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London in the year 1759, and said to have been commentasachta, and by the Delaware Indians, the Kekachpared with the original then in being, any claim under taramin hills signed by 23 Indian chiefs of the Ononthe deed of 1686, would appear to have been abandon dago, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora nations, recorded ed. The letter is in these words, "Friend Thomas in Book C. vol. 1, page 277, May 7th, 1741. Watson, this morning I wrote to thee by Joe Taylor, What is remarkable at this period, is, that the Indian concerning warrants that may be offered thee to be laid chiefs, on their return, staid several days with Conrad out on the Minissink lands, and was then of opinion that Weiser, at Tulpehocken, and there executed the fol. "the bearer hereof, Joseph Wheeler, proposed to lay bis lowing deed dated October 25th, 1736, which is proved there. Having since seen him, he tells me he has no and recorded in Book C. vul. 2, page 350, May 22d, such thought, but would have it laid three or four 1741. miles above Durham, on a spot of pretty good land We, the chiefs of the Six Nations of Indians, the On there amongst the hills, and I think at some distance ondagoes, Isanundowans, or Sennekas, Cayoogoes, from the river, proposing, as he says, to live thei e him Oneydas, l'uscaroroes, (in behalf also of the Canyingoes, self with his kinsman, who was here with him; pray or Mohacks,) who have l.tely, at Philadelphia, by our take the first opportunity to mention it to I. Langhorne, deed in writing, dated the 11th day of this instant, Oc. for if he has no considerable objection to it, (that is, if tober, released to John Penn, 1 homas Penn, and Richhe has laid no right on it,) I cannot see that we should ard Penn, proprietors of Pennsylvania, and to their make any other than that it is no' purchased of the In- heirs and successors, all our right, claim, and pretendians, which is so material an one, that without their sions to all the lands on both sides of the river Susqueprevious engagement to part with it very reasonably, it hanna, from the mouth thereof as far northwar., or up cannot be surveyed there. But of this, they themselves, the said river as that ridge of bills called the TyoninhaI mean Joseph' Wheeler, &c. propose to take care. saclita, or endless mountains, westward to the setting This is what offers on this heart, from thy loving friend, of the sun, and eastward to the farthest springs of the James Logan." The fo:ks of Delaware were, not. waters running into the said river, do hereby further withstanding, settled; and to this, among other causes, declare, that our trile intent and meaning by the said wiis attributed by the writers of the day, the alienation writing, was and is to release, and we do hereby more of the Delawares and the Shawanese, from the British expressly release to the said proprietors, &c. all the interests.

lands lying within the bounds and limits of the govern. After several ineffectual attempts to compose the ment of Pennsylvania, beginning eastward on the river clamors of the Delawares, it is said the proprietor com. Delaware, as far nort! ward as the said ridge, or chain plained of them to the Five Nations. In 1736, the de- of endless mountains, as they cross the country of Penn puties of the Five Nations arrived, and treaty was sylvania, from the eastward to the west; and they forheld with them, at which Conrad Weiser was an import ther engage, never to sell any of their lands to any but ant agent. The deed of 1736 is as follows:

the proprietors, or children of William Penn. October Uth, 1736 Whereas the late proprietary There is an indorsement of ratification on this deed, of the province of Pennsylvania, William Penn, Esq. dated 9th of July, 1754, signed by nine Indians. soon after his first arrival in the said province, took But notwithstanding this latter deed, it was earnestly measures to have the river Susquehanna, with all the contended by those who were unfriendly to the proprie. Jands lying on both sides of the same, purchased for tary proceedings, and probably from an apprehension him and his heirs, of those Indians of the Five Nations or foresight of the disasters which ensued, that the inhabiting in the province of New York, who claimed right of the Five Nations lay only on the waters which the property thereof, and accordingly did purchase run into the Susquehanna; and as they claimed no lands them of Col. Thomas Dungan, formerly governor of on the Delaware, they could by that instrument convey New York, and pay for the same; notwithstanding none. However this fact may have been, we find about which, the Indians of the Five Nations aforesaid, have eighteen months afterwards, the proprietors procured continued to claim a right in and to the said river and a release from the Delawares, for at least part of these lands, nor have those claims been hitherto adjusted; lands, or a confirmation of the supposed deed of 1686, whereupon the said sachems or chiefs, having, with all or the walking purchase. This singular release is in the others of the said nations, met the last summer at the following words: their great council, held in the country of the said on.

