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Of the three hundred and sixty-five (365) students graduated within the last five months from the twelve principal dental schools in this country, 5 per cent., or eighteen (18), will, by the end of the first year after graduation, have dropped out of the profession; and by the end of the second year nearly as many more will have sought other occupations. Of the three hundred and twenty-eight (328) left, not more than 5 per cent., or sixteen (16), will be recognized at the end of five years as actively interested in the scientific aspect of their profession. These figures, of course, do not represent accurate statistics of the classes just graduated; but they understate, rather than overstate, the facts regarding average classes of previous years.

The results observed, in the estimation of Section II., are due somewhat to the following causes: Every year numbers are added to the profession, whose deficiency in the elements of an English education operates sadly against their becoming proficient, and this condition must always remain an obstacle to the progress of such and a modifying influence on the progress of their associates. Then there are those who have exquisite manipulative ability, but to whom text-books and lexicons are but a confused mass. With this class manipulative skill and precision are acquired as the result of observation, industry, and patience; but these, though desirable accomplishments, indeed, essential to the skilled artisan,-alone never make the educated dentist. On the other hand are those to whom theory and principles are a delight. The why and the how, to their minds, are as trite as the alphabet; but their fingers continuously and utterly refuse to respond to culture. To these, success is as impossible as to the former class, because they are unable to acquire the requisite amount of skill in the operative and mechanical departments.

What is needed to remove, or modify, these causes of failure is the adoption of some method by which the fitness of those entering the profession may be known. An appreciation of the demands of the profession, and a realizing sense of the necessity for the adaptation of the individual, in capacity and inclination, to these requisites, as well as a high sense of personal responsibility and an exalted moral standard, would tend greatly to lessen the proportion of those who waste years in fruitless study, and to increase the number of those who come to the front as educated dentists, and would thereby enhance the literary, scientific, and social status of the profession. This Association has frequently discussed the propriety of the

dental schools establishing preliminary examinations and requiring attendance upon two full courses of lectures, without regard to previous practice, before admitting students to examination for the degree of D.D.S. If the suggestions and restrictions embodied in the resolutions previously adopted can all be carried out in the spirit and intent with which they have now been accepted, they will cercertainly prove important factors in the cause of progressive education; but while faculties are dependent upon the fees received from students for the necessary college expenses and their meagre compensation, it will require encouragement and care to make them more than a dead letter.

In reaffirming its faith in the wisdom of the resolutions heretofore adopted by this Association, Section II. is not unmindful of the fact that recommendations of the American Dental Association are in no sense mandatory upon the governing powers of the various schools; but, formulating as they do the deliberate judgment of the highest representative body of dentists, their practical application is only a question of time. But does our responsibility end with the formulation of principles for the guidance of the colleges? May we not hope, by judicious effort in other directions, to stimulate a thirst for higher attainments-a broader and more thorough culture? Can this body do nothing more than is being done to enhance the status of its own members? Is individual research recognized and appreciated to the extent of its worth and influence? Are we offering all of the incentive to original research and careful observation that is possible?

Section II. offers these inquiries, trusting that some way may open for further encouragement and a realization of something nearer an ideal association.

DISCUSSION.

Dr. SPALDING. Are graduates of medical schools admitted to graduation on one course of lectures?

Dr. PEIRCE: The resolution passed by the association of colleges is that gentlemen having graduated from reputable medical schools shall, upon spending one year in the infirmary, including a full course of five months' lectures in the dental school, be entitled to go forward for examination and graduation, and that those who have taken only one course in medical schools be required to take two

full courses in a dental school before they are eligible for graduation.

Dr. SPALDING: I will only occupy the time as to one particular point. I am very glad to know that the progress indicated by this report is being made, and that a higher standard of dental education is likely to be attained, after this year, at any rate. It has my most cordial indorsement, and the only objection I have to the resolutions which they have passed, is that they admit a man holding a medical degree to become an authorized practitioner of dentistry by attending one course in a dental college, including one infirmary course.

Dr. PEIRCE: He must have spent a whole year in the infirmary. Dr. SPALDING: I don't care if it is a whole year. I say a man who has simply graduated in a medical school is not as well fitted or as competent to become a skillful dentist in one course as a man is who is a good chemist and a skilled mechanic. A man who is a good chemist and a skilled mechanic will make a better dentist at the end of one course than any man who has simply gone through with a medical course. I want to make that point, and to make it strong, because I believe it is an important one. We have had a great deal too much of that kind of thing. All I want and all I ask is that a dentist shall be well qualified to practice his profession before he enters upon it. I don't want to let men in who are not qualified, while those who may be better qualified are shut out on technicalities.

