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NO. 312


The grading and mechanical work belonging to the (Concluded from page 390.)

road bed formation, on the other sixty miles, including

the great viaducts over Valley creek and West Brandy. Columbia Railway.

wine, the deep cut at the gap, and the side road through The Columbia railway is eighty-two miles long: It the month of December next, rails may be laid upon

the city of Lancaster, are so nearly finished, that in all was commenced in 1828, but owing to a want of ap; the whole road. propriations, and various causes over which the Canal Commissioners had no control, the completion of it has between Lancaster and Chester counties, has proved

The "deep cut," through a gap of the Mine ridge been unreasonably delayed. They are now, however, the most difficult job that has ever been undertaken on enabled to inform the Legislature, that a single track the public works of the State; for in all other cases; over the whole road, and the second track on twenty-skill and labor, time and perseverance, have vanquished two miles of the eastern end of it, will be laid and rea- the most formidable obstacles; but the deep cut, (which dy for use by the first day of January, 1834, unless was originally designed to be about half a mile long, they are disappointed in receiving a quantity of iron and thirty seven feet deep, at the highest point, dimithat has been shipped in England, and is daily expect- nishing to common cutting at the ends) has bid defiance ed at Philadelphia. The jurisdiction of the superintendent who had of several contractors. After opening the ground a

to the skill of the engineer, and the laborious exertions charge of the eastern end of the road, was, within the few feet from the surface, a quick-sand of the worst last year, extended over the whole line; and as the en- kind was encountered, that would have required at gineer by whom the road was located, and under whose least two years to remove, at an unknown expenditure, directions the construction of it had progressed until the date of the last report, has since then died, another but probably not less than two hundred thousand dol

Jars, engineer has been appointed, who took charge of the road on the first day of last March.

The railway was graded up for several miles on each

side of the gap, at the maximum of thirty feet rise to On the sixteenth of February, 1833, the act passed the mile. it was, therefore, with extreme reluctance, appropriating one inillion one hundred and eleven thou. after a protracted effort to remove the quicksand had sand nine hundred and fifty-eight dollars and seventy- failed, that the grade of the road was raised for threeeight cents, for prosecuting the work. Directions fourths of a mile on each side of the summit, at the rate were immediately given by the Board, to the superin. of forty-five feet per mile. The work is now progresstendent of the road, to enter into a contract or con- ing rapidly. The rails through the deep cut will rest tracts for procuring iron, and on the fourteenth of upon firm piles driven through the quicksand. March, orders were transmitted to England for rails

, Steam engines are preparing for the two inclined chairs, bolts and wedges for one track; and soon after planes. The one for the Columbia plane is nearly fiwards, orders were forwarded for iron for the second nished, and is estimated at forty horse power; and the track on the sixty miles. To ensure its completion ac one at the Schuylkill plane, of sixty borse power, is cording to the patterns furnished, and of the quality now setting up.' The engine houses have each been required, and also to hasten its delivery, a special agent constı ucted for receiving a second engine, whenever was sent to England by the Board, to inspect the iron the trade may require it. It is computed that nineteen when manufactured, previous to shipment. Before hundred and twenty tons may be passed over each of contracts could be made in England, the manufacturers the planes, in a day of twelve hours. of iron in that country had received very large orders, In the report of the Canal Commissioners of Novemwhich rendered it impossible to get more iron prepared ber first, 1832, they say, that “with a view to hasten and shipped during the present season, than is suffi- the completion of a line between Philadelphia, the Sus. cient for one track. The iron for the second track is quehanna, and the West, it is contemplated to lay one now manufacturing, and will be delivered carly next track, from the western termination of the twenty-two spring. If orders could have been transmitted for the miles to Columbia, upon wooden sills.” The act of the iron in the beginning of last winter, the whole of it 16th of February, 1833, making a further appropriamight have been received during the present season, tion of one million, one hundred and eleven thousand, and about twenty-four thousand dollars saved in its nine hundred and fifty-eight dollars and seventy-eight cost, as the price of iron in England had advanced, be- cents, towards completing the Columbia railway, refore the orders of the spring arrived.

