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ADDRESS BY CHESTER BUTLER, ESQ. ercise of freedom an enjoyment. Motives and charac. Pronounced on the occasion of laying the Corner Stone teristics like these, first sent our forefathers into these of the Wyoming Monument, July 3d, 1833.

remote abodes of the lone and wandering Indian. Fellow Citizens, -The committee who superinten

Unlike many who first invaded the secluded retreats the arrangement of the day have paid me the unex of the natives of the forest, it was by honorable purpected compliment of assigning me a part in its inter: chase, and not by force or fraud that our ancestors esting ceremonies, by requesting from me a few brief sought to possess themselves of the country: Unwilling remarks, before those ceremonies shall be closed. to endure oppression themselves, they could not pracBrief and imperfect indeed they must be, and I must be tice it against others. Planted here with principles like indulged with the apology, that adequate time has not these, and which rendered them unfit subjects for desbeen allowed me to do justice to the subject or the oc.

potic rule, they found no difficulty in governing them. casion, or fulfil the just expectations of this numerous selves. The form of government which they adopted assemblage. Every feeling of my heart is embarked was purely democratic. They excelled even the boastin the cause, and gladly would I have devoted weeks, ed republics of the ancients in primitive simplicity and instead of hours, in preparation for the task.

freedom. The people governed themselves, not by reThe subject is ample in materials, and replete with presentation, or by delegated power, but collectively, reflection. Melancholy, it is true, in its details, is the in their primary assemblies, where the vote of the ma. story of Wyoming's massacre; but there is much in it jority was decisive of all questions at issue. So solicitupon which we can dwell with feelings of pride and ex-lous were they to preserve their original purity, and so uitation, while we mingle the tears of sorrow and re-efficient were the means adopted to prevent the inroads gret with the mouldering dust of the sufferers. Who of corruption and vice, that they were seldom disturb. that now hears me, connected though he be but by the ed by its incursions. At least one instance, however, is most distant ties of relationship with those brave men found on record, where it became necessary, by a pub. who so nobly fought and suffered on that fatal day, lic vote of the assembled people, to banish an indivi. whose disasters have been the means of bringing us to dual from the settlement, because he was, in the simple gether at this distant period, that does not feel elated but expressive language of the record, “an unwhole. with the thought of such connection. Nay more, the some member of the community.” Of such men, nur, sentiment takes a wider range, and reaches the heart of tured in such a school, was that heroic and devoted every inhabitant of our now happy valley. Though band, the memory of whose martydom we have met to the struggle in which they bled and died was unsuccess-cherish and perpetuate. ful, there is nothing in it for us to regret, but its issue, The faithful sketch of the incidents of the battle of and the consequences of misery which it entailed upon July 3d, 1778, and of the preceding and subsequents the survivors, for whose defence and protection they events, which was delivered in your hearing on the last so bravely fought and fell. They could not command anniversary of this day, will render any attempt of mine success, but where all was done that could be done to to repeat the tale, wholly uninteresting and unnecessadeserve it, no dishonor followed defeat.

