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rate. One of the heads of the Bushkill, the stream that north-western of clay slate,-the two rocks touch each furnishes Easton with its water power, is in this Gap. other as if placed by art." Through it passes the important turnpike from Easton In Cumberland county the Conedoguinet creek forms, to Wilkesbarre.

for many miles, the boundary between the limestone and The passage of the great rivers through the Kittatiny slate. Near the point of junction will frequently be Mountain, affords some of the most magnificent scenery found a species of impure limestone from which the on the continent. Of these the Delaware Water Gap aqueduct cement used in masonry, exposed to water; is the finest-superior in all respects to the justly cele. is prepared. It owes its property of hardening under brated Harper's Ferry, and worthy of a comparison water to the presence of ihe iron and silex. In such a with any thing of the Hudson. The Susquehanna and position near Hummelstown, the cement used for locks, Kittatiny, as seen from the cupola of the Capital at on the Union Canal was obtained. That for the LeHarrisburg, present also a most noble picture. high and Delaware Canal was principally, produced

While on this subject we may observe, that arrange above Allentown. Experience has proved it to be of ments have recently been made for the comfortable good quality, and equal, for most purposes, to the cel. accommodation of strangers at the Delaware Water ebrated Roman cement, We believe it may be found Gap. Our citizens who make a summer excursion for (more or less perfect) at almost every point where health, or pleasure, would find both at that delightful limestone rock ends, and the slate begins. spot, with the advantage of seeing nature in her grand The Kittatiny valley is among the most fertile, and est forms.

beautiful portions of Pennsylvania. A traveller who Under the Kittatiny Mountain, and between and desires to see the State to advantage, should pass the Blue Ridge, lies an extensive range of fertile, and from Easton to Reading, thence to Lebanon, Harcomparatively level country, commonly designated as risburg, Carlisle, and Chambersburg: In the whole disthe Kittatiny Valley, The distance between these tance be will pass but few spots which do not bear tes mountains, and consequently the width of the valley, is timony to the bounty of nature, and the successful ingenerally from fifteen to twenty miles. About half of dustry of the inhabitants. He will find the population the valley comprehending all the most level portions, is almost exclusively German, until he enters Franklin a limestone formation--the remainder, or more broken county, which contains a large proportion of Frisk and parts, rests upon a species of clay slate. The former is Scotch descent. invariably, land of admirable quality, in a high state of This fertile region is crossed at right angles by three cultivation; the latter is of a greatly inferior quality. important improvements, namely the Lehigh Canal,

The Kittatiny Valley includes portions of the counties the Schuylkill Navigation, and the State Canal along the of Northampton, Lehigh, Berks, Lebanon, Dauphin, Susquehanna. The Union Canal follows the valley in its Cumberland, and Franklin, in Pennsylvania; of Wash whole course from the Susquehanna to the Schuylkill. ington, in Maryland; and of Berkley, Jefferson, Freder. By these channels its surplus products are forwarded ick, Shanandoah, Rockingham, Augusta, Rockbridge, into the Philadelphia market. Frankin county and a Bottetout, Montgomery, and Grayson, in Virginia. It part of Cumberland, however, find their outlet by the extends, also, through North Carolina and Georgia, into Potomac, and to Baltimore. Alabama. It contains a large portion of the important In our next we shall complete our view of the great 'inland towns in these States—for instance, Easton, mountain ranges of Pennsylvania, Bethlehem, Allentown, Kutztown, Reading, Womelsdorf, Myerstown, Lebanon, Palmyra, Hummelstown,

No. 8.
Middletown, Harrisburg, Carlisle, Shippensburgh,
Chambersburg, and Green Castle, in Pennsylvania

Our last was occupied by a brief description of KitHagerstown, in Maryland Martinsburg, Charlestown, tatiny, or Blue Mountain, and of the magnificent valley Shepardstown, Winchester, Woodstock, Staunton, and lying at its base. In the present number we shalt enLexington, in Virginia. All the towns in Pennsylvania deavour to complete our general view of the great which we have named, stand upon the Limestone por

mountain ranges of Pennsylvania. tion of the valley, while upon the Slate, scarcely a