quires iron edge rails to be used. This sum is one The second track on the eastern twenty-two miles of hundred and twenty-six thousand, four hundred and the road was completed, and the connection between fifty-six dollars and sixty-three cents less than the estithe West Chester railway and Philadelphia, established mate of Major Wilson, for finishing the road with one last winter, except the large viaduct and road bridge track, laid with flat bars on wooden rails; and it is four over the Schuylkill at Peters’ Island; which work has hundred and thirty-four thousand, three hundred and been delayed beyond the expectations of the Board, sixty-one dollars and thirty-two cents less than his estinotwithstanding every effort has been used to urge it mate, if both tracks should be laid with iron edge rails. forward by the officers on the line, and a special in By the estimate of Mr. Gay, the present engineer, spector who was employed to superintend its construc- and the report of the superintendent, it appears that a tion. It is, however, at this time in such a state of for further appropriation of eight hundred and four thouwardness, that it wil be ready for the

rails by the mid- sand, eight hundred and ninety-five dollars and fiftydle of next December.

eight cents, will be required to complete the road for VOL. X II.


locomotive engines alone; or eight hundred and eighty. To which must be added $85,000 for mine thousand, eight hundred and ninety-five dollars horse paths, if horses are to be used, and fifty-eight cenıs, if the road is prepared for using or if locomotive engines are used horses. Hence the estimate of the present year, (if lo there must be added

51,000 comotive engines are alone used on the road,) will ex. ceed that of last year by the sum of three hundred and

$855,895 58 seventy thousand, five hundred and thirty-four dollars and twenty-six cents.

Whole amount disbursed This large excess is accounted for,

prior to 1831, 337,863 04 1st. By greater strength and solidity given to the Amount disbursed as whole work, and especially to the large viaducts.

above stated, 1,700,798 99 2d. By the difference in the weight of the rails. Per centage due and

3d. By locomotive engines, water stations, and other work to be done, 1,506,146 95 things estimated by Mr. Gay, that do not appear in the estimate of Major Wilson.

3,544,808 98 4th. By an almost total failure in procuring stone For locomotive engines, 51,000 blocks in the lime stone valleys through which the road passes. And having to haul two thousand three hun. Cost when completdred tons of stone blocks from the sand stone hills, a ed for locomodistance of from 12 to twenty miles to the road. This tive engines, $3,595,808 98 circumstance alonc caused two-thirds of the contractors Length including the side road through Lancaster, 82 to abandon their jobs.

miles. 5th. By an unusual number of re-lettings at higher prices.

Portage Railway. 6th. By the unforeseen difficulties of the deep cut at The Portage rail road over the Allegheny Mountain, the gap at Henderson's.

is thirty six miles and two hundred and eight perches 7th. By the enhanced price of iron in England. long, but between the extreme points of navigation is

8th. By the connection of the rail road with the Co. only thirty-six miles, and it overcomes a rise and fall of lumbia bridge, required by a resolution of the Legisla. Iwo thousand five hundred and seventy feet in that disture of the 26th March, 1833, and other work not con tance, The work upon this road has within the past templated at the previous estimate.

year progressed very well, the grading and masonry The Wiggun rail, weighing forty one and a fourth are completed. A single track of rails along the whole pounds per yard, has been adopted for both tracks of road and a double track on the inclined planes (making the sixty miles now in progress. It is calculated for together forty-four miles and three hundred and four carrying locomotive engines weighing six tons. Loco- teen perches,) are almost finished. motive engines may run from Philadelphia to Columbia Ten steam engines have been constructed, and are on the first track, in the month of January next, if the putting up at the ten inclined planes, four of them are iron arrives which is expected. And the second track estimated at thirty horse power, and the other six at can be finished by the first of September, 1834. thirty-five horse power each. They are made on the

A survey and estimate have been made, and arrange-high pressure principle, and may, ił the trade require ments are making, in ob eslience to the resolution of the it, be worked up to forty, fifty, or sixty horse power Legislature of the 26th March, 1833, for placing under with safety; lest, however, accidents and consequent contract the work for connecting the Columbia rail delays should occur, it is intended when the second way with the tracks to be laid upon the Columbia track of rails is laid, to put up a second engine at each bridge.

of the planes.