ry.* The story of Wyoming's virtues, of her patriotism The occasion, too, of our assembling is one of deep and her wrongs, has been beautifully told, not only in and abiding interest, and which calls forth the feelings the inspired breathings of the poet, but also in the graof every spmpathetic heart. It is to gaze on these ver relations of history and tradition, and is now familiar mute mementos of violence and slaughter, to witness to all as "household words.” the reinterment of these mutilated bones of our ances- On this occasion we can take only a rapid glance at tors, while we perform the grateful duty of laying the these events, and the catastrophe which made so many corner stone of a monument to be erected by their de mothers, widows-so many children, fatherless. Should scendants and others, possessors of the bloodstained soil, enquiry be made into the causes which led to the dewon and secured by their perseverance and their valor. structi of this flourishing sett ment, they will be Not undeserved is this tribute to their memory, whether found in the patriotism of the people. It is known that we regard them as martyrs or as men. The hardy pio no just cause of enmily against Wyoming existed in the neers of this valley were a race of men who in simpli- breasts of the Indians, exciting their passions and goad. city of character and habits,-in sternness of purpose ing them on to the direful excursion. However much and steadiness of execution-in courage, -in virtue,- they may desired to repossess themselves of this beau. in intelligence, and in strong attachinent to the true tiful and favorite spot, they had no peculiar feelings of principles of freedom, were seldom equalled and never hostility to gratify-no burnings of revenge to be surpassed. Wyoming was not peopled by the vices or quenched only in blood. We must look to those of our the follies of the old world, nor were her inhabitants own race for the origin of her misfortunes. To the driven by their crimes, or their misfortunes, from the eternal dishonor and disgrace of Great Britain, to guilt “busy haunts of men," to seek in the obscurity of this of exciting the natural thirst of the savage for bloodonce remote and distant frontier settlement, that securi- of infiaming his hellish passions, and turning his feroty and seclusion which were denied them among the cious arm against her American brethren, must ever repopulation of the Atlantic border. Such, I am proud to main a foul and ineffaceable blot upon her escutcheon. say, were not the causes or the motives which peopled It will cleave to her like the fatal disgusting plague our favorite valley. These are to be traced in that spot, till the hour of her dissolution. When the agents manly independence of character, which relies upon its of her oppressions learned, that the Patriots of Wyoresources for the accumulation of wealth, or the acqui. ming were also deeply imbued with the sentiments and sition of the luxuries or comforts of life, and which is the spirit which then pervaded the whole land, -and content with securing even its necessaries, if done with that they had sent forth their youth and strength to fight unaided arm; in that contempt of danger which re. the battles of liberty in the armies of their country, and gards not any hazard in the accomplishment of a lau- had left few besides the patriarchs of the land to guard dable and virtuous enterprise; in that patient courage their homes and firesides, then was her destruction reand hardy perseverance which is deterred by no obsta- solved on. And terrible was the execution of that recles however great, and which is delayed by no consid-solve. Apt and willing instruments of massacre and erations of personal risk; and above all in that genuine devastation were at hand, and they unscrupulously were spirit of freedom, and ardent love of rational liberty, employed. The cruel and relentless savage, whose na. which seems to be the natural growth of every Ameri- tural element is blood and carnage, was let loose, and can bosom, and which carry with them the conviction in the ridiculous but ferocious language used on another that a freeman's every thought, word and act, ought to be occasion, by General Burgoyne, they were exhorted to free as the air he breathes, controled only by reason, and those wholesome restrictions which render the ex

* See Reg. Vol. X. p. 39,

1833. ]

THE WYOMING MASSACRE MONUMENT.

33

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forth in the might of their valor and their cause- of horror disclosed to your aching sight would harrow strike at the common enemies of Great Britain and Ame up your souls, and move every heart to rage and indigrica, disturbers of public order, peace and happiness-nation. You behold the same sun which now rolls over parricides of the state.” So inveterate was the deter- our heads rising in beauty and splendor above the summination of her foes, to strangle young liberty in her mit of the eastern hill. Casting your eyes to the left cradle, that they hesitated not at the means by which it you discover the assembled host of British, Indian, and was to be accomplished, and regarded not the misery Tory enemies already beginning the work of devastation. which they caused. Truly, indeed, was it said of trans-On your right you discern that little Fort which now atlantic liberty, that

encloses the strength and hope of the valley. The gates “Her birth star was the light of burning plains,

are thrown open, and you see the devoted band march Her baptism is the blood that flows

forth to the doubtful conflict, not with all the pride and From kindred hearts.”