About fifty miles west of the Kittatiny, (measuring village worth naming, excepi perhaps Hamburg, on the on the southern lime of the state,) ve come to the ridge Schuylkill, has grown up.

generally known and distinguished as the “Great Alle. This Limestone formation abounds with cavities, and in a northerly direction, (a little inclined to east)

ghany Mountain." It enters Pennsylvania from Mary. and hence small streams frequently disappear for miles, and continues that course, dividing Bedford from Somerand then suddenly burst from the ground in the form of set and Cambria counties, until it reaches the northern copious springs. It is not uncommon for whole acres angle of Bedford; then turning to the north-east, diof ground suddenly to sink. To this range of country belong several of the caves the angle between it and Clearfield; then north-easter

vides Huntingdon from Cambria, and enters Centre on of Virginia, and the celebrated natural bridge, which is ly through Centre, till it strikes the west branch of the a huge limestone rock perforated by a small branch of Susquehanna, just above the mouth of Bald Eagle James river.

Creek. Crossing the west branch, (according to the The Shenandoah follows the Kittatiny valley through received maps,) it traverses Lycoming in a direction alout its whole course, running at the western base of most due east, and enters Luzerne at the angle between the Blue Ridge, and remarkable as being the only it and Columbia. Resuming its north-eastern course, stream of equal magnitude which does not break that it passes through Luzerne, crosses the north branch mountain. It seems to be conscious of the gigantic ef. above Tunkbannock, and passes through the eastern fort required for the purpose, and therefore waits until part of Susquehanna county into the state of New York. reinforced by the mighty Potomac. Immediately be south of Pennsylvania the same mountain has a general low the junction is the pass of Harper's Ferry. In the south-western direction, through Maryland, Virginia and same valley are the Conococheague, a branch of the Tennessee, and is lost in the northern part of Alabama. Potomac, on which Chambersburg is situated, the Co. nodoguinet, a branch of the Susquehanna, and the Mountain described in our last, is contained a portion of

Between the line thus indicated, and the Kittatiny Tulpehocken, running to the Schuylkill, opposite Pennsylvania, which, in general terms, may be called a Reading

parallellogram, of which Bedford county is the base, “That section of the valley (says Darby) which tra- and the opposite extremity is the Delaware, in Wayne verses Pennsylvania, is about 160 miles in length, and county. This parallellogram is about 250 miles in covers an area, of perhaps, 3000 square miles. The length from south-east to north-west, with a general south-eastern part is formed of transition limestone, the breadth of about 50 or 60 miles, may properly be de

nia.

1883.)
SKETCHES OF PENNSYLVANIA.

83 signated as the Central Mountain Region of Pennsylva- scribed, and east of the river, is the Wyoming moun.

It embraces the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon, tain which first takes that name 12 miles below Wilkes Centre, Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union, half of Lycom- barre and extends northeast through Luzerne into ing, Northumberland, Columbia, Luzerne, Pike, Wayne Wayne county. This range bounds Wyoming valley and parts of Dauphin and Northampton. As a whole, on the east. From its summit the traveller on the turnit is by far the most rugged and mountainous section of pike from Easton to Wilkesbarre, obtains his first view the state, presenting the largest portion of land, inca of that delightful region which the song of Campbell pable of cultivation. Probably not more than one-fifth has rendered immortal. Yet no traveller, we are perof its whole surface can, under any circumstances, be suaded, ever looked down from the Prospect rock, rendered useful for agricultural purposes.