August 25th, 1737. We, Teshakomen, alias Tishe. ondagoes, did resolve and conclude that a final period kunk, and Noolamis, alias Nutimus, two of the sache. and conclusion should be put to all disputes that might mas, or chiefs of the Delaware Indians, having almost possibly arise on that occasion, and having appointed three years ago, at Durham, begun a treaty with our the aforesaid sachems or chiefs, as plenipotentiaries of honorable brethren, John and Thomas Penn, and from all those nations to repair to Philadelphia, in order to thence another meeting was appointed to be at Penns confirm the several treaties of peace which have hither. bury the next spring following, to which we repaired, to been concluded between them, and the said province, with Lappawinzoe, and several others of the Delaware and also to settle and adjust all demands and claims that Indians, at which treaty several deeds were produced, have been heretofore made, or hereafter may be made, and shewed to us by our said brethren, concerning se. touching or concerning the aforesaid river Susquehan- veral tracts of land, which our forefathers had more than na, and the lands lying on both sides thereof; and the fifty years ago, bargained and sold unto our good friend said sachems or chiefs of the Five Nations aforesaid, and brother William Penn, the father of the said John having for themselves, and on behalf of the said Na- and Thomas Penn, and in particular, one deed from tions, renewed and ratified the treaties of friendship Maykeerick kisho, Sayhoppy and Taughhauglisey, the and peace subsisting between them and the said pro- chiefs or kings of the northern Indians on Delaware, vince, did afterwards proceed to treat and agree with who for, &c. did grant, &c. all those lands lying and the lionorable the proprietors thereof, about the said being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon river and lands. Now know ye, &c. grant, &c. to a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree by John Penn, Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn, their the river Delaware, (Makeerikkitton,) and from thence heirs, successors and assigns, all the said river Susque. running along the ledge or foot of the mountains, westhanna, with the lands lying on both sides thereof, to ex. northwest to a corner white oik. marked with the letter tend eastward as far as the heads of the branches or P. standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian springs which run into the said Susquehanna, and all town called Playwickey, and from thence •xtending the lands lying on the west side of the said river, to the westward to Neshameny creek, from which said line, setting of the sun, and to extend from the mouth of the the said tract or tracts thereby granted, doth extend said river, northward, up the same to the hills or moun. itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one tains called in the language of the said nations Taya- 1 day and an balf, and bounded on the westerly side with




the creek called Neshamony, or the most westerly consideration about fifty-five years ago, (alluding to the westerly branch thereof, and from thence by a line deed of 1686, confirmed by ihe d.ed of 1737.) – That

to the utmost extent of the said one they continued their form r disturbances, and had the day and an half's journey, and from the ice

insolence to write letters to some of the magistrates of to the aforesaid river Delaware, and from this government, wherein they had abused the worthy thence down the several coures of the said river to the proprietaries, and treated them with the utmost rude. first mentioned spruce tree, &c. But some of our old ness and ill manners; that buing loth, out of regard to men being absent, we requested more time to consult the Six Nations, to punish the the Delawares as they with our people, which request being granted, we have, deserved, he had sent two messages to inform them after more than two years, from the treaty at Pennsbu. the Six Nation deputies were expected here, and ry, now con.e to Philadelphia, together with our chief should be acquainted with their behaviour. That as sachem, Monockykichan, and several of our old men. the Six Nations, on all occasions, apply to this governThey then acknowledge that they were satisfied that ment to remove all white peuple that are settled on the above described tract was granted by the persons lands before they are purchased froin them, and as the above mentioned, and agree to rel ase to the proprie. government use their endeavours to turn such people tors all right to that tract, and desire it may be walked, off, so now he expects from them that they wili cause travelled, or gone over by persons appointed for that these Indians to remove from the lands in the forks of purpose. (Signed,). Manockykichon, Lappawinzve, Delaware, and not give any further disturbance to the Teshacomin, Nootamis.-And witnessed by twelve oth persons who are now in possession. er Indians, in token of full and free consent, besides The deeds and letters were then read, and the draught other witnesses. Recorded May 8th, 1741, in buok G exhibited. vol. 1, page 282.