Dr. R. FINLEY HUNT: I wish to express my gratification—which I certainly think will be shared by all whose hearts are set on the elevation of our profession through the elevation of the standard of dental education-that a stride has been made by the colleges of the country toward harmonious action in this common cause. This meeting of the dental faculties was looked forward to with a great deal of anxiety for fear that differences of opinion on the part of the representatives of the different colleges would result in obstruction of this work which is being done. I consider that a great deal has been accomplished in the results of the action of the association of faculties, as set forth in their resolutions. Like the gentleman who preceded me, I feel that some things have been done not as well as they might have been, but there has been so much done that we all ought to be grateful, and we should have confidence that these gentlemen who have done thus far so well will be able to see the imperfections and defects of their action, if there be any, and correct

them hereafter. I am very glad there are authorized bodies now who can regulate the matter of dental education. It seems to me that they are constituted just as they should be; that is, in the association of faculties of representatives of the various colleges on the one hand, and in the association of national dental examiners of those who represent the State societies on the other. I understand that this step has been taken to secure harmony of action between the associated faculties and the association of dental examiners. Let us all hope and pray that their action may continue in the state of harmony which has characterized their proceedings thus far. Then we may be justified in expecting that the best results from their labor will ensue. This Association should give them every encouragement to persist in their work of bringing the profession of the country, in point of education and acquirements, up to what this Association has desired for so many years.

Dr. FRIEDRICHS: I entirely disagree with the views expressed by a previous speaker in regard to according no privileges to a graduate of medicine. I think that when a man graduates as a doctor of medicine he has already derived authority to practice dentistry, if he so desires. I think that the action of the faculties was very wise in adopting that clause offering that inducement to graduates in medicine who desire to become dentists; because we know very well that where men practice dentistry without this qualification they often make poor dentists. Therefore, I think it is the duty of the Association to support the faculties in these resolutions as a whole.

Dr. ALLPORT: I wish to thank this Section for the report which has been made, and especially do I wish to thank the dental college association for that particular point in the resolution that they have adopted. It comes more nearly up to my idea of what our colleges should be and what they should require than anything ever done before. It has long been a favorite idea of mine that all practitioners of dental surgery should be specialists in medicine, and should be so regarded,-that is to say, I believe that, when a man treats any organ of the body, his knowledge should be laid in the science of medicine. Dentistry is not a profession, nor can it be, except as it is medical, and in proportion as it is medical is it a specialty in medicine. Why, therefore, should we ignore or speak slightingly of a medical education; for, take away the medical part of dentistry, and it becomes a mechanical pursuit and nothing more. Surgery could not be made a profession without the accompani

ment of a medical education. Otherwise it is mechanical; there is no science about it. I wish, therefore, to thank this Section, as well as the dental college association, that they have recognized medicine as having something to do with the practice of dentistry. I am not one of those who believe that a simple education in chemistry and mechanics will make a better dentist, after two years' training in a dental school, than a thorough medical education will do with one year in a dental college. Those thus educated may start out as better manipulators. I will admit that; but they cannot have, and few will ever acquire, that foundation for a scientific practice of dental surgery that they would possess if they had first obtained their medical education.

This is a step in the right direction, and so sure as the sun shines the time will come when all dentists will be required to be medically educated.

Dr. SPALDING: In this matter of preliminary medical education, it seems to me that the cart is put before the horse. Let us perfect ourselves in dentistry, and then, if we choose to adorn ourselves with a medical education, all very well. The difficulty is that we attempt to lay the foundation in the science which does not include our own at all, or, if at all, only to a small extent. What is the difference between dentistry and medicine? Dentistry includes anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and special pathology and therapeutics. It does not include an accurate knowledge of obstetrics and gynecology, nor an accurate knowledge of fevers and the like. The foundation principles upon which dentistry rests are anatomy, physiology, and chemistry, including also special pathology, therapeutics, and materia medica, with what we call operative and artificial dentistry. These compose the basis upon which the science of dentistry rests. If medicine can add anything to it, we are very glad to have it; but why should we educate ourselves, or require others to educate themselves, in branches that do not essentially belong to our profession? Why should we educate ourselves in nonessentials first, and in essentials afterward? Let us have the essentials first, and then, if other things can be added to advantage, that is a good thing.

Dr. Cook: I would like to ask the gentleman if he will give us what he conceives to be the foundation of a medical education. What is, commonly speaking, actually understood by the general medical practitioner to constitute that foundation?

Dr. SPALDING: Dentistry and medicine have some things in common, it is true.

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