pomp and circumstance of war," but without any of

the imposing trappings of military display, yet with as Had Wyoming proved recreant to the sacred cause, firm a tread as ever stepped to exhilerating terms of had she pursued the even tenor of her way, and re. martial music, and with liearts as true as ever "breasted gardless of the event, refrained from taking part in the them to the shock” of battle. No mercenary motive glorious contest, (which the remoteness of her location urges them on;-no hireling soldier is found in their might in some measure have excused,) she would have ranks fighting the battle of conquest or oppression, escaped the ravages of war. Safe and unscathed, in- Cast your eyes again upon the scene, and you see them deed, but it would have been an inglorious safety. Her | rush with ardor to the onset, and, sending the swift fields would not have been burning plains--the blood messengers of death into the ranks of the foe, maintain of her sons would have continued its sluggish course in for a time the unequal contest with a courage and steaignoble yeins, and her name have been, not only unho-diness worthy their character and their cause. nored and unsung, but a term of reproach and scorn. Wide raged the battle on the plain, Then would we have had cause to mourn as those who

Spears shook, and falcbions flashed amain. have no solace in their sorrows. But shame would have burned the cheek, and blistered would have been the tray the fatal issue of the fight! It would require an

But here let us pause, for who will attempt to pour. tongue of him who should have counselled such a course. angel's voice and an angel's tongue to adequately tell True, the base adherent of the British cause would oc. the tragic conclusion. I might perhaps revive in the casionally be found among them, vainly whispering his minds of these few venerable survivors, who have been ignominious proposals of loyalty and duty, mingled with promises of protection and threats of vengeance. But relics of that dread day, pleased but melancholy wit.

so long preserved and handed down to us as honored no son or daughter of Wyoming could be tempted to

nesses of these solemn ceremonies, a recollection of purchase safety, or to avert the threatened vengeance, those events,—of their own hair breadth escape and of fery and rapid as it proved, by such tame submission; what they saw of the struggle and death of their asso: And I know that I speak but the feelings of these aged ciates. I might point them to these mutilated bones of veterans, the brave associates in arms of those whose slaughtered friends, once instinct with life, and animatbones are now exposed before us, marked and mutilated with a like spirit with themselves, and remind them, ed by the instruments of savage warfare, when I say, that perhaps that broken limb belonged to him they that, could the choice now be offered them, between the perils they have passed, and the exemption from

passed. them which they could have purchased at the expense

"In the lost battle borne down by the flying." of honor, cheerfully would they again gird themselves vainly calling for that aid which none could render:for the contest, and act over the trying scenes of their that the fatal blow which bore to the earth that crushed youth. Again would they “follow to the field some skull, rang its death knell in their ears, the unheeded warlike chief,”—again endure the dangers of the battle, prayers for mercy cut short by the swift descending -the mortification of defeat, -the perils of the retreat, stroke. But I forbear. Let us draw a veil over the -the sufferings of the flight, and the subsequent return scene, and call back our thoughts to the more pleasing to their once happy homes, made desolate and waste. duties for which we are here assembled. Again would they perform the heart-rending duty of We have now laid the foundation of a structure which gathering together from the field of battle, and commit shall evince to future ages the grateful sense we enterting to this common grave, the mouldering remains of tain of our obligations to the patriotic dead, and the ad. their slaughtered friends.

miration we feel for their character and principles. Too Tradition and history have handed down to us in vivid long have they slept in an unhonored grave. But when colors, the events of the day we commemorate, but we again commit their lifeless remains to the bosom of they must ever fail to make us realize the truth. We this monument, we know that such cause of reproach look abroad upon the cultivated fields and fertile plains, will forever be removed. This work of gratitude is loaded with the products of peaceful agriculture and destined, in the language of the eloquent Webster, to think not of the forests which once covered them, fur. “rise till it meet the sun in his coming; till the earliest nishing a secure retreat for the lurking savage. We light of morning shall gild it, and the parting day linger gaze upon and admire the green hills which surround and play upon its summit," and as it meets the eye of us, and forget that their sleeping echoes were ever present and future generations,all from lisping infancy to wakened by the starting yell of the unnurtured Indian. withered age shall greet it with the song of We tread in the very footsteps of the combatants, with.

Hail! all hail ! the Patriot's grave; out remembering the death struggle which crimsoned

Valor's memorable bed, the ground with the life blood of our fathers, and we

Hail the memory of the brave! till the soil ignorant that their ashes rest beneath.