As a precautionary measure, two extra ropes have Statement of the funds appropriated to the Columbia been procured. The ropes are what are called "white Railway

ropes,” made of Russian and Italian hemp, from six and

one-fourth to seven inches in circumference. The ag. Amount available of appropriations

gregate length of the twelve ropes is eleven miles and of 1831 and 1832,

$1,238,431 14 seven hundred and seventy-eight yards. Their whole Pro rata deduction under act ele

weight is one hundred and eighteen thousand, six hunventh June, 1832, refunded,

51,710 44 dred and forty.nine pounds, and they cost from fourteen Appropriation of the 16th February,

to eighteen cents per pound; or altogether wben deli1833,

1,111,958 78 vered at Hollidaysburg, twenty thousand five hundred

and thirty-one dollars and five cents. It is calculated

$2,402,100 36 that the engines and ropes when working at an ordinary Disbursed in 1831, 210,704 23

rate will take a train of cars up the planes, at the speed do. 1832, 764,887 49

of four miles an hour'; and at the same time a train can do. 1833, Mitchell, 664,539 70

descend the plane. do. do. Barber, 60,667 57

The completion of the rail road has been retarded by 1,700,798 99 delays in the importation of iron, two thousand one bun

dred and ninety-three tons of malleable iron rails, and Balance on hand, October thirty-one,

one hundred and twenty-three thousand, six hundred 1833,

$701,301 37 chairs of cast iron were required for a double track on

the inclined planes; and a single track throughout the Due for per centage re

rest of the road. About two-thirds of the chairs were tained, 50,004 95

manufactured in our own state; and the residue of the Estimate of work requir

iron was obtained in England. Of seven ships that were ed complete both

freighted with iro in 1832, but two arrived in a reasontracks, 1,450,542

able time. One ship was lost altogether, and one was Cost of connecting with

six months at sea. The insurers had to pay about fif. the Columbia bridge, 5,650

tecn thousand dollars for iron that was lost, and twenty

1,506,196 95 two thousand and thirty-seven chairs that arrived were Deduct above balance

701,301 37 condemned at a loss to the manufacturer. Hence or

ders had to be sent out last spring to England to sup$804,895 58 | ply the deficiency.




The iron obtained in England, cost $192,644 00 Amount required to complete the
The castings made at home, cost
58,134 26 Portage railway

$365,846 35 Whole cost of iron

$250,778 26

Use of the Railways. Miles. Yards, Miles. Yards. A very important question for Legislative decision has The length of road with

arisen respecting the proper manner of using the rail edge rails on stone

roads when they are finished. And as their profitable blocks is

13 15911 Ditto on timber, is

use next spring demands an immediate determination of 20 1120

the mode by which transportation on them shall be con

34 951) ducted, the Board respectfully request the early attenPlate rail on timber,

10 775

tion of the Legislature to the subject, and submit the

following methods for their consideration. Length of a single track,

44 17261 1. To establish the rail roads as public high ways, In the construction of the Portage rail road, a large either horses or locomotive engines.

for the use of every person who may choose to employ amount of heavy work has been performed, deep exca. vations, large embankments, and very high and strong ther, and make the roads public high ways for the use of

2. To prohibit the use of locomotive engines altıgeoutside supporting walls, as well as numerous drains, every person who will employ horses alone as the moculverts, and viaducts, all of solid masonry have been

tive executed, of which work, the great viaduct of cut stone

power. with a semi-circular arch of eighty feet span over the

3. To prohibit the use of horses altogether on such Little Conemaugh at the horse shoe bend, and the tun. parts of the roads as can be advantageously traversed nel of nine hundred feet long through a spur of the by locomotive engines, and make them public high mountain, will demand and must receive from the ways for the use of every person who will employ locopublic unqualified admiration for the boldness of their motive engines alone as the motive power. design, and the strength and beauty of their execution. rail roads would be declared public high ways, the

In either of the three preceding cases, in which the It is believed to be unnecessary to adduce arguments for proving the utility and necessity of a second track Commonwealth must maintain and employ the station:of rails on this road, to accommodate the incalculable ry steam engines and ropes at the inclined planes, or amount of trade that will pass between the basin of the lease them for a term of years to individuals or compaMississippi valley, and the sea board within a few


years after the public works of the state are finished; should

4. To lease the roads and transportation to a compathe legislature invest the Canal Commissioners with ny or companies for a term of years, binding them to power to enter into contracts for iron, the second track preserve the roads and machinery in good order. of the rail way may be completed over the mountain in

5. To lease the transportation alone to a company or three months after the iron is delivered.

companies, for a term of years, and the Commonwealth

to maintain the roads and machinery in repair, Statement of the Funds appropriated to the Portuge

6. To lease the right of traction or motive power only, Railway.

to a company or companies for a term of years, binding

them to transport such cars with their freight as may be Amount available of the appropria

offered by individuals or companies, and the Commontions of 1831 and 1832

$760,418 60 wealth to maintain the roads and machinery in repair. Pro rata deduction under act ele