without feeling the superiority of nature over art, of the When using such general terms, however, we do not reality over description. The whole course of Lackamean to exclude any distinct and striking exceptions. wanna creek is in the Wyoming valley; and it is the Some portions of this very territory have great natural Wyoming mountain, with a change of name to Moosac, fertility, and are highly improved by cultivation. Its over which the Rail Road of the Hudson and Delaware valleys contain land equal to any other in the state, and Company from their Coal mines to their Canal passes. several of them are of very considerable extent-for The extensive section of the state which we have deinstance, Penn's valley, in Union; Kishicoquillas, in Miff. signated as the central mountainous region–presented lin; Bald Eagle, in Centre; Wyoming, in Luzerne-the no very encouraging prospects to the first settlers of the valley of the west branch from Northumberland, to Jer country. Here and there a strip of alluvial land upon sey Shore, and of the north branch up to Berwick the great rivers, or the sequestered valley of some Still the general characteristics of the whole section, smaller stream buried deep in the bosom of the mounare ruggedness and intractability, while the districts tains, held out inducements to the industry of the far. adorned by opposite qualities must be regarded as ex mer. But the general aspect was rugged and unproceptions to the rule.

mising--and a great portion of the country apparently à journey through this portion of the state, or an incapable of supplying the wants of any population, examination of it upon the map-presents a constant advanced by civilization above the rude hunter-state. succession of mountains, which from their number, the In this very district, nevertheless, some of the choiwant of accurate surveys, and especially from the infi. cest bounties of Providence have been bestowed with a nite variety of local names that have been applied to liberal band. It is like the “oad, ugly and venomous," them, it is difficult to trace into separate ranges-some but "wears a precious jewel in its head,”-upon it of the ranges however are strongly marked, and when more than upon any other, Philadelphia must found her enumerated will sound familiar to our readers.

prospective greatness, and Pennsylvania her claims to The Tuscarora mountains, for example, running superiority over the rest of the Union. nearly parallel to the Alleghany, and the Kittatiny, se In order to comprehend these views more clearly, we parate Franklin from Huntingdon, and Juniata from must beg our readers to recur to the map of Pennsyl. Perry, crosses the Juniata near Millerstown, and the vania, and to fix their attention on the parallellogram Susquehanna above Liverpool, East of the Susque included between the Alleghany and the Kittatiny hanna it is known as the Broad mountain, which crosses Mountains, having Bedford county' for its base; and for the Schuylkill above Pottsville, and is probably identi. its northeastern termination the counties of Pike and cal with the Mauch Chunk mountain, and with the Po- Wayne on the Delaware. It is capable of a division inkano, which you cross on the road from Easton to to parts, separated from each other by strong natural Wilkesbarre. On the same side of the Susquehanna, boundaries; and each constituting a distinct quota to between the Broad mountain and the Kittatiny, three the wealth of Philadelphia and the state. distinct ranges may be traced to the Schuylkill and the That portion of the parallellogram wbich lies west Lehigh, known as Peter's, 'Third or Sharp mountain, of the Susquehanna , and south of the west branch, inand Second mountain. These also extend west of the cluding the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon Centre, Susquehanna, and cover a large part of the surface of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, and Union, is the great central Perry county.

Iron region of Pennsylvania. The Juniata and Bald All travellers to Pittsburg remember Sideling bill, in Eagle iron, so well known and so highly esteemed in Bedford county. This mountain, ranging north east, our market, are produced in this region. It supplies crosses the Juniata below Huntingdon. Under the nearly all of that article consumed by the manufactories name of Jacks it bounds the Kishicoquillas valley, in of Pittsburgh. Mifflin, and then extends itself through Union, Colum. That portion of the parallellogram which lies east of bia and Luzerne.

the Susquehanna and north branch, and is bounded on To designate all these ranges would be useless, even the east by the Lehigh, from the Water Gap to its head; if it were practicable. Suffice it to say, they nearly fill and then by the Wyoming or Moosac mountain, includup the space between the Alleghany and the Kittatiny, ing the county of Schuylkill, parts of Northumberland, leaving comparatively small interstices of valley or allu. Luzerne, and Northampton, and small corners of Dauvial land. The circumstance most worthy of remark, phin, Columbia and Wayne, is the great Anthracite reis, their general parallelism to each other, and to the gion. It will be our business on some future occasion other great ranges of which we have occasion to speak to describe more minutely the Coal districts of Pennla nearly all, a course from southwest to northeast is sylvania. Suffice it for the present to say, that the an. strictly preserved.