We

Hail the memory of the dead!
now see nothing but the quiet pursuits of happy hus-
bandry, and the avocations of civilized industry. Peace

Time their triumph shall proclaini,
is indeed in all our borders, and our citizens each sitting

And their rich reward be this: under his own vine and figtree, with none to molest or

Immortality of fame, make him afraid. But could I roll back the scroll of

Immortality of bliss. time, or tear from its pages the records of the last fifty But we rear this memorial not alone to perpetuate the five years,-could I carry you back to that eventful day remembrance of the bloody events which transpired of strife and blood, which we commemorate, and placing upon this spot, or of the achievements of those who reyou upon yonder hill, bid you raise your eyes to the pose beneath. Their fame has found in the classic page riew, how different would be the prospect. The scene of history and of poetry, a monument more lasting than

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brass, more durable than marble. This shall be the

we mean to take a pretty general glance over the state, shrine to which children yet unborn will be led, while we have concluded to break our Essays into numbers. they learn from maternal lips the first lesson of patriotism, and upon which fathers will dedicate their sons, interest on the subject, that they will fancy themselves

We have now only to request of those who feel an while they exhort them to go, and emulate the virtues it commemorates.

travelling in our company from Philadelphia, westward, To us, too, the events this day thus brought to

by the line of the State Rail Road and Canal. own minds, and the recollection of the sufferings and

We set off, then, at the corner of Vine and Broad sacrifices it cost to secure for us the blessings of civil streets, upon the Pennsylvania Rail Road, and pursue and religious freedom we now enjoy, may furnish food our course round the base of Bush-hill, and back of for salutary reflection. To-morrow's dawn will bring Fairmount, using in a great degree the bed of the old with it another anniversary ofour national independence. Union Canal, until we strike the margin of the SchuylIt finds us in its approach still a united and free people; kill, a short distance below Peter's Island, and about two but in view of the dissensions and jealousies which have miles above Fairmount dam. Here the Schuylkill is sprung up among us, and the political heresies which crossed by a bridge of wood, with piers and abutments have been promulgated to further the ambitious schemes of solid masonry. The length of the platform is 984 of "bad designing men," the melancholy doubt of the feet, and its height 37 feet above the water's surface. permanency of our free institutions will obtrude itself It has six piers, some of which are sunk in water 24 feet upon the mind. Thanks to the intelligence, energy, deep. At the end of the bridge, we ascend, by a staand prudence of our rulers, the budding treason has tionary steam engine, an inclined plane, the hill of Belbeen nipped, though it is to be feared its vitality is not mont, known as the residence of the late Judge Peters. destroyed. It never should be forgotten that our fa- The length of this plane is 42 chains, or a little over thers planted the Tree of Liberty and watered it with half a mile; and the perpendicular height above the their blood. That they fenced it round with the strong bridge, 187 fect: wall of the Union, upon which was inscribed “Union

As the necessity of this inclined plane, and the pro. and Liberty,-one and inseparable,-now and forever." priety of crossing the Echuylkill at this point, were Safe and untouched by hostile hands, the tree still fou. subjects of long and earnest discussion in the newsparishes, and yet unbroken is the wall which protects it. pers, and the Legislature, it may be well to explain the and shall our father's sons be permitted to break down reasons which governed the Engineer in his choice. the wall of safety, put forth a sacrilegious hand to the Approaching Philadelphia from the west, with this Tree, pluck its foliage, and lop its branches, tillit shall line of country, he found himself near the 20th mile stand a lifeless trunk, shorn of its "leafy honors, stone upon the Lancaster road, on the top of the South monument of our folly and degeneracy? Heaven forbid! Valley Hill, about 550 feet above tide. A spur from God grant that we may never be called to meet our this hill, of somewhat irregular course and form grabrothers in mortal combat-but rather than see the Tree dually diminishing in elevation as he proceeded eaststripped of a single leaf, or one stone placed for its pro- ward, and admitting of a graduation within the range tection removed, here let us vow, here on the altar con- of locomotive power, conducted him to the Schuylkill secrated by the blood of martyrs-and with their bleach- at Belmont. On either side of this spur, the waters died bones at our feel, while their pleased spirits are ho- vide-one division running to the Schuylkill