Cunnissulego, in the name of the deputies, told the 1 he walk was accordingly made; but it tended only governur, "That they saw the Delawares had been an to increase the dissatisfaction of the Indians. ---In giving unruly people, and were altogether in the wrong; that this summary of the causes and effects of the Indian they had concluded to remove them, and oblige them treaties, it is not designed, nor is it calculated, to en to go over the river Delaware, and quit all claim to croach on the province of history, which embraces a any lands on this side for the future, since they had rebroader ground, but merely to connect them together, ceiveıl pay for them, and t is gone through their guts and shew how intimately they depend on each other. long ago.”—Then addressing himself to the Deluwures. Nor will it escape the observation of the reader, how in a violent and singular strain of invective, he said, materially the frequent recurrence to, and confirmation/" They deserved to be taken by the hair of the head, of, Col. Dongan's deed, hears upon the deed of the 11th and shaked severely, till they recovered their senses, July, 1754, from the Indians to Connecticut claimants, and became sober; and he had seen with his eyes a deed whether that deed were real or fictitious.

signed by nine of their ancestors about fifty years ago,

for this very land, (1686.) and a release signed not This walk extended, it is said, about thirty miles be- many years since, (1737,) ty some of themselves, and yond the Lehigh hills, over the Kittatinny mountain; chiefs, yet living, (Sussoonan and Nutimus were pre. and a draught of it was made by Surveyor General East sent,) to the number of fifteen and upwards;

“ but how burn, including the best of the lands in the forks of De

come you, continued he to the Delawares, to take upon laware, and the Minissinks. The walkers were espert, you to sell lands at all? We conquered you; we made and the Indians who could not keep up with them, women of you; you know you are women, and can no complained that they ran; and morcover it would ap. more scll land than women; nor is it fit yo', should have pear that their expectation was that the walk was to the power of selling lands, since you would abuse it. be made up the river, by its courses. It is not intended I his land that you claim is gone through your guts; to enter further into the controversy than to exhibit the you have been furnished with clothes, meat, and drink, general grounds which are sai i to have estranged the by the goods paid you for it, and now you want it again Delawares from our interest, and drove them into that of like children as you are. But what makes you sell the French, who were always ready, in those times, to lands in the dark? Did you ever tell us that you had increase their diss-tisfaction with the English. Nutimus sold this land? Did we ever receive any pait, even the and others, who signed the release of 1737, were not value of a pipe shank, from you for it?' You bive told willing to quit the lands, nor give quiet possession to us a blind story, that you sent a messenger to us, to in. the people who came to take up the lands and settle in form is of the sale, but he never came among us, nor the forks. They remonstrated freely, and declared we ever heard any thing about it. This is acting in the their resolution of maintaining possession by force of dark, and very different from the conduct our Six Naarms. In the year 1741, therefore, a message was sent tions observe in the sales of lanıl. On such «ccasions to the Six Nations, who, it was well known, bad great they give public notice, and invite all the Indians of their authority over the Delawares, to press them to come united nations and, give them all a share of the present down and force the Delawares to quit the forks. They they receive for their lan:ls. This is the behavior of accordingly came in the summer of 1742, to the number the wise united nations. But we find you are none of of two hundred and thirty, Governor Thomas, in his our blood; you act a dishonest part not only in this, but message to the assembly of the 241h July, in that year, in other maiters; your ears are ever open to slanderous among other things, tells them, “ That their coming reports alıout your brethren. For all these reasons ue down was not only necessary for the present peace of the charge yrite to remove instantly; we don't give you liberty province, in regard to some Indians who had threaten to think about it. You are women. Take the advice ed to maintain by force their possession of lands which of a wise man, ard remove instantly. You may return had been long ago purchased of them,and since convey to the other side of Delaware where you came froing ed by the proprietaries to some of our own inhabitants: but we do not know whether, consilering how you but for its future security, likr wisc, in case of a rupture bave demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to with the French, who will leave no methods unessayed live there, or whether you have not swallowed that land to corrupt their fidelity, and to persuade them to turn down your throats, as well as the land on this side. We their arnis against us. Votes of assembly, vol. 5, page therefore assign you two places to go to, either to "Vy481-2.

omen or Shamokin. You may go to either of these * At this treaty, at Phila lelphia, the gorernor informed places, and then we shall have you more under our the d. puties of the conduct of their cousins, a branch of ere, and shall see how you behave. Don't deliberalt, the Delawares, who gave the province some disturbance biut reinore ow'ry, and take this belt of wampum." He about the lan is the proprietors purchased of them, then forbid them ever to interniddle in land aff.irs, or and for which their ancestors had received a valuable lever hereafter pretend to sell rny land, and commanded