thracite of the Schuylkill and the Lehigh, of Lykens Darby has described one other chain belonging to the valley, Mahanoy, Shamokin, Wilkesbarre, Carbondale, division of the State, which is interesting, because in a and Beayer Meadow, are all contained within the limits part of its course, it forms the western boundary of the just indicated. beautiful valley of Wyoming. “It leaves,” (says he,) East of the Lehigh and Moosac or Wyoming moun"the Susquehanna above Northumberland, and travers- tain between the same parallel-is an extensive mouning Northumberland and Columbia counties, enters Lu. tainous district, including the head waters of the Delazerne, and is broken by the Susquehanna river 16 miles ware and its principal tributaries, from which Philadelbelow Wilkesbarre. Skirting the left bank about phia derives the immense supplies of lumber which an. eight miles, it is again crossed by the river, and contin-nually descend the Delaware. This division embraces uing its course northeast passes about 24 miles from, a portion of Northampton county, nearly the whole of and opposite Wilkesbarre. Preserving its course north Pike and Wayne; Delaware and Sullivan counties of east, it is for the third and last time crossed by the ri. New York, and a part of Sussex in New Jersey. ver, above the mouth of the Lackawanna, 10 miles In making this division of the central mountain reabove Wilkesbarre." Parallel to the range thus de- 1 gion of the state, into three great parts_namely, the

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iron, the anthracite and the timber region, we have left land mountain of Kentucky and Tennessee, which in some intervals between the great natural land-marks crossing the Tennessee river forms the celebrated Mus. which have been pointed out. Those intervals include cle shoals. On the map of Pennsylvania, both these about two-thirds of Columbia county lying west of the mountains are incorrectly marked as terminating with north branch, a part of Northumberland situated in the the Kiskiminetas river. They certainly extend northforks of the Susquehanna, and a portion of Lycoming ward into the state of New York. To an extension of between the west branch and the Alleghany mountain. these ranges we are disposed to refer the dividing It is remarkable that these districts, which are not dis ground, between the streams leading to the west branch tinguished for mineral wealth, are the least mountainous and Semimahony, and those leading to the Alleghany and far the most fertile of the range to which they be. river. This supposition would identify Laurel hill with long. A journey up the west branch from Northum- the Elk or Boon's mountain in the northwest angle of berland through Milton, Pennsbury and Williamsport, Clearfield county-of this dividing ground we shall have to Jersey shore, or from the same place along the north occasion to say much hereafter. After passing Laurel branch through Danville and Bloomsburg to Berwick, hill, and Chesnut ridge, no other mountains, properly so presents a succession of delightful farms, equal in pro- called, occur in western Pennsylvania. The whole ductiveness to any in the state.

country, however, is hilly and undulating—the hills In describing the course of the great Alleghany bearing about the same proportion to the mountains mountain, we must be understood to have marked its further east, as the waves of the Delaware bay do to extreme eastern limit—the line which separates the those of the ocean. transition from the secondary formation. It is a com The sketch which we have thus attempted, of the mon remark of those who cross this mountain, that it mountain ranges of Pennsylvania is necessarily imper. has but one side. The ascent from the east is bold and fect. With respect to many details it is probably inac. rapid. Arrived upon the summit, you proceed for miles curate, because we have been compelled to view things upon comparatively level ground, and the descent is so upon the largest scale. It may, nevertheless, answer gradual as scarcely to be perceived: The true base or as a general outline, and may aid the inquiries of those width of this mountain is probably about 20 or 25 miles. who feel enough interest in the state of Pennsylvania to If a line be drawn parallel to that which we have indi- desire a knowledge of its geography. cated as the range of the Alleghany, pursuing a distance One or two general remarks upon this subject, with of from 20 to 25 miles; and terminating at the north some account of the relative heights of the several branch of the Susquehanna, it will include the counties ranges, are necessarily reserved for another number of of Somerset and Cambria—the eastern part of Clear. these sketches. field, the western part Centre, the northern part of Lycoming, and a portion of Bradford. This belt or

