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Columbia railway, being equal in cost to
land a half miles of the feeder at the town of Conemaugh, about thirty-six miles of double track of
on the Western division. railway completed
36 "Four years experience has convinced the board, that
with an adequate supply of funds for the purpose of Miles of railway, canal and feeder 47 making necessary repairs during the winter, the canals
of Pennsylvania, in ordinary seasons, can be opened for
navigation by the tenth of March; and the present con
Miles. dition of the improvements warrants them in assuring Placed under contract in 1826
461 the public, that the following lines will be ready for
1623 use at the opening of the navigation next spring.
2144 A railway from Philadelphia to Colum.
151 bia, twenty-two miles, with double tracks,
35 and sixty miles with a single track,making 82 miles
A canal from Columbia to Hollidays-
Portage railway over the Allegheny
mountain, between Hollidaysburgh and Miles under contract 7111 Conemaugh, from basin to basin
36 There is yet to be put under contract on
A canal from Conemaugh to Pittsburg 1044 the Portage railway, the laying of the rails on about twenty-eight and a half miles of
Distance from Philadelphia to Pittsburg 394 miles single track, which will be equal to the cost
A canal from the junction on Duncan s of completing a railway, with double tracks,
Island, near the mouth of the Junia'a, up on eight and a half miles
81 the Susquehanna and North Branch 1o the
mouth of Solomon's creek, in Luzerne Length of the whole improvements-miles 720 county, (two hundred and twenty-three
miles distant from Philadelphia,)
96* December eighteenth, 1829, the Canal Commission A canal from the junction at Northumers reported that one hundred and ninety-five miles of berland, up the West Branch to the head canal were finished; but of this distance, only one hun. of the pool of the Muncy dam, in Lycom. dred and eighty miles were so situated as to be partially ing county, (one hundred and ninety and navigable, on which, twenty-seven thousand and twelve half miles from Philadelphia,)
264 dollars and ninety cents of tolls were received in 1830. A canal from Bristol to Easton, on the
On the twenty-first of December, 1830, four hundred Delaware, (eighty miles from Philadel-
town of Franklin,up French creek to near By the report of December fifteenth, 1831, it does the feeder aqueduct, in Crawford county 221 not appear that any part of the public works prosecut. The continuation of the Portage rail. ed that year, was finished; hence nothing was added to way along side of the basins at Hollidaysthe four hundred and twenty six miles reported as fi. burg and Conemaugh-the Conemaugh nished the preceding year. it appears, however, that feeder and Alleghenytown branch on the eighty-seven miles were added to the navigable portion Western division-the South fork and of the canal, and this, with the ihree hundred and ten Raystown feeders on the Juniata division miles of the preceding year, made three hundred and -and the Lewisburg side cut on the West ninety-seven miles, on which, fifty thousand nine hun- Branch division, forn, an aggregate of 8 dred and nine dollars and fifty-seven cents of tolls were received in the fiscal year, ending the thirty-first Octo Number of miles of canal and railway ber, 1832.
ready for use
632 On the first of November, 1832, four hundred and eighty and a half miles of canal and navigable feeder,
Old Lines of Canal. were reported as finished, and also twenty-two miles of a single track of railway; of which, only four hundred Those portions of the canal which bave been declar. and sixty.one miles of canal and eighteen miles of rail- ed navigable are all at present in excellent condition, road could be advantageously used; the tolls on which, and commerce upon them is brisk. The public is be during the past year, ending on the thirty-first October, ginning to experience the benefits of the improvement, 1833, amounted to one hundred and fifty-one thousand and duly to appreciate its advantages. four hundred and nineteen dollars and sixty-nine cents. In the year 1831 and 1832, the Western division of
In addition to the number of miles of canal and rail. ; the canal, and the dams on the Susquehanna, were way which was reported last year as finished, there has much damaged by floods; the extensive and disastrous been added, within the present year, a second track on injuries done to these works, (defective in many instanthe twenty-two miles at the eastern end of the Columbia ces in their original construction,) by frequent and high rail-way; and a single track on the remaining sixty freshets, were repaid as speedily as the limited funds miles of that road will be ready for use by the first day approriated for such purposes would permit. The new of January, 1834.