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them, as lie had something to transact with the English, with all their effects, to prevent the sad consequences immediately to depart the council.

which will otherwise ensue. The Delawares dared not disobey this peremptory The governor acknowledges, in answer, That the command. They immediately lelt the council, and people's settling on Juniata was contrary to the engagesoon after removed from the forks; some,it is said, went inents of this government to the Indians; that he had to Wyoming and Shanukin, and some to the Ohi's

. receired no orders in favour of them; that they had no Thus strangely was terminated the purchase of 1686– countenance from the government, that no endeavours admitting the deed to have once existed. But even at should be wanting on his part to bring the offenders to this treaty with the Six Nations,it was not admitted that justice, and to prevent all future causes of complain.. the proprietary right extended beyond the Kitt.chtinny Nothing else was done at this meeting, and the Senecas hills; and the deputies complained that they were not departed; but on their return they met the other depuwell used with respect to the land still unsold by them ”ties; and afier considerable deliberation, and notwith“ Your people, (they said,) daily settle on these lands, standing the opposition of Conrad Weiser, they all came and spoil our Hunting. We must insist on your remov. to Philadelphia, accompanied by some Mohickans, Tuteing them, as you know they have no right to settle to the las, Delawares, and Nanticokes, in number two hundred northward of the Kitlochtinny hills. In particular we re. and eighty, about the 14th of August, 1749. Canassa. new our coinplaints against some people who are set. tego was again the speaker. They renewed the com. tled on Juniata, a branch of Susquehanna, and all along plaints about the settlements on the unpurchased lands; the banks of that river as far as Muhaniay, and desire that by treaties all white people were to bave been they may forthwith be made to go off the land, for hindered from settling the lands not purchased of them; they do great damage to our cousins the Delawares." and if they did, the government engaged to remove

With respect to the people settled at Juniata, the them when discovered; but since it might be attended Governor replied, “ that some magistrates were sent with a great deal of trouble, and having observed the expressly to remove thiem, and he ihought no persons perple's settlements, they were willing to give up the would presume to stay after that.” Here they inter- lands on the east side of Susquehanna, from the blue rupted the Governor, and said, “ 'These persons who hills to where Thomas Magee, the Indian trader lived, were sent do not do their duty; so far from removing and leave it to the government to assign the worth of the people, they made surveys for themselves, and they them. But as to the hunting grounds of their cousins are in league with the trespas-ers; we desire more effec- the Nanticokes, and other Indians, living on the waters tual methods may be used, and honester men employed,"

of Juniata, they must use more vigorous measures, and which th - Governor promised should be done. But we forcibly remove them. shall have occasion again to recur to this point. It is

On consultation, and their agreemen: to extend the necessary only to add, at this time, the strong expres purchase, so as to carry its breadth to the Delaware, sions of ihe speaker to the Governor"We have given the following deed yas executed on the 22d day of the river Juniata for a hunting place to our cousins, the August, 1749. Delaware Indians, and our brethren the Shawnese, and We Canasatago, Sataganachly, Kanalshyiacayon, and we ourselves hunt there sometimes. We therefore de Canechwadecron, sachems or chiefs of the Indian na. sire you will immediately by force remwe all those that tion called the Onontagers. Cayanockea, Kanatsany. live on the river Juniata, And whit less could be de- Agash Tass, Caruchianachaqui, sachems or chiefs of the manded after the expulsion of the Deluwares from the Indian nation called the Sinickers. Peter Ontachsax,and Forks?

Christian Diaryhogon, sachems or chiefs of the Indian Soon after this it appeared that the Shawnese were

nation called the Mohocks, Saristagnoah, Watshatuhon endeavouring to draw the Delawares from Shamokin to lion called the oneyders. Tatis Tawis, Kachnoaraase.

and Anuchnaxqua, sachems or chiefs of the Indian na. tween the Delawares and the Six Nations, and that the ha, and Takachquontas, sachems or chiefs of the Indian former only wanted a favourable opportunity to Throw nation called the Cayiukers. Tyierox, Balichwanonach. off the yoke, which they afterwards did, and io revenge shy, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the the insults that had been offered to them at Philadel | Cachnavra-katak-ke, sachems or chiefs of the Indian

lachnechdorus, Sagoguchiathon, and phia, in 1742. See votes of assembly, vol. 3, p.555.