PUBLIC LIBRARIES. strip of country, we would designate as the western slope of the Alleghany mountain, and as generally the

From the Boston Mercantile Journal. locality of bituminous coal. Accurate investigations Boston Books. - We mentioned recently that there would probably trace this mineral throughout the whole were at least 76 periodicals in this city. Nor ought it district. It has already been found at various points in to be forgotten that the citizens have made a provision Somerset and Cambria, and is procured in large quanti- of about 45,000 volumes of book in public libraries, ties at Curwensville and Karthauss, in Clearfield, at most of which are selected with great care, besides Phillipsburg, in Centre, and at Dunnstown, in Lycom- about 20,000 in the circulating libraries. The two lar. ing: To this range belong the coal veins on the heads gest collections on the continent-small enough indeed of the Lycoming, the Tioga, and the Towanda. In the in comparison with those of the old conntries—are at same range, also running with the coal, will generally the Athenæum in this city (almost 28,000,) and at Cambe found abundance of iron ore, and springs impreg. bridge (about 36,000.) Thus we have something like nated with salt. The bituminous coal extends through. 100,000 volumes, kept constantly accessible at these de. out a large part of western Pennsylvania, and into Vir- positories, independently of the numerous and excellent ginia and Ohio. The veins of bituminous coal always collections which remain in the bands of individual ownlie parallel to the horizon, and belong therefore to the ers. We believe there is a good library in Philadelphia secondary formation. Hence, as a general rule, it will of 25,000 volumes, and one in Charleston of 16,000. not be found east of the Alleghany mountain. The on. New York and Baltimore are supposed to be rather in\y exceptions to this rule which we are aware of, is a differently supplied, but we should be glad to find our locality on the Raystown branch of the Juniata, in Bed selves, as to this, in an error. ford county, and one other on the Tangaskertock, in Lycoming county. The former is admitted to be an We ought certainly to feel highly complimented by anomaly-as to the latter, we have accounted for it on this notice of our depositories of learning: It reminds a supposition which we have long entertained, that the us strongly of a statement made not long since by some course of the Alleghany mountain as generally laid of the Boston papers, of the value of the real estate in down on the maps is incorrect. The map makers have this city, in which they modestly claimed double the followed the common nomenclature of the country. It amount for Boston that was allowed to Philadelphia. is probable, however, that if the Alleghany mountain When the value of our property was ascertained, it were traced by its known geological peculiarities, it turned out to be nearly four times greater than had been would be found to run for some miles parallel to the stated, and about double the amount stated as the value west branch, and to cross that river many miles below of the property in Boston. We think the number of the mouth of Bald Eagle, so as to leave the Tangas- volumes contained in our public Libraries will turn out kertock formation on its western slope. Here again somewhat similarly. we feel sensibly the want of accurate surveys with re The Philadephia Library alone, (comprising the colference to the geological structure of the state. Nay, lections of the Philadelphia and Loganian Libraries) many important geographical features remain to be as- contains more than 42,000 volumes. About ten thoucertained and marked on our maps.

sand of this number are rare and valuable works in On the road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, after Foreign Languages. The Loganian portion contains passing the Alleghany, we cross two other mountains, the best collection of Ancient Classical and Medical the Laurel Hill and the Chesnut Ridge—not remarkable Works in America. for their elevation, but nevertheless constituting well During the past year the valuable and well known defined geographical features. They are said to extend Botanical Library of the late Zacheus Collins, and that as distinct chains to a great distance north and south, of James Cox, principally on the Fine Arts, have been and Laurel Hill is said to be identical with the Cumber- I purchased by the Directors of this Institution.

1833.]

IRON MANUFACTURES.

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This Library contains several thousand more volumes, 17-Library of Foreign Classical Literature and and we believe decidedly the best collection of valua. Science,

2,800 ble works, of any similar institution in the United States. 18–Library of the Philadelphia Museum, 500 In addition to this extensive collection, Philadelphia 19-Library of the Athenæum.