, in a north vering above us ready to carry the grateful vow to Hea. easterly direction towards Norristown, and the other in ven's registry, here let us swear to offer up our fortunes a south westerly direction to the Delaware below the and our lives a willing sacrifice for its defence. Let city. If the engineer bad descended from this dividing us annually renew the vow, and entail its obligations as ridge, and attempted to follow any one of the natural a sacred duty upon our children. Future generations ravines, he must have come out far above Philadelphia, will read the pledge, and while time shall last, this mo- on the Schuylkill; or far below it on the Delaware-or, nument shall remain proclaiming our adherence to the if having pursued one of the ravines a convenient disprinciples, our admiration of the character, and our tance, he had struck off in a direct line towards the cirespect to the memory of the honored dearl to whom 'a ty, he must have encountered a serious rise and fall beday-an hour of virtuous liberty, was worth a whole tween the small streams on the route, requiring, proeternity of bondage."

bably several stationary engines. All this is avoided by

keeping on the dividing ground, and that too with no From the Commercial Herald.

material increase of distance, SKETCHES OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Any one who has travelled the Lancaster turnpike,

must recollect how remarkably undulating its surface is No. 1.

between the Permanent Bridge and the Warren tavern. Rail Roads-Canals-Scenery, &c.

The inclination is not unfrequently from two to three In a former paper, we attempted to furnish our rea- degrees, or at the rate of between two and three ders with a general outline of the Pennsylvania system hundred feet in the mile. It repeatedly climbs to the of Internal Improvement, and to demonstrate how fa- submit of the dividing ridge, and then abruptly descends vourably it must operate upon the commerce and pros

from it. perity of Philadelphia. We promised, also, that at some

Such must have been the character of the rail road convenient season, we would examine that system with surface, if it had been carried in a direction towards the reference to the facilities of intercommunication which Permanent Bridge. By the route adopted, and which it will afford between the different sections of the State, we are now travelling, the inclination never exceeds and to the profit which may be expected from that thirty feet in the mile, and is almost uniformly ascending It has since occurred to us, that a more accu

to the summit of the South Valley Hill, near the Warrate description of the localities through which the ren, where the elevation is 547 feet above tide, making Pennsylvania Canals and Rail Roads pass, and of the a rise of 323 feet in about 20 miles. country they are destined to accomodate, might prove The gradation of this part of the line has been rather interesting to our readers, while it would enable them expensive. It includes several heavy embankments, better to appreciate the views which we promised to lay and bridges across ravines at points where the smaller before them.

streams have cut deeply into the dividing ridge. In We shall now attempt such a description, under the several instances, also, it has been necessary to pass the general head of

summit, and transfer the line from one slupe to the other, occasioning, generally, a considerable deep cut.

The country between Belmont, and the Warren, a And for our own, and the reader's accommodation, as distance of 20 miles, is too well known to need descrip

source.

SKETCRES OF PENNSYLVANIA.

1833.)

SKETCHES OF PENNSYLVANIA.

37

tion. It is thickly settled, and in general well cultiva- rable height but of gradual slope, called the North and
ted—with very little wood, and that little very rapidly South Valley Hills. The formation of the valley is lime-
disappearing. Coal obtained from the Schuylkill is al- stone of the transition kind, which soon disappears as
ready much used. In a short time it must be the uni- you ascend the hills on either side. To the presence of
versal fuel. The natural soil of this section is not re- limestone of excellent quality, in inexhaustible quantity,
markably good. It has been enriched, however, by and easily quarried, it is indebted in a great degree for
judicious cultivation so as to yield good crops of corn, its high state of cultivation, and for the wealth and
wheat, and grass. The farmers of this district, almost prosperity for which its inhabitants have always been
all attend the city market regularly, with the products remarkable.
of their farins-butter, eggs, poultry, vegetables, &c. Though the Valley (so called) terminates at the
The population is industrious and thriving. The build. Schuylkill on the east, yet the same formation conti-
ings are substantial, and the whole district has an air of nues on the other side, including several townships of
cheerfulness and comfort.