nation called the Shomoken Indians. Nutimus and We shall now proceed to the causes and circumstan. Qualpaghach, sachems or cliefs of the Indian nation ces which produced the treaty and purchases of 1749. called the Delawares; and Bachsinosa, sachem or chief

A meeting of the deputies from each of the Six Na of the Indian nation called the Shawanes, in considerations, had been appointed, by the grand council at tion of £500, grant, sell. &c. all that tract or parcel of Onondago, to go to Philadelphia, on business of impor- land lying and being within the following limits and tance. The Senecas first arrived there, “One of the bounds, and thus described. Beginning at the hills or most considerable points," (said the speaker to the go mountains called in the language of the Five Nation vernor,) “which induced the council to send de puties Indians Tyanuntasachta, or endless hills, and by the at this time, was, that they had hear the white people Delaware Indians Kekactany hills, on the east side of had begun to settle on their side the blue mountains. the river Susquehanna, being in the north west line or And we the deputies of the Senecas, staying so long at boundary of the tract of land formerly purchased hy Wyomen, had an opportunity of inquiring into the truth the said proprietaries from the said Indian nations, by of this information, and to our surprise found the story their deed of the 11th of October, 1736; and from confirmerl, with this addition, that even this spring, thence running up the said river by the several courses since the governor's arrival, numbers of families were thereof, to the first or nearest mountain to the north side beginning to make settlements. As our boundaries are or mouth of the creek called in the language of the said so well known, and so remarkably distinguished by a Five Nation Indians, Cantaguy, and in the language of range of high mountains, we could not suppose this the Delaware Indians Maglionioy, and from thence excould be done by mistake, but either it must be done tending by a direct or straight line to be run from the wickedly by bad people, without the knowledge of the said mountain on the north side of the said creek to the governor, or that the new governor has brought some main branch of Delaware river, at the north side of the instructions from the king, or the proprietaries relating mouth of the creek called Lechawachsein, and from to this affair, wh« reby, we are like to be much hurt. thence to return across Lechawachsein creek aforesaid, The governor will be pleased to tell us, whether he has down to the river Delaware by the several courses brought any orders from the king or the proprietaries thereof to the Kekacl tany hills aforesaid, and from for these people to settle on our lands; and if rot, we thence by the range of said hills to the place of begin. carnestly des re they may be made to remove instantly ning, as more fully appears by a map annexed; and also

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all the parts of the rivers Susquehanna and Delaware Tuscaróra nation, in consideration of £400 lawful mo. from shore to shore which are opposite to said lands, ney of N.York,grant,&c. to Thomas and Richard Penn, and all the islands in said rivers, &c.

"all the lands lying within the said province of Pennsyl. This deed is recorded, diay 6th, 1752, in book H, vania, boun led and limited as follows, namely, beginning vol. 2, p. 204.

at the Kitrochtinny or blue hills, on the west branch of This purchase is distinctly marked by natural boun- Susquehanna river,and thence by the said, a mile above daries, so as not to be mistaken. And at this treaty the the mouth of a certain creek called Kay arondinhagh; engagement was renewed, that the white people should thence northwest and by west as far as the said probe removed from the Juniata. Proclamations were vince of Pennsylvania extends to its western lines ur accordingly issued, but disregarded by the settlers on boundaries; thence along the said western line to the the unpurchased lands. In May 1750, Richard Peters, south line or boundary of said province; thence by the then secretary of the Land Office, with some magis- said south line or boundary to the south side of the said trates, was sent to remove them. Of this circumstance Kittochtinny hills; thence by the south side of said hills, further notice will be hereafter taken, in the course of to the place of beginning: recorded in Book H, vol. 5, the note. See votes ot assembly, vol. 4th, p. 137. But page 392, February 3d, 1755. these proceedings appear to have had little effect The history of this eventful period is still within the Numbers were spirited up to stay, and others went and memory of many yet living: Many of the Indian tribes settled by them, so that in a few years the settlements seeing their lands gone, joined the French, and in the in the Indian country were more numerous and farther following year fatally evinced their resentment at Brad. than ever. See governor Hamilton's message, ibid.- dock's field. The settlers were driven into the interior, and also p. 509, 517, 528,

their improvements were laid waste, and desolation It is necessary merely to mention the treaty of Car- marked the path of the warriors. lisle in 1753. Canassatego, and several of the sachems Governor Morris, in his address to the assembly, Noattached to the British interests, were dead; and the vember 3d, 1755, expressly tells them, " that it seemed sachems at the head of the council of the Six Nations clear from the different accounts be bad received, that was known to be in the French interest, and the affec- the French had gained to their interest the Delaware tions of that people appeared to be much shakın. and Shawanese Indians, under the ensnaring pretence