6,500 can boast of the Library belonging to the American 20—Mercantile Library,

4,000 Philosophical Society, containing 9,000 volumes, 21-Apprentices Library,

7,000 amongst which are to be found the best collection in 22—Northern Liberties Library and Reading

2,100 pean learned societies. The Library of the Academy 23—Southwark Library,

2,200 of Natural Sciences, contains the most valuable collec-24Kensington Library and Reading Room, 250 tion of works on Natural History in the United States. 25-Library of the Carpenters' Society,

350 In the Library of the Pennsylvania Academy of the 26—Youth Library in the Arcade,

1,500 Fine Arts, one single donation from Napoleon Bonaparte, is valued at ten thousand dollars--this Library,

111,550 though small, is rich in scarce and highly embellished works; among them is a complete copy of Pyranesi, and not easily procured at the present time. The Li

Many of the works in these various depots are scarce, and the Garden of Malmaison. The Library of the brary of the University contains a donation from the Pennsylvania Hospital contains 6,500 volumes, princi- unfortunate Louis XVI, made during the Revolutionary pally relating to Medicine and the Natural Sciences. War-all of which were printed at the royal printing The Apprentices' Library Company comprises 7,000 office, and treat of mathematics, natural history, &c. volumes, furnishing annually to 1000'boys, works re- The Library of the Academy of Fine Arts, contains a lating to the Arts, Sciences, and Instructive Literature. donation from Bonaparte. The Libraries of the HospiThe Library of the German Society contains 4,000 vo- tal and Alms House contain the best works on Medicine, lumes, many of them scarce and valuable German works. Surgery, and the Sciences, while those of the Academy There is a Library attached to the University of Penn- of Natural Sciences and the Museum, are devoted to sylvania, to the College of Pharmacy, and to the Medio natural history and travels. The Library of St. Auguscal Society of Philadelphia. The collection at the tine's Church contains, we believe, the only complete Athenæum, amounts to upwards of 6,500. The Society copy of the “Fathers," in this country.--1b. of Friends have a large and valuable Library. There is an extensive Law Library; a Foreign Classical Library; a Mercantile Library; Philadelphia Museum Com PROGRESS OF IMPROVEMENT IN PHILADEL

PHIA. pany's Library, on Natural History and Travels; St. Augustine's Library; Northern Liberties Library; South Some time since it was determined by the Managers wark Library; besides the increasing and useful Col- of the Pennsylvania Hospital, to dispose of the square be. lection belonging to the Franklin Institute.

longing to the Institution, situated between Seventh and From this statement it will be perceived that our city Eighth and Spruce and Pine streets. A street has been stands second to no other on the continent, as to the laid out, running from Seventh to Eighth, and called number, as well as usefulness, of the various works Barclay street, leaving the lots on Spruce street 250 with which her depositories of learning are stored. feet, and those on Pine street 1834 feet deep. All the

In our enumeration we have not included any of the lots fronting on Pine street, eighteen in number, have numerous circulating libraries belonging to individuals. been sold at $3000 each; and on Tuesday last the -Commercial Herald.

workmen broke ground, and commenced digging the

cellars of some of the houses that are to be erected LIBRARIES IN PHILADEPHIA.

thereon. They are to recede five feet from the line of

the street. Fronting Spruce street there are sixteen From a notice which appeared in a recent number of lots, each 24 feet 9 inches wide, and the houses are to the Boston Mercantile Journal, stating that the Public recede ten feet from the line of the street. Six of these Libraries in that city contained 45,000 volumes, besides lots have been sold at $6000 each, and it is expected about 20,000 in the Circulating Libraries, and that it the residue will speedily be taken at the same price. was believed Philadelphia contained one good Library We trust the owners of these lots will adopt a uniform amounting to 25,000 volumes, we have been induced to plan for their buildings, with something like architecascertain the names of the Public Libraries in this city, iural proportions, instead of following the present fashion and the number of volumes contained in each as nearly so prevalent in our city. as practicable. We present the following as the result One hundred and fifty thousand dollars will be add. of our inquiries :

ed to the funds of the Hospital by the sale of this Volumes. square.—Ib.