Montgomery county, and passing through Bucks to the No villages of any consequence have occurred as yet. Delaware, near New Hope. Traces of it are found on We have passed the Buck Tavern; the Spread Eagle, the Jersey side near Lambertsville. The lime of Ply. and the Paoli, all of excellent quality, and kept by most mouth and Whitemarsh, both east of the Schuylkill, is substantial and respectable men, besides a host of in deemed the best that comes to our market. On the line ferior taverns which have sprung up for the accommoda. thus indicated from West Brandywine to the Delaware, tion of wagoners on the turnpike.

will be found the most valuable farms of Chester; MontNear the Paoli Tavern is the scene of the bloody sur gomery, and Bucks. prize and massacre inflicted by General Grant upon a In this formation also occurs the marble, both black part of Wayne's brigade during the revolutionary war; and white, used for building and for mantles in Philadel. and further on, just this side of the Warren, is a ravine phia. It shows itself in various places, but is only workthrough which a countryman led the British General in ed at points of easy communication with the city. The his midnight excursion. The country was then wooded, principal quarries, are Hitner's, east of the Schuylkill, and this pass was so little known that no precaution was on the road from Germantown to Norristown; and Hentaken against attack from that quarter. It was a bloody derson's west of the river in Lower Merion. It is also business-traditions say the traitor guide fell at first fire found and considerably worked at West Whiteland, from the American camp.

seven miles west of the Warren. Having now traversed the route leading through the The land in the Chester valley is of excellent quality, counties of Philadelphia and Delaware, and entered improved to a high degree by cultivation. Of course, the important county of Chester; and having got a fair its agricultural product is very great, finding employ. start in our contemplated journey through the state, ment for a great number of mills, and affording a large we shall take care not to weary ourselves, or our com- export to the Philadelphia market. It is watered by panions (by the way, we are happy to see the number several branches of the Schuylkill and Brandywine increasing so rapidly) by too long stages, at least at first. which have considerable fall, and afford good mill-seats.

The Warren Tavern kept by our old friend Fahne- The inhabitants of this region are principally of the stock, ever since the Revolution, or for aught we know, society of Friends, or at least descended from Quakers, since Braddock's defeat, or Cromwell's war, is close at The characteristics of that respectable sect are very hand. We know that a good bed awaits us there, and visible in the neatness, order, and comfort that prevail. as to supper, let fat Dinah, the cook, alone, for getting Property seldom changes hands, except in the regular up the eatables, always provided she has been moderate course of transmission from father to son, and a sheriff's in her drafts upon the contents of the bar.

sale of valley land for debt is almost a phenomenon. At the Warren therefore we sleep-calculating to The houses are almost invariably of stone; and that spetake our first look into the Chester valley just as it be- cies of rough cast denominated pebble-dashing is very comes glorious beneath the rays of the rising sun. fashionable. Besides its abundant agricultural products,

lime is a staple of this valley, as well for home consumpNo. 2,

tion as for exportation. Great quantities of it find a Our first sketch broke off abruptly on the top of the market in Wilmington and Philadelphia. The burning South Valley hill, near the Warren Tavern, and about of lime has made sad havoc among the timber; already 20 miles from Philadelphia. Resuming our journey, the very tops of the boundary hills begin to look bare the first object that strikes us is the Chester Valley, im in many places, while below, the trees have nearly dis. mediately below us, and stretching from east to west as appeared. It cannot be long before coal must be the far as the eye can reach. Whoever has a taste for universal fuel for domestic and for all other purposes. beautiful scenery, and especially for that in which smil That coal must come from the Susquehanna, or from ing and well cultivated fields are a main ingredient, the Schuylkill, and MUST PASS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA will do well to pause at this spot. He may travel much Rail Road. farther without finding any thing superior. Probably But it is time we had resumed our journey. From no equal portion of the continent contains a larger the summit of the South Valley Hill, then, we begin to amount of agricultural wealth and rural comfort than descend on its northern slope, at the rate of twenty-eight this valley, called by its inhabitants the “Great Valley, feet in the mile, which rate of gracluation is maintained for no better reason that we know of, except, that it for about eight miles, when we arrive at Valley Creek, happens to be the smallest of those similar formations which we cross by a viaduct five hundred and seventyby which the state is traversed.