Those who adhered to us were threatened by the arms of restoring them to their country; votes of assembly, of the French, and Indian affairs wore a most gloomy vol. 4, page 492. The assembly themselves, in a reply aspect. See votes of assembly, vol. 4, p. 152. At to governor Denny, in June 1757, say, “it is rendered this critical time the Indian friends were unwilling to do beyond contradiction plain, that the cause of the preany thing which would give room to suspect their fidel. sent Indian incursions in this province, and the dreadful ity. They remonstrated it is true; but they remonstrat- calamities, many of the inhabitants have suffered, have ed without threats. They desired that our people arisen, in great measure, from the exorbitant and unwould forbear settling on the Indian lands over the Al. reasonable purchase made, or supposed to be made of legheny hills; for so far they now encroached, although the Indians, and the manner of making them.--So exnone of the land on the west side of the Susquehai na orbitant, that the natives complain that they have not a beyond the north, or Kittatiny mountain had been pur country left to subsist in;" ib. 718, 722, 728, 737, 738. chased. They advised the government to call back The fact was indeed notorious in both hemispheres, altheir people; that none should scttle on the Juniata though some palliation was attempted in the report made lands, till matters were settled between them and the of the conferences at Carlisle in 1753. After the treaty French, " lest damage should be done, and we should of 1758, it was however fully admitted by John Penn think ill of them." The council books, and votes of himself, who was then governor, upon communicating assembly shew the great anxiety of the government to a letter from general Gage, on the subject of the constrengthen the fidelity of the Six Nations, and of the tinued discontent of some of the western Indians; “I Delaware and Ohio Indians; communications by means would willingly, he said to the assembly, take every of agents were frequent, and the presents considerable; measure in my power, not to remove the just causes of until the unfortunate purchase of 1754, contributed to their complaints of past injuries, but to protect their kindle a flame which could be extinguished only by a persons and properties for the future." And general deluge of blood. See votes of assembly, vol. 4, pages Gage's letter thus communicated, has this remarkable 336, 392-4-9.

paragraph. "The encroachments made upon the Indian The treaty of Albany, in 1754, with the Six Nations, lands, for which they could obtain no justice, with the was held by orders of the king. The lords of trade and daily threats of more invasions of their property, lost us plantations had recommended this, that all the provin the affections of the savages before, and was the princices, if practicable, might be comprised in one general pal reason for them throwing themselves into the arms treaty, io be made in his majesty's name, as the prac of the French for protection. From hence arose the tice of each province making a separate treaty for it. hostilities they committed upon us in 1754 and 1755, self in its own name, was considered to be improper,and and the war that followed. The same causes will have attended with great inconveniences to his majesty's ser- the same effects." Votes of assembly, vol. 6, pages vice; votes of assembly, vol. 4, pages 279, 280, 286. See 7–8. the whole proceedings in the minutes of council, Book It further appears from Conrad Weiser's Journal of M, page 339, to 386.

his conference with the Indians at Aughwich, that the The Indian deed executed at Albany, is dated July dissatisfaction with the purchase of 1754, was general. 6th, 1754, and is as follows:

They said they did not understand the points of the Henry Peters, Abraham Peters, Blandt, Johannes compass, and if the line was so run as to include the Satfyhowano, Johannes Kanadlakayon, Abraham Sas. west branch of Susquehanna, they would never agree laghredohy, sachems or chiefs of the Mohawk nation. to it. Whatever pretences there were for it, (for it Aneegnaxqua Taraghorus, Tohaghaaghquyserry, alias was suggested that the Connecticut commissioners were Kachneghdackons sachems of chiefs of the Oneydo na. endeavouring to treat for some lands claimed by them, tion. Otsinughyada, alias Bunt, in behalf of himself

, and had been making surveys above Shamokin, and that and all the sachems and chiefs of the Onondago nation. this deed was intended to prevent the interference,) it Scanuraty, Pannaghdorus, Tokaaiyon, Kaghradodon, is evident it left but a small part of the province to the sachems or chiefs of the Cayuga nation. Kah chdodon, natives, and that mountainous, and in a part too, most alias Groote Younge, Takeghsatu; Tiyonenkokaraw, open to the Connecticut claimants. The lands where sachems of chiefs of the Seneca nation. Suntrughwac- the Shawanese arid Ohio Indians lived, and the hunting kon, Sagochsidodagon, Tobashuwangarus Orontakayon, grounds of the Delawares, the Nanticokes, and the Tualias John Nixon, l'istoaghton, sachems or chiefs of the teloes, were all included.