banks, and mechanical structures then made, hare On the Poriage railway,a single track along the whole since proved their solidity, by resisting uninjured both road, thirty-six and three-fourths miles, and a double frosts and freshets. track on the inclined planes, will be ready for use ins Expenses to a large amount were incurred, in reall this month.
constructing and strengthening many important works, It is also expected that, before the setting in of winter, on all the lines. In many places particularly on the water will be introduced into twenty-four and three. Delaware division of the canal, banks were originally fourths miles of the Beaver division, twenty-two and composed of sand, which was frequently washed away, one-fourth miles of the French creek division, and one and had to be replaced by gravel and other substantial
CANAL COMMISSIONER'S REPORT.
materials. In some instances, the distance between that time boats fully loaded could not run, yet by the where the materials were got, and where they were aid of scows there was no time when the forwarding used, added considerably to the expenses of current re. merchants had to detain their goods at Blairsville for pairs.
twenty-fuur hours for the want of water. In making repairs, the supervisors have been instruct. The Board would here solicit the especial attention ed to have them done in the most substantial manner, of the Legislature and of the public, to this important and the beneficial effects of an adherence to those in- fact: That the navigation of the mnin line of the Penn. structions, have been visible in all the lines during the sylvania canal, w118 maintained throughout the season last year. Most of the weak points in the canal banks with but slight delays. Notwithstanding which, men and mechanical structures, have been thoroughly re- interested in depreciating our public works, or governpaired; and the board have every reason to believe, thated by mistaken policy, were bilt 100 successful, by exwith proper attention on the part of the supervisors, and aggerated statements of breaches and failures, in deter. other agents entrusted with the immediate care of our ring western merchants and others from using the capublic works, disasters of a serious character can sel. nal as a medium of transportation. The effect of these dom occur hereafter.
misrepresentations has been a serious injury to the Main Line.
trade of Philadelphia and Pittsburg, and to the revenue The navigation of the canal between Portsmouth and of the Commonwealth. Pittsburg, has been but little interrupted for the last During the period when little business was doing year, except by ice, which closed it on the east side of upon the canal abuve Blairsville, it was thought advisathe mountain on the twentieth of December, and on ble to draw off the water from the Ligonier line, for the west side on the tenth of January; and it' opened the purpose of making repairs at several points. This on both sides of the mountain from the tenth to the six was deemed important, as the opening of the Portage teenth of last March, At two of the western collectors' railway will bring that line of canal into active use. offices, Blairsville and Leechburg, toll was taken in the most urgent of those repairs have been made, and every month of the year.
the residue can be done during the ensuing winter. In the month of May last, one of the highest floods A feeder of one mile and one hundred and seventy. known for many years, took place in the Susquehanna. three perches, has been constructed at Conemaugh The canal, in many places on the Eastern division, was town, with a dam in Stoney creek three hundred and entirely covered with water; but after the food had sub. fifty-eight feet long and seven feet high-a guard lock, sided, 'it was found that very little injury had been two square culverts, and six bridges. The feeder done, owing, in a great measure, to ihe solidity the is eighteen feet wide at bottom, thirty feet wide at top canal banks had acquired since their construction; and water, and four feet deep. it is gratifying to state, that the navigation was not at To guard against the effects of a very dry season, that time interrupted for more than forty-eight bours. / when there is an active trade upon the canal, it will be The damages done by the fiood, as well as the few necessary to construct one or more reservoirs on Stobreaches that occurred during the season, were prompt. ney creek, or the little Conemaugh. ly repaired. The commerce upon this division was Three heavy and expensive outside protection walls slightly impeded for a short time, in the month of Sep. had to be built upon the Western division, within the tember, when so much water escaped through the dam last year, to defend exposed points of the canal banks at Clark's Ferry, at a very low stage of water in the riv- against the foods of the river. New trunks and inner cr, that the canal could not be sufficiently filled; hence arches were also required in the two large aqueducts gravelling the dam had to be commenced, which at its over the Allegheny river; the timber for them has been original construction was not considered necessary. At procured, and it is chiefly all prepared for putting up, the same time the water was taken from the Columbia which will be done the ensuing winter, when the water line, to make some necessary repairs, preparatory to is out of the canal. Ice breakers have been built to the opening of the Columbia railway. A feeder for protect several piers of the aqueducts which were exthis line, to be taken either from the Swatara, or the posed to injury. river at Conewago, falls, is believed to be indispensable A strong crib work has been built below the Leech. for an active tr:ide.