seven feet long, and fifty-eight above the water line. The Valley proper may be regarded as commencing We have now attained the surface of the valley with. on the Schuylkill, not far from Norristown, and extend in a few feet. This stream is not so large as the length ing westwardly a little inclining to the south, crossing of the bridge would indicate, being nothing more than both branches of the Brandywine,and losing itself among what would be called a respectable mill stream. It runs, the hills about three miles west of the west branch of however, in a wide ravine over which the bridge is that stream. Its length is not farfrom thirty miles, and its thrown. By it the water of one half that part of the greatest breadth, judging by the eye, about six miles. valley east of Downingtown is carried off, and poured It gradually narrows as you proceed westward, and after into the main branch of the Brandywine. It interlocks passing the little Brandywine, is confined within very with another creek of the same name, which empties narrow limits. Its whole course is included in the into the Schuylkill four or five miles above Norristown, county of Chester, except two townships of Montgome. Near the mouth of the latter is the “Valley Forge,” so ry, lying west of the Schuylkill, (Upper and Lower conspicuous in American history. The mention of this Merion.) It is bounded on each side by hills of conside. I celebrated spot almost tempts us to enter upon a sketch

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of the military operations of which it was the centre, titled "Florula Cestrica,designed to illustrate the Boduring the winter of '77-78. On a future occasion we tanical resources of his native county, has been highly shall probably do so, as it will enable us to explain more commended by the most competent judges. It is no fully the topography of the region within thirty miles of part of our present plan to praise individuals—but a ca. Philadelphia—besicles illustrating some remarkable cir- reer so unostentatious, and yet so practically useful as cumstances connected with the position and the opera- that of Dr. Darlington, seemed to us to form an exceptions of the army at that time which have never yet, tion. He is the pride and favorite of the county of as we believe, been fully developed in history. Mean- Chester, and justly so, for he has done more to render while, having passed Valley creek, we proceed by the her population prosperous, intelligent, and happy, than rail road, westward, gradually approaching the middle any other individual. of the valley for about three miles to the main branch of the Brandywine, immediately south of the flourishing

From the Young Men's Advocate. village of Downingtown. The graduation continues to

MAJ. MOSES VAN CAMPEN, be descending at the rate of twenty-eight feet in the mile, to within halfa mile of the creek when it begins to We take up the pen to notice a few prominent scenes ascend at the same rate. The viaduct across this stream, in the life of this revolutionary patriot. We shall make is four hundred and sixty-five feet long, and twenty-six no attempt at a biographical sketch; our purpose is feet above the water. The crossing place here is re- barely to give publicity to the acts which marked his markably favorable. Our description of Downingstown early military career in the war of the revolution. and Brandywine must be reserved for a future number. That oblivion should envelope in its dusky folds the

In our journey of to-day we have passed the road important services of many of our veteran soldiers, is a leading to the Yellow Springs. _It diverges from the reproach upon the national honor; and, as long as the Lancaster turnpike at the Ship Tavern, five miles west meed of gratitude is withheld, a stain rests on the of the Warren. This favorite resort of our citizens in page which tells the moving history of this proud rethe summer is situated on the high ground north of the public. The grave has closed on worth and geniusvalley, in the midst of a fertile and salubrious country. ihat where and how would unfold a story of national To the fine air and agreeable walks which surround the wrong and injustice over which posterity will drop the Springs, more, perhaps, than to any medical quality of unbidden tear. In the wilds of the western mountains, the water, must be attributed the benefits which inva- forgotten and neglected, the high-born and gallant palids derive from a visit to this elevated region. The triot, Arthur St. Clair, closed his earthly pilgrimage. water is intensely cold, and very slightly impregnated Justice, long delayed, came with its award in time to with iron, which, by communicating a yellowish tinge, behold the closing ritual from the hand of strangers. gives name to the spot. The cold bath for plunging, How many of that glorious band, who toiled for the or in showers, is used by the visiters with excellent liberties of their country, have been left in ignominious effect.