42,000 2-Library of the American Philosophical So.

Rain.-During the month of June the quantity of rain ciety,

9.000 that fell, as ascertained by the guage at the Pennsylva3-Library of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 6,500 nia Hospital, amounted to 5 inches, 28-100; and during 4Library of the Academy of Natural Sci.

the month of July, to 4 15-100 inches.-16. ences,

5 200 5-Library of the University of Pennsylvania, 2,000

IRON MANUFACTURES. 6-Library belonging the Society of Students, 2,000 7-Library of the Friends in Philadelphia, 2,700

The following is from the Albany Daily Advertiser: &Library of the Alms House, upwards of 3,000 Iron.-It is not only our own opinion, but we are 9-Library of the Pennsylvania Academy of confirmed in the belief by many with whom we have

150 conversed, that the manufacturing of castings is brought 10–Library of the Law

Association, upwards of 1,400 to greater perfection in Albany than in any other place 11-Library of the Medical Society,

600 in this country, and we may add, even Europe. The 12-Library of the College of Physicians, 500 hollow ware of Bartlett, Bent & Co. is preferred to the 13—Library of the College of Pharmacy, 500 best “Scotch Hollow Ware" - the stoves of Dr. Nott, 14Library of St. Augustine Church, upwards receive the preference wherever they are known, and of

3,000 the machinery castings of Many & Ward, and others, 15-Library of the German Society,

4,000 are equal to those of any foundry in the world. 16_Library of the American Sunday School The amount of casting consumed in this section of Union,

1,800 | the country, may be judged by the following facts:

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Howard, Nott & Co. melt annually about 1,000 tons. the borough of Conemaugh, and were much pleased Bartlett, Bent & Co. do. do. 350 with the appearance. It would be worth a three days 1. & J. Townsend, do.

do.

300 ride to any person to see the excellent manner in which Rathbone & Silliman, do. do. 200 skill, industry and science, aided by money, have over: Many & Ward, do. do. 450 come the difficulties which presented themselves, and

broke through the obstructions which nature had

2,300 thrown in the way, in a rough and rugged section of About one thousand persons obtain their support from country. the employment derived from these establishiments. A few miles below Croyle's Mills the Conemaugh ri

In addition to the amount of irons melted here, ver bends to the south, and after traversing a sinuous Messrs. Heermans, Rathbone & Co. sell annually 750 course of more than three miles, is again seen across a tons stove plates, (from Philadelphia,) and Gill, Cooper narrow hill at the distance of about three hundred feet & Co, about 300 tons from the same place.

from its place of departure. At this point the road is From the best information we can obtain, there are cut through the hill and carried over the river on a via. about 2,300 tons of castings manufactured and sold in duct supported on a strong and neatly built semicircular this city, and about 1,250 tons imported and sold here- stone arch of eighty feet span, rising from the abutmaking in all, 3,550 tons.

ments at the height of twenty feet above the river.

The whole distance from the water to the arch being We are are glad to see this notice. It prompts us to sixty feet. The arch is now complete and the centres look a little about us, and to inquire, as we have done, removed. It presents a grand and bold appearance, into the matters written about,

and seems capable of resisting any thing short of the We respond to the above paragraph. We do so with concussions of an earthquake. This work does credit some pride. We revert to Berks county of our noble to the engineers who planned it, and to the worthy conPennsylvania, as one among the many constituting this tractors, Snodgrass and Durno, who constructed it. “ Mammoth Stale," being able not only to compete with, The viaduct is connected with a hill at the west end but claim a superiority in the quantity of iron manu- of an immense embankment, some parts of which are factured, but in the quality. The Hollow Ware of the seventy feet in height. old Joanna Furnace, has been proverbial for its excel. The vicinity of this viaduct will be ere long the site lence for many years; and the Scotch patterns in the of extensive water works. The whole stream, which possession of Jones, Keim & Co., of Windsor Furnace, is considerable, can be conveyed through the Hog back rank with any, as to character or appearance.