burg dam, in the Kiskiminetas river, to secure the dam Neither the Juniata nor western division has been in. from undermining, by the reaction of the water falling jured by fools during the past season. Upon the Ju- over it. This crib work is five hundred and fifty feet niata, several breaches have occurred. The only inju. long. across the stream, thirty feet wide at the base, ry of any magnitude sustained by the Frankstown or and twenty-four feet wide at the top, measured with "new line," above Huntingdon, (which passes through the thread of the stream.
It is sunk in water averag. difficult mountain defiles,) since ihe introduction of the ing twenty-six feet deep, and contains sixty-three thouwater in November, 1832, was one span of an aqueduct sand feet of timber, twenty thousand pounds of iron, that gave way, and required re-building; and at the and eleven thousand one hundred and seventy-six cubic same time a very heavy bank breach took place, both yards of stone filling. of which were completely repaired, and the navigation The dam has now a base of one hundred and twentyrestored in the short period of only six days.
eight feet, and its average height, from the bed of the Guard gates have been erected and the canal banks river to the comb, is thirty-four feet, or twenty-three raised in the l.ong Narrows. A range of crib work has feet above low water. It contains three bundred and been constructed below the dam near the same place, seren thousand feet of timber, one hundred and twenty; and a new trunk has been put into the large aqueduct six thousand pounds of iron and forty-eight thousand at Duncan's Island. Two spans of the aqueduct at three hundred and twelve cubic yards of stone filling.', Shaver's ford have fuiled and must be renewed; and Dam No. 2, on the Kiskiminetas, also requires a crib another pair of gates must be built in the long Narrows, work below it, the timber of which is provided, and will 80 as to form, with those already erected, a guard lock be put in this season. The out-let lock in Allegheny
No breaches worth noticing have occurred upon the town, owing to a defect in the foundation, had to be Western division during the past year. The commerce taken down, and it is exceedingly difficult to re-build it on the canal between Blairsville and Pittsburg has been in the gravel bed of the river.
An outlet lock in the but little delayed throughout the season, except for two Kiskiminetas has also failed, and must be taken down or three weeks in the latter end of August and begin. and re-built this winter. The Monongahela branch of ning of September, when the Conemaugh and Kiski- the canal in Pittsburg, has been rendered useless, being minetas rivers became so low that a full supply of wa. filled with mud, which is carried down from the neighter, (as the dams are not perfectly tight,) could not be boring heights by heavy rains. By the estimate of the maintained in the canal.' still, however, although at l engineer, it will require nine thousand nine hundred
and fifty-eight dollars, to construct sewers for avoiding while unsafe, but it has been repaired, and they are all the mischief. A number of water ways around locks, at this time in good condition. and other necessary works, had to be suspended for In 1832, a portion of the Nanticoke dam on the North want of funds.