In either of the last three cases of leasing the roads, venth June, 1832, refunded

39,581 40

the transportation, or the traction, the stationary steam Appropriation of the sixteenth Fe

engines and ropes at the inclined planes may be main. bruary, 1833

414,793 06

tained and employed by the Commonwealth, or they $1,214,793 06

may be let out on leases for a term of years to individu.

als or companies. Disbursed in 1831 $71,146 64

7. The Commonwealth to furnish the traction or mo. 1832 401,335 72

tive power, own the cars, and do all the transportation 1833 568,639 19

on the rail road. $1,041,121 55

8. The Commor.wealth to furnish the traction or moBalence on hand 31st October, 1833 173,671 51

tive power only, and transport such cars with their freight, as may be offered by individuals or companies,

In the event of it being settled that the CommonThe estimated cost of work to be

wealth will furnish the motive power on the rail roads, done to complete the first trackin

it is still necessary for the Legislature to determine cluding the incidental expenses

whether the Columbia rail way shall be finished for and retained per centage

$213,940 01

using horses on it, or for using locomotive engines, or Deduct the above balance

173,671 51

for the use of both modes of conveyance.

For more comprehensive views of this subject, the Amount required to complete first track 40,268 50

Board respectfully refer to the reports of the superin

tendents and engineers on the two rail roads, accompaThe whole amount paid, is

1,041,121 55 Per centage retained and work to be done 213,940 01 nying this report.

Before quitting the subject of the rail roads of the

State, the Board wish to call the attention of the Legis. Whole cost of single track is

$1,255,061 56

lature to a necessity that exists for a law, with suitable which includes a double track on the inclined planes penalties, to preserve those splendid monuments of making altogether forty-five miles of single track. the power, enterprize, and perseverance of Pennsylva

Length of Portage railway, is thirty-six miles and two nia from destruction, similar to the law now in force for hundred and twenty-one perches.

the protection of the canal. The estimated cost of completing the

Beaver Division. second track, is

$325,577 85 Amount required to complete the

The Beaver division of the Pennsylvania canal, comfirst track

40,268 50 mences on the Ohio river twenty eight miles below

Pittsburg, and is located from the mouth of the “Big


Beaver creek,” or rather river, up that stream and She. for navigation. This division of the public improvenango creek thirty miles and two hundred and forty ments, commences on the Allegheny river, near the perches, terminating in Mercer county. It has eight borough of Franklin, ninety-three miles above the miles and one hundred perches of canal, and twenty-two mouth of the Kiskiminetas, or main line of the Pennmiles and one hundred and forty perches of slackwater. sylvania canal; and it is carried up French Creek twenmade by seven dams. There will be eighteen lift and ty-two and a fourth miles, to the "feeder," from whence guard locks on this line, which, for size and quality of the feeder forms the continuation of the canal, up stone, and for solidity and beauty of masonry, are not which the right branch proceeds eleven miles, and the surpassed by any locks that the Board have ever seen. left branch down the feeder twelve and a half miles,

This line has progressed steadily since the appropria. to. Conneaut lake. The whole division is forty-five tion of the sixteenth of February last, and it is expected miles and two hundred and sixty-four perches long, of that, from New Castle to Beaver, the canal will be rea which about twenty-seven and a fourth miles is canal, dy for navigation before the setting in of winter. and eighteen and a half miles is slackwater; and, with

By the act of the twenty-seventh March, 1833, the the Conneaut lake, will give about fifty miles of nagiCanal Commissioners were required to have a towing tion. There are twelve dams, and eighteen lift and path constructed along the pool of the dam in Shenan- guard-locks, on the line. go creek, six miles of

which were put under contract, The last year's appropriation to this division is exand the grubbing on it bas been done: but for want of hausted; and a dam near the head of the feeder, a towfunds, this towing path, and the dam in the Shenango, ing path along the pool of the dam, and many other and also a guard lock at New Castle and all the lock jobs of work on the division, have been suspended until houses had to be suspended.

another season, for want of funds. The additional appropriation required to complete The increased expense of the line over the last year's the Beaver division, arises from the Shenango towing- estimate, is owing to an inadvertent omission in pro. path, the guard lock at New Castle, and other indispen. viding for contingent expenses; to several new works sable work on the line not embraced in last year's esti- having been added; to damages done by a food in Sepmate; also from an increased expense in removing quick tember last, and other unforeseen difficulties in consands and hill slips, and in repairing damages done by struction; to additional strength given to the work; and a flood in September last, which seriously injured two above all, to re-lettings, by which a large amount of dams, and partially injured some other works, which, work advanced in price forty per cent. over the conat the time, were in an unfinished and unprotected tract prices of last year, condition.