silence, to slumber out the remnant of their days, and We omitted also to notice, that on the south valley pass from among us unhonored and forgotten, cannot hill, the West Chester rail road joins the great state now be told. Tardy gratitude comes with the sting of line. From the hill, nearly all the way to West Chester, death, and had better be withheld than bestowed. The the distance is, by the course pursued, nine miles. As neglect of this age will receive the just censure of the the state rail road begins to descend the hill at the same next, and when posterity shall hold in veneration the point, and continues on the northern slope, the two names of the fathers of our country, the bitter curse of works lie close to each other for three or four miles, national ingratitude will be irrevocably fixed upon that the one increasing in elevation as we proceed the period where we could least wish to behold the ingloother decreasing. When the communication between rious stigma. West Chester and the Susquehanna shall be fully esta- The war of the revolution broke out in the year 1775. blished, and an important trade grow up, it will be ne Great Britain sent her ships and armies to coerce her cessary to connect the two works by an inclined plane, American subjects into an humble submission to laws and stationary power, at a point about three miles from unjust and oppressive in the extreme. The battles of the present junction, in order to avoid the circuit which Lexington and Bunker Hill soon taught his Majesty the present arrangement would require. The scheme George III. that a manly resistance would be made, is perfectly practicable, and has already attracted the and that the revolted colonies would prefer death benotice of the intelligent Directors of the West Chester fore submission. All the western posts on the waters Rail Road.

of the great lakes, were in the possession of the British. As West Chester is the seat of justice for the impor- Agents were sent by the crown to all the Indian tribes, tant and flourishing county of Chester, it is entitled to from the province of Maine to the state of Georgia, with particular attention. We have been promised, by an gold to purchase their friendship and allegiance; and intelligent gentleman resident there, an accurate ac- without the exception of a single tribe, the whole savage count of its history, condition, and prospects, which, as population became allies to the British government. soon as received, will be presented to our readers. This band of ruthless foes was stretched like a chain Meanwhile we shall only remark, that it is delightfully around our western frontiers. On the sea-board the situated on the high ground between the Brandywine British troops were to be opposed, and on the western and the head waters of Chester creek, the highest ground borders, the united force of British tories, and Indians. for many miles round. It is a prosperous end flourish. The subject of this notice was then a citizen of Northing borough, with about 1300 inhabitants, and is proba- umberland county, Pa. After the declaration of Indebly the most salubrious and agreeable country residence pendence, in the year 1776, in the 18th year of his age, this side of the Susquehanna. Its population are re- he renounced his allegiance to the King of Great Britain, markable for intelligence and public spirit, and for the and took up armas in defence of his country. Having attention they have paid to literary and scientific sub- served as a volunteer until August, 1777, he then joined jects. It is here one of our favorite exchange papers, the regiment commanded by Col John Kelly, stationed *THE VILLAGE Record,” is published.

at Big Island, and Bald Eagle creek, on the west branch In the lead of those who have exerted themselves for of the Susquehanna. He served in this regiment three the improvement. moral, mental, and physical, of the months. It was during this period that the Indians were county of Chester, stands Dr. William Darlington, an roving through the sparsely settled country, in small eminent physician and naturalist, and a scientific and detachments, spreading havoc and death to a fearful practical farmer. This gentleman ranks among the first extent. There remained no longer any safety for the botanists of our country, and is recognised as such inhabitants, as the fires of the savages were nightly by the distinguished Savans of Europe. His work, en- I lighted from the dwellings of their murdered victims.

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