Branch, was carried away by a freshet in the river,and Susquehanna Lincs.
has since been replaced by a new dam built on a better
plan. In last month, one hundred and thirty feet of The navigation on the North Branch division closed the old part of this dam were also carried off; preparaabout the eighth or tenth of December; and on the tions are now making to rebuild it. West Branch and Susquehanna divisions, on the twentieth of December, 1832. Tie Susquehanna di- into the North Branch division, to obviate the present
A feeder from Fishing C:cek should be introduced vision opened last spring, on the twentieth of March, necessity of supplying the canal with water for fiftybut owing to damage done by a flood on the North four miles, from Nanticoke dam. This will be renderBranch, and by watermen on the West Branch canals, ed still more necessary, when the trade upon that divilittle business was done until about the twelfth of April (sion shall have increased, by the completion of the On the fourteenth of May, the navigation was suspend. ed by the great food, and was not again resumed
Wyoming line. throughout the lines until the twenty.fifth of July.
Delaware Division. Since then, but few interruptions have taken place. On the twenty-fifth of March last, the waterinen en destined to become one of the most profitable lines in
The Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal, is gaged in running arks and rafts down the West Branch the State, on account of the mineral coal that must of the Susquehanna, made a breach in the canal a short pass through it to market. During the past season, distance below the Muncy dam, through which they this line bas suffered severely from the effects of extrapassed with their craft, and which cost to repair it ordinary floods in the Delaware river and some of its nineteen hundred and seventy-six dollars and sixty-six cents. About the middle of May, both branches of tributary streams, which cross the line of the canal. the Susquehanna rose to an unusual height. On the
In December, 1832, and in May, June and October, West Branch Division, an extensive breach was made 1833, extensive lireaches occurred, which required through the protection wall, near the pier head at the large expenditures to repair: and in addition to the efentrance of the canal into the Muncy dam; and the wa- fectual repairing of breaches, weak points in the banks ter from the river broke into the canal below the guard have been strengthened—the dam in the Lehigh river lock, and passed out again about five miles further at Easton, has had crib work sunk below it for its supdown, making a large breach at each place, destroy- port--a large water way has been constructed round the ing several bridges, and doing much damage to guard lock at that place several other water ways and the banks. The repairing of these disasters, cost sis. waste wiers have also been made and a few 'safety teen thousand and thirty dollars and ninety-seven cents. gates erected; some more of which are yet required for The damages thus sustained, were so far repaired as to the entire security of the canal. These new works have admit the water again into the canal on the fifth of cost about fifteen thousand dollars. June. Since then there has been but little interrup Some difficulty still exists in filling the thirty-five tion to the navigation.
miles of canal between Easton and New Hope with waThe North Branch division rose twenty-eight feet | ter, especially after the water has been withdrawn for above low water mark, and covered the canal for nine the purpose of doing repairs. It has been suggested miles down from Nanticoke dam. The lock-house at that a feeder from the Deleware river near Black's Ed. the guard lock was carried away; the abutment of the dy, would remedy the evil. The expense of such a dam, and a quantity of protection wall were thrown feeder, is estimated at forty thousand dollars. The down, and the canal was partially filled with sand for a
water works at New Hope have been completed, and long distance. Serious and extensive injury was donc are a valuable improvement. at many places to the canal banks by breaches, and
French Creek Feeder, washing away the lining. Those injuries were repaired, and the canal again opened for navigation on the This isolated piece of canal was put under contract nineteenth day of June.
