contains arcana, which never could be known without some special illumination, and consequent revelation; wherefore it has pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit ; and to teach me. It must not therefore be supposed that I have given any explication of my own, nor that even of any angel, but only what I have had communicated to me from the Lord alone. The Lord said, moreover, by an angel unto John : “ Seal not the words of the prophecy of this book" (chap. xxii. 10); by which is signified, that they are to be manifested and laid open.

Amsterdam, 1766.

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BABYLON, or the Roman Catholic Religion, being treated of in the Apocalypse, in chapters xvii., xviii. and xix., it is expedient, at the commencement of these explications, to say something concerning its doctrines, and that in the following order : On Baptism; on the Eucharist or Holy Supper; on Masses; on Repentance; on Justification; on Purgatory; on the Seven Sacraments; on the Saints; and on Power.

“I. On BAPTISM, they teach: that Adam, after the sin of disobedience, was wholly changed for the worse, both aś to soul and body ; that this sin was transsused into the whole human race; that this original sin is only taken away by the merit of Christ; and that the merit of Christ is applied by the sacrament of baptism ; and that thus the whole guilt of original sin is taken away by baptism; that concupiscence nevertheless remains in the baptized as an incentive to sins, but not sin itself; that thus they put on Christ, become new creatures, and obtain a full and complete remission of sins. Baptism is called the laver of regeneration and of faith. That the baptized, when they grow up, are to be questioned concerning the promises made by their sponsors; which is the SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION. That by reason of lapses after baptism, the sacrament of repentance is necessary.

"II. ON THE EUCHARIST OR Holy SUPPER. That immediately after consecration, the real body and blood of


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Jesus Christ are truly and substantially comprehended under the form of bread and wine, together with his soul and divinity; the body under the form of bread, and the blood under the form of wine, by virtue of the words : but the body itself under the form of wine, and the blood under the form of bread, and the soul in both, by virtue of a natural connexion and concomitance, whereby the parts of the Lord Christ are united together, and the divinity by reason of its admirable hypostatic union with the body and soul; thus that they are as fully comprehended under one form as under both; in a word, that the whole and entire Christ exists under the form of the bread and under every part of that form; and the whole of him also under the form of the wine and all its parts; that therefore the two forms are separated, and the bread is given to the laity, and the wine to the clergy. That water is to be mixed with wine in the cup.

That the laity are to receive the communion from the clergy, and the clergy from themselves. That the real body and the real blood of Christ, after consecration, is in the host in the consecrated particles; and that therefore the host is to be worshiped when it is shewn and carried about. That this wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into body, and of the whole substance of the wine into blood, is called transubstantiation. That the communication of both forms, under certain conditions, may be granted by the pope. It is called supersubstantial bread, and the bread of angels, which these eat without any veils : it is called moreover spiritual food; also the antidote by which they are released from their sins.

“III. ON Masses. It is called the sacrifice of the mass, because the sacrifice by which Christ offered up himself to God the Father, is represented thereby under the form of bread and wine; that thence it is a sacrifice truly propitiatory, pure, and altogether holy. That if the people do not communicate sacramentally, but only the minister, in such case the people communicate spiritually, because the ministers do it, not for themselves only, but for all the faithful who appertain to the body of Christ. That mass ought not to be performed in the vulgar tongue, because it contains the great learning of the faithful people ; but that the ministers may declare something concerning it on the Lord's day. That it is ordained, that some things which are mystical should be pronounced with a lower, and other things with a louder, voice; and, for the purpose of giving


a majesty to so great a sacrifice which is offered to God, there should be lights, incense, garments, and other things of a like nature for the occasion. That it is to be offered up for the sins, penalties, satisfactions, and all the necessities of the living; and also for the dead. That masses in honor of the saints are thanksgivings for their intercession when they are implored.

IV. On RepenTANCE. That besides baptism there is a sacrament of repentance, whereby the benefit of the death and merit of Christ is applied to those who lapse after baptism; therefore it is called a kind of laborious baptism. That the parts of repentance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction. That Contrition is the gift of God, and the impulse of the Holy Ghost, not yet inhabiting, but only moving the contrite person, therefore it is a disposing. That CONFESSION ought to be made of all mortal sins, even the most secret, and of the intentions; that sins which are withheld from confession are not forgiven, but that those which after search do not occur, are included in confession; that confession ought to be made at least once a year; that absolution of sins is to be given by the ministers of the keys, and that they are remitted on their saying, I ABSOLVE; that absolution is like the act of a judge when sentence is pronounced; that the more grievous sins are to be absolved by bishops, and the still more grievous by the pope. That SATISFACTION is made by satisfactory punishments imposed by the minister at discretion, according to the measure of the offence; that when eternal punishment is remitted, then temporal punishment is remitted also. That the power of INDULGENCES is left by Christ to the church, and that the use of them is highly salutary.

V. ON JUSTIFICATION. That a translation cannot be effected from that state in which man is born a son of Adam, to a state of grace through the second Adam the Saviour, without the washing of regeneration and faith, or without baptism. That the second beginning of justification is from preventing grace, which is a calling, with which man coöperates by converting himself. That disposition is produced by faith, when man believes those things to be true which are revealed, to which he is freely moved ; also by hope, when he believes that God is propitious for the sake of Christ; and by charity, in consequence whereof he begins to love his neighbor, and to hate sin. That justification, which follows, is not only remission of sins, but


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sanctification, and renovation of the inner man; that at this time the justified are not reputed just, but that they are jusst receiving righteousness in themselves; and because they accept the merit of Christ's passion, justification is inserted by faith, hope, and charity. That faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of justification, and that this is to be justified by faith : and because none of those things which precede justification, whether they be of faith or works, merit the grace of justification, that this is to be justified gratis, for there is a preventing grace; and that still man is justified by works, and not by faith alone. That the just may fall into light and venial sins, and that still they are just; and that therefore the just ought continually to labor by prayers, oblations, alms, fastings, lest they should fall, because they are born again to the hope of glory, and not to glory. That the just, if they fall from the grace of justification, may be justified again by the sacrament of repentance; that by any mortal sin grace is lost, but not faith, but that faith also is lost by infidelity, which is recession from religion. That the works of a justified man are merits; and that the justified, by such, which are done by them through the grace of God and the merit of Christ, merit everlasting life. That FREE-WILL was not lost and extinguished after the sin of Adam; and that man may coöperate, by assenting to the calling of God; and that otherwise he would be an inanimate body. They establish PREDESTINATION, by saying, that no one knows whether he is in the number of the predestinate, and among those whom God has chosen to himself, except by special revelation.

“VI. ON PURGATORY. That all the guilt from which men are to be purified by temporal punishment is not blotted out by justification, that therefore all go to purgatory to be purified, before they can be admitted into heaven. That the souls there detained are assisted by the suffrage of the faithful, and particularly by the sacrifice of the mass; and that this is diligently to be taught and preached." The torments there endured are variously described, but they are mere inventions and fictions.

“ VII. ON THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS. That there are seven sacraments,—baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, repentance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony; that there are neither more nor less; that one is of greater dignity than another; that they contain grace; and that from

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