The main stem of the division will be navigable next The suspended work can all be completed during spring; and the suspended work may be completed, the next season.

and the feeder also put in good order for navigation, by

the first of September, 1834. Statement of the Funds approprialed to the Beaver Di

Statement of the Funds appropriated to the Franklin line Amount available of appropriations of

and North and West ends of the feeder 1831 and 1832

$222,421 26 Amount available of appropriations of Pro rata deduction under act of 11th June,

1831 and 1832

$181,145 39 1832, refunded

4,660 39 Pro rata deduction under act of eleAppropriation of the 16th February, 1833 197,159 97 venth June, 1832, refunded

4,022 92 Appropriation of the sixteenth Febru$424,241 62

162,991 98 Disbursed in 1831

39,926 66 Do. in 1832 177,617 95

$348,160 29 Do, in 1833 147,519 10 Disbursed in 1831

20,798 44 365,063 71


88,906 84 1833

193,078 65 Balance on the 31st October, 1833 $59,177 91

302,783 93 There is due upon this disvi

Balance on hand October thirty-one, 1833 $45,376 36 sion, for per centage retained on work done

19,149 86

There is due on this line for Est'd cost of work to be done,is 97,069 41

per centage retained 31,979 54

116,219 27 Estimated cost of completing Deduct the above balance of

59,177 91 the work

107,794 87

139,774 41 Amount required to complete the divi

Deduct the above balance

45,376 36 sion, including the Shenango towing path

$57,041 36 Amount required to complete the work $94,398 05 The whole amount paid upon this divi.

The whole amount paid, is

302,783 93 sion, is

365,063 71 | Per centage retained and work to be done 139,774 41 Per centage retained, and work to be done, is

116,219 27 Whole cost of the Franklin line and north
and west ends of feeder

$442,558 34 Whole cost, when completed $481,282 98

Miles, Perches, The length of the division, including the Shenango Length of the Franklin line is

22 80 towing path, is thirty miles and two hundred and forty North and west ends of the feeder

24 perches,

26 104 French Creek Division. The French Creek division has been prosecuted Wyoming Line of the North Branch Division. with spirit, since the appropriation of last spring ena At the date of the last report, it was expected that bled the contractors to proceed with their work, and by this time we could announce the completion of this twenty-two and a fourth miles of it are nearly ready | line, which with its feeder, is seventeen miles and two

ary, 1833





ary, 1833

hundred and thirteen perches long, with forty-three which was four miles and fifty-six perches long; but as feet of lockage, but that expectation has been disap- another site for building a feeder dam presented itselt, pointed in consequence of a scarcity of labourers. near Dunnstown, two miles and two hundred and six

There are on this line, several sections requiring eith- teen perches below Smith's ripples, the question of a er deep excavation through rock, or heavy outside final location was left open for further examination, and protection walls to be built, and consequently a large only one and a half miles of the feeder, at its lower force was necessary on those jobs, that could not be end, was put under contract. obtained in that neighborhood. Much difficulty was Such was the situation of this part of the line, at the experienced in sinking the pit and getting in the foun- date of our last report: Further examinations were made dation of an outlet lock at the mouth of Solomon's last winter and spring, which resulted in a conviction, creek, and the site of the feeder dam in the Lackawan- that the site for a feeder dam at Dunnstown was, in mana creek had to be changed, on account of a quick- ny respects, much more eligible than the one at Smith's sand. These several obstacles are nearly surmounted, ripples. At the latter place, the river is very narrow, and it is believed that the canal will be ready for na- and the dam would rest on a gravel bottom; both of vigation early next spring.

which circumstances are decidedly objectionable: while Statement of the Funds appropriated to the Wyoming at the former place, the river is wide, and a part of its Line.

bottom is solid rock. Another important consideration

was, that the Dunnstown site would insure a better Amount available of appropriations for

supply of water on the lower levels, by shortening the 1831 and 1832

$167,136 76 length of the feeder. The difficulties that had been exPro rata deduction under the act of ele

perienced by the river trade, at the chutes of the Munventh June, 1832, refunded

2,553 63cy, Shamokin, and Nanticoke dams, made the Board Appropriation of the sixteenth of Febru.