in 1827 and 1828, and for several years past, bas been On the Susquehanna division, several bridges were reported among the finished lines, although, as it could destroyed; the water also broké around the stone abut not be filled with water, it was entirely useless. Since ment attached to the short feeder dam which connects it was taken off the contractor's hands, it has been with the wall of the chute at the Shamokin dam, and going to decay for want of repairs. A commencement washed away so much of the bank as to endanger the was made, during the summer, 10 put it in repair, so safety of the canal. But the most formidable breach, as to be ready for the reception of water upon the and the one which required the most time to remedy, completion of the new lines, but it proved an arduous was at Penn's creek, where the mound which carries as well as expensive undertaking, and had to be susthe canal across one of the branches or outlets of that pended for the want of funds. stream, was entirely carried away. When the work A weigh lock at Alleghenytown, which was put upon this breach was nearly completed, it was a second under contract in 1832, has been finished, and its utility time swept off, by a sudden rise in the creek. These proved. Four other weigh locks have been put under breaches have been substantially repaired, the stune contract. The one at Portsmouth and the one at Easalone, used for that purpose, cost fifteen thousand and ton are completed and in use, and the one at Hollidaysninety-four dollars and thirty-five cents. To the above burg will be finished this season. The one at Northumcauses is to be attributed the delay in opening the navi- berland had to be suspended for want of funds. The gation upon those lines, in the spring, and the length lock at Easton weighs one hundred tons, and the others of time during which it was suspended. It is believed eighty tons each. Those that have been finished are that, by the erection of a few safety gates, which are so accurate, that from twenty-five to fifty pounds will now in progress, and the strength of the repairs which turn the beam. Weigh locks upon the canal are indishave been made at weak and exposed points, but little pensible, for ascertaining the correct tonnage.of boats danger may hereafter be apprehended from ivods in and for preventing frauds upon the revenue, and also the river.
for protecting those engaged in the business of transThe chutes of the Nanticoke and Shamokin dams, portation from imposition. A few more are rehave given but little interruption to the river trade dur- quired. ing the past season; the one at Muncy dam was for a The following is a summary of the work upon which
CANAL COMMISSIONERS' REPORT.
the appropriation of the twenty-seventh March, 1833,
vember 1, 1832,
4,172 21 for new work upon old lines, has been expended. Weigh locks, scales, &c. $19,826 08
$306,254 05 Waste Wiers,
6,639 34 Amount paid for work done and materiFence,
5,201 77 als previous to 1st November, 1832, 105,976 72 Lock house, lots, &c.
3,578 22 Locks,
1,065 79 Amount of the appropriation of 1833 Aqueducts,
4,821 991 for repairs, drawn an applicable for Feeders,
$200,277 33 New Hope dam, &c.
10,008 09 Bridges,
3,067 30 Whole amount of the cost of repairs made Sections,
$275,383 52 Completing first ten miles of the Columbia
Deduct the available funds drawn, 200,277 33 line, &c.
14,363 99 Protection wall,
$75,106 19 Collector's office,
Balance of the fund in the Treasury, Safety gates, 3,457 53 November 1, 1833,
10,807 61 Removing buildings,
126 25 Engineers,
$64,298 58 Contingencies,
Upon the settlement of the accounts of a former $87,315 06
supervisor, whose debts for repairs made prior to the
1st November 1832, were not ascertained by the board The whole amount drawn by superinten
at the date of their last report and upon a full settledents in 1833, out of the old work
ment of the accounts for repairs made, and debts of that fund, is
$98,128 52 year paid, it appears that the actual sum due on the Amount expended as above
first November 1832, exceeded the estimate then made stated,
by the Canal Commissioners. These debts continue to Amount drawn by superinten
accumulate throughout the winter, and owing to the dents out of former appro.
late period of the session when the legislature have priations, for old work, and
heretofore made appropriations, the spring is far adnot included in the above
vanced before the supervisors can draw funds enough expenditures of this year, 6,275 00
to pay their debts and proceed with their work; under Amount unaccounted for in
such circumstances, it is impossible to have all the lines the hands of superinten.
ot canal well prepared for an early navigation in the dents,
spring. $98,128 52
Every effort has been made by the Board, consistent
ly with the well being of the public works to busband There is due out of this fund,
the funds, but for three years past they and the superfor work done on the Cone
visors have often been subjected to extreme embarrassmaugh feeder,
ments when the appropriation for repairs became ex
hausted. At such times, dams and other expensive imAbstract of Expenditures for repairs in 1333.