hill, by a deep cut or a short tunnel, and thus gain a fall The quantity of Stove.plates supplied for Philadel. of more than forty feet. phia, New York, Boston, Portsmouth, &c., from this

A few miles below the viaduct the road passes through source, would surprise any one not conversant with this a tunnel, nine hundred feet in length, the greater part branch of manufacture; and the annual aggregate of of which has been excavated out of a solid rock. About iron made, in the shape of castings, bars and blooms, one hundred feet at each end of the tunnel, is hand(and furnished us from data carefully revised and exa- somely arched with cut stone, and the entrances will be mined,) would present the formidable quantity of eight ornamented with columns of the same. thousand eight hundred and sixty-three tons.

Many of the rails are laid upon the section of the road In these different Works, nearly one thousand hands which we visited, and preparations for laying the resiare directly employed, and five thousand others, more due are in rapid progress. This is the case, we are inor less dependent on them; upwards of 500 horses are formed, on the whole line of the portage, and the used, 77,500 cords of wood burned, 94,132 bushels of prospect of traversing the whole course, from Holliwheat, rye and corn, and 542,321 pounds of beef and daysburg to Conemaugh, during the present season, is pork, are required for their consumption.

now very certain.--Ebensburg Spy. The Reading Furnace alone has yielded in one blast 1,347 tons of pig metal, for which, such is the demand, that Forge teams are frequently obliged to wait the

LITHOTRITY. cooling of the metal, to secure and take it away. Dr. Nott's beautiful stoyes, which yield in comfort and

Letter from the Rev. Joseph Caldwell, President of taste to none that have preceded them, are also cast at

the University of North Carolina, to Charles A.

Poulson. Windsor Furnace, the bank of which is clustered up with piles of them, presenting in a remarkable degree Dear Sir,--In reply to your inquiries respecting my the delicacy of Şaracenic tracery, with which they are complaint, and the treatment for its removal, I will ornamented. We concur in pronouncing them a deci- briefly state, that I had been afflicted with the sympdedly popular and beautiful casting, and are gratified at toms of stone in the bladder for about six years. For such an important auxiliary to the consumption of the the last three years these symptoms had occasioned me Anthracite of Pennsylvania. We are gratified to learn so much pain and distress, that I determined to visit that one of these stoves has already found its way to the Philadelphia, in order to seek for medical assistance, summit of the Alps, and that the charitable Monks of and obtain if possible, relief from this terrible malady. the Hospice du St. Bernard, in realizing its comfort, had I arrived in the city in the latter end of April, and no "boundary to their joy."

immediately called upon Dr. Physick, who having asWere we beside, to estimate, in the city of Philadels certained by sounding, that a stone was actually in my phia alone, the quantity of iron used at the air furnaces, bladder, advised me to put myself under the care of his cupolas, &c, it would display an equally imposing ap. son-in-law, Dr. J. Randolph, giving me the assurance that pearance compared with that of perhaps any other city: Dr. Randolph lad succeeded in several instances in ef. also, in the consumption of foreign and domestic iron fecting a perfect cure of this complaint by removing the for the various purposes of machinery, &c.

stone, by means of the operation called “Lithotrity,” in These remarks have been thrown together to convince which case the knife is not at all used. This operation, I our sister state, that Pennsylvania is second to none in am told, is most successfully,and almost universally emher resources, which are of such a character as to per- ployed in Paris. I cheerfully acquiesced in this advice petuate her importance, her wealth, and the happiness of Dr. Physick, a name I must think no less illustrious of her citizens. -Com. Herald.

for benevolence, than for eminence in medical science

and practical skill. Dr. Randolph took charge of my THE RAIL ROAD, We have lately viewed that part of the Allegheny Port. tion, he commenced it on the 19th of May, in the pre

case, and having properly prepared me for the operaage Rajl Road, which lies between Croyle's Mills and I sence of Drs. Physick and Horner, Messrs. Kennedy,

!

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