anxious to have the one at the feeder dam constructed 115,202 46 in the best manner, which could be done with entire

safety to the descending river trade on the smooth solid

$284,892 85 rock at Dunnstown, but could not be done with so much Disbursed in 1831

29,038 15

certainty on the gravel bottom at Smith's ripples.
106,357 66

These reasons, of themselves sufficient to convince the
91,645 37

Board of the superiority of the Dunnstown site for the
227,041 18 dam, were still further strengthened by a comparative

estimate of the engineer, which proved that twentyBalance on hand October thirty-one, 1833 $57,851 67 seven thousand nine hundred and two dollars and forty

three cents, would be saved by its adoption. There is due, for retained per

The feeder dam is eight hundred and fifty-two feet centage

12,488 16

long and eleven and a half feet high above low water Estimated cost of work to be

mark. It is built of crib work, filled with stone, and done

62,705 09

has a base of seventy-eight feet, and fifty feet of gravel

75,193 25 ling, thus making the entire base of the dam one hunDeduct the above balance

57,851 67 dred and twenty-eight feet. The chute is twelve hun

dred and eight feet long and thirty feet wide, construct. Amount required to complete the line $17,341 58 ed in the most substantial manner. The dam and

chute will both be completed by the first day of next The whole amount paid, is

227,041 18 January. Amount required

75,193 25 The feeder dam affords slackwater to the vicinity

of the bituminous coal region, where large preparations Whole cost when completed

$302,234 43 are now making for the transportation of that mineral Whole length of the line is seventeen miles and two upon the canal. It is estimated that thirty-three thouhundred and thirteen perches.

sand nine hundred and eighty-one dollars, would be

sufficient to construct a towing-path along the slackwaLycoming Line of the West Branch Division.

ter of this dam. This would add four miles to the naThe West Branch division of the Pennsylvania canal, vigation, and be greatly to the advantage of the coal extends from the junction of the Susquehanna and trade. This sum of thirty-three thousand nine hundred North Branch divisions at Northumberland, seventy- and eighty-one dollars is not included in the estimate two miles, to the base of the Allegheny mountain, and for completing the Lycoming line. with the Lewisburg and Bald Eagle side cuts, will give The engineer of the line was directed to make a surseventy-six and one-fourth miles of navigation. The vey and an estimate of the cost of connecting the Lyfirst twenty-four miles of the division are called the coming line with the Bald Eagle creek, at its mouth, Muncy Line, and the upper forty-seven and a half and also to connect the creek and the canal above the miles, the Lycoming Line. Twenty-six and a half miles Great Island. The latter connection was found to be are navigable; forty-five and three-fourths miles (includ- the cheapest, and it possessed many advantages over the ing the two side cuts) are under contract, and four former, which induced the Board to adopt the present miles of towing-path along the pool of the feeder dam, location and put the work under contract. It is nearly are not under contract.

completed. This side cut commences in Centre counThe Lewisburg side cut, which is two hundred perch- ty, by a dam four and a half feet high in the Bald Eaes long, branches from the Muncy line six miles above gle creek, where there is also a guard lock, and it terNorthumberland. It has a dam in the West Branch, minates in the pool of the feeder dam, by a lock of two and a half feet high, and three lift locks, overcom- eight feet lift. It is three miles and two hundred and ing twenty-one feet of lockage. This short but useful eight perches long, and will be an invaluable improveinlet to the can is completed, except a small towing- ment. path bridge and a lock-house.

There are fourteen guard and lift locks, overcoming The Lycoming Line, as originally planned in 1831, ninety feet of lockage, between the pool of Muncy dam for the purpose of creating slackwater, was to have six and the head of the Bald Eagle side cut, and seven dams in the river, embracing a large one at the head of aqueducts, the aggregate length of their trunks is one the line located opposite the Great Island. Early in thousand and forty-two feet. 1832, before any work was done at the dams, they were Although the country through which the Lycoming suspended, and an independent canal was substituted line passes, is generally favorable for the construction instead of slackwater; and subsequently, a feeder was of the canal, yet there are many heavy and expensive located, to be taken from the river at Smith's ripples, jobs on the line, such as clams, chutes, aqueducts, deep

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