provements in progress have frequently been in an unFor Dams,
$21,524 63 finished state. To abandon them in such a condition, Locks,
3,374 65 would be to give up the whole system of improvement Aqueducts,
18,188 04 to ruin. And as there has been no power lodged in any Waste Wiers,
13,301 37 department of the government to grant relief, it has ofCulverts,
2,525 00 ten become necessary to appeal to the public spirit of Bridges,
7,786 39 the supervisors, to preserve the canals from destruction Protection Wall,
28,646 99 and the public from disappointment. It is but justice Gates,
1,023 08 to those officers to state, that such appeals have seldom Current Repairs,
179,013 37 been made in vain. Many of them have with a laudable
ambition, exerted themselves to the utmost, and er$275,383 52 hausted their private credit, after their drafts ceased to
be paid at the Treasury. But the evils are not confined The current repairs upon the several divisions, which to the agents of the state and the laborers who have to cost as above siated, the sum of one hundred and go without their wages; important works have to be seventy-nine thousand and thirteen dollars and thirty- postponed, and repairs done under the circumstances seven cents, include the repairs of breaches, gravelling just mentioned, are always more costly to the commondams, strengthening banks, slating towing-paths, &c. wealth. and are as follows:
The tolls paid into the Treasury in 1830
$27,012 90 Juniata division and feeders, 132 15,748 33 In 1831, there was paid in
38,241 20 Western division,
- 105 23,854 15 And during the year ending on the 31st Susquehanna division,
50,909 57 West Branch division,
20,956 27 The tolls paid into the Treasury for the North Branch division,
20,304 19 last year ending October 31, 1833, Delaware division, 59,408 33 amount to
151,419 69 French creek feeder,
5,699 01 This sum of one hundred and fifty-one thousond four
hundred and nineteen dollars and sixty-nine cents, $179,013 37 which has been received by the Treasurer within the
last fiscal year, will probably be increased during the Statement of the fund for repairs.
navigable season, to near two hundred thousand dollars. Whole amount drawn by supervisors in
It will be gratifying to the citizens of the common1833,
wealth, to observe, that the tolls received in 1833, hare Balance in the hands of supervisors,
$302,031 84 trebled the amount received in 1832, and that 100 un
der many discouraging circumstances. Tbere has been
but a single line of boats regularly em.ployed (one als: and as a necessary consequence, numerous re-lettings starting daily from each city) between Philadelphia and at much higher prices-by which the appropriation Pittsburg throughout the past season; and they only may be exhausted before the line is completed. A caused one hundred and fifty-three miles of the Pennsyl- nal may be nearly ready to receive the water, when vania canal on the east side, and seventy-three miles on the remaining work undone must be suspended, and the west side of the mountain. The Susquehanna lines the completion and use of the line postponed until anwere not in full use until the twenty fif of July, and other season. the navigation of the Delaware division was much inter The evil effects of the restriction are still more obvirupted by breaches.
ous on the rail roads. The iron rails, pins, and wedges, As one hundred and eighteen miles of rail-road will, and a large proportion of the chairs have to be procur. be provided with a single track of rails, which can be ed in England. And it has been found almost impossiused, and which will connect the unconnected links, in ble to advertise for proposals—make contracts-send the main line; as the old lines of canal are becoming out orders-get the iron manufactured to pattern-have more permanent and new lines will be added next spring. it imported and laid on the railway during the same sea. And as the slumbering spirit of the mercantile portion son in which the law is passed making the appropriaof the community is aroused to a proper apprehension of tion. the importance of securing the immense trade of the The legal impediments which caution or perhaps "great west,” the Canal Commissioners think they haz. prudence has thus erected in the path of the public ard but little in predicting that the amount of tolls which agents, have delayed the completion of all the lines auwill be paid into the Treasury during the ensuing navi- thorized by the act of the twenty-first of March, 1831, gable season, will not be much, if any, short of half a (except the Frankstown line of the Juniata division) for million of dollars.
at least one year longer than was anticipated at their Tables are annexed to this report showing the amount commencement, and, owing to causes just detailed, have of toll received by each collector within the past year, greatly increased their expense. But while duty bas and also the tonnage, &c, conveyed upon the canal and enjoined a rigid compliance with legal requirements, rail-way as required by law.
however embarrassing they may have been, patience New Lines.
and perseverance have surmounted the numerous ob.
stacles met with in the prosecution of the work; and it Since the commencement of the improvement system now only requires the efforts of another season, to finish of Pennsylvania, there have from time to time been intrc- all the canals and rail roads of the State, which the laws duced into the laws making appropriations, restrictions at present authorize. with a view of guarding against frauds and preventing As soon after the passage of the act of the sixteenth abuses. Some of these prudential guards around the of February, 1833, as was practicable, operations were Treasury have produced evils which the Canal Com recommenced on all the lines for which appropriations missioners consider it their duty to present to the Legis- were made in that act; since which time, the works lature for their consideration. And among these is the have been prosecuted steadily, and upon several of the provision in the several acts passed within the last three lines, with great zcal and energy towards completion. years, for prosecuting the public works, which prohib. A more particular statement of the condition of each its the Canal Board from incurring debts for the com line, will be given under their respective heads. pletion of new work under contract, on the faith of the
(Remainder next week.) State,
However wise and salutary such a prohibition may seem to be in principle, yet in practice it has delayed
From the Columbian Spy. the completion of the canals and rail-ways, and greatly
MINERALOGY. enhanced their cost. It is believed that the evils produced by this provision in the canal laws, are much greater
On the farm of Mr. Joel Jackson, of Little Britain than any that could have taken place without it. It is township, in this county, is found octahedral magnetic evidently the wish of the public and the interest of the oxide of iron, in the serpentine riilge. State, that the improvements should be completed as
Massive and crystallized ferruginous oxide of Chrome, soon as possible after they are commenced.
or chromate of iron, occurs on a minor ridge of serWben an appropriation is exhausted the whole line is pentine, about a mile north of the main serpentine brøken up. The retained per centage, which is design- ridge, on the property of McKim, Sims & Co. of Baltied as a security for the faithfulness of contractors, has more, adjoining Joel Jackson's farm. The disintegrat. to be paid to them. And those contractors who have ed crystals of chromate of iron, are found coating the unprofitable jobs are certain to abandon them. Labor- cavities of all the ravines male in the sides of the hill, ers are scattered, and make engagements elsewhere; and indicate the existence of this valuable material in and they do not willingly return to a line where em
quantity, ployment is so uncertain.
Magnesite. An extensive locality of this valuabl 'The laws making appropriations are always passed mineral occurs, forming veios in the serpentine of con late in the session of the Legislature. After which the siderable thickness, same locality; and is now extenscattered corps of Engineers have to be collected and sively quarried and manufactured by Mckim, Sims & reorganized.' Jobs have to be advertised and let-and Co. into sulphate of magnesia, (Epsom Salts.) These contracts entered into. Contractors have to collect la. gentlemen have succeeded in making a purer salt at a borers, teams, provisions, &c.; by which the best sea. much less price than it can be imporied; and the Unitson for doing work is wasted, and of course their prices ed States are now almost entirely supplied from this esfor the work must correspond with the disadvantages. tablishment. Several hundred tons of magnesite hare Every thing which encourages re-letting is most per
been obtained from this locality, and Messrs. McKim & picious in its effects. It destroys the responsibility and Sims manufacture 1,500,000 lbs. of Epsom salt annulaudable pride which good contractors take in complet. ally. ing their jobs faithfully. It encourages a spirit of spe Actynolite, in green compressed crystals, in talc, culation or gambling in chances. It covers such lines serpentine ridge on Joel Jackson's farm. with many bad contractors, and it enhances the cost and
Noble Serpentine, wi h delicate veins of amianthus, delays the work unreasonably.
serpentine ridge on Jackson's farm. While the public works are constructing, they are Chalcedony. An interesting locality of this mineral subject to many casualties which cannot be foreseen or occurs near the magnesite and chromate of iron, above estimated; such as floods, quicksands, hill-slips, a rise in described. labour or provisions, and a difficulty in procuring materi November 15.