It will be evident also, that the course of the deed pear. And whereas at a treaty held at Easton, on the from Kayarondinghagh, or Penns-creek, was greatly 230 October, instant, the certain and exact bounds of mistaken, and that the line northwest and by west, would such parts of the lands included in the before men. not strike the western boundary of the province; but tioned deed or purchase, which are and shall remain to would most probably have crossed the west branch of the said proprietors, have been amicably and freely Susquehanna, a few miles below the mouth of Sinnem- stipulated and settled between the aforesaid sachems ahoning, and have intersected the northern boundary a and chiefs, and Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser, little to the west of Conewango creek.

Esqrs. &c. and are hereby declared to be as follows, The serious consequences likely to ensue to the Bri- that is to say, beginning at the Kittachinny or blue hills tish interests, occasioned an application to the proprie on the west bank of Susquehanna river, and running tors in England, from the government, through the thence up the said river, binding therewith to a mile lords commissioners of trade, and the proprietors agreed above the mouth of a creek called Kaarondinbab, (or to limit the bounds of the purchase; and a cominission John Penn's creek,) thence northwest and by west to a was sent over, authorizing and directing a treaty to be creek called Buffaloe's creek, thence west of the east held for that purpose, which commission is in the office side of Alleghany or Apalachian hills, thence along the of the secretary of the Land Office,

east side of said hills, binding therewith, to the south Previous to this treaty, great exertions were made to line or boundary of the said province, thence by the bring about an accommodation with the Delaware and said south line or boundary to the south side of the Shawanese Indians, which was at length accomplished. Kittatinny hill, thence by the south side of the said hill to These transactions will be found in the council books, the place of beginning, in consideration of the said sur. and in the votes of assembly, vol. 4, p. 563, 583, 671, renler, and five shillings, &c. And there is a covenant 672, 681.

not to convey the residue to any persons else than the We come therefore to the deed of October 23d, proprietors. 1758, executed at Easton, which is as follows.

Recorded in book 1, vol. 4, p.488, September 5th, 1768. We Nichai Karaghiaghdatie, one of the chiefs and sa There is a rude map annexed to this deed, intended chems of the Mohock nation; Assarodunqua, one of the to represent the waters on the line from Buffaloe creek sachems and chiefs of the Onondago nation; Sagebsa to Alleghany mountain, which line is represented as don, or Tagesbata, one of the sachems or chiefs

of the passing very near the junction of Spring creek with Seneca nation; Thomas King, alias Sagubsonyont, sa- the Bald Eagle. It is probable the true line, relying on chem and chief of the Oneyda nation, Tokaboyon, sa the correctness of Howell's map, would pass Belfont at chem and chief of the Cayuga nation; Wisbaquontagush, the mouth of Logan's branch of Spring creek. So cau. sachem and chief of the Tuscarora nation; on behalf of tious, however, were the proprietors, at this period, of ourselves and all the nations aforesaid,send greeting: - offending the Indians, by making surveys beyond the Whereas by a deed poll, bearing date at Albany, the line, that the most positive instructions were given to 6th day of July, 1754, the sachems and chiefs of the said the deputy surveyors on this head; and as the line was Six Nations, for, &c. (£400,) did grant and confirm to not run, nor its exact position known, the end of Nit. Thomas and Richard Penn, all the lands lying within tany appears to have been assumed as a station, and a the said province, &c. beginning at the Kittochinny or west line from thence presumed to be the purchase line. blue hills on the west bank of Susquehanna river, and The error was on the safest side.although it is now known thence by the said river to a mile above the mouth of a the end of Nittany is several miles within the deed of certain creek called Kaarondinbab, (since John Penn's confirmation and surrender. In many instances, appli. creek,) thence northwest and by west as far as the said cations, where it was probable they called for lands near province of Pennsylvania extended, to its western line the line, were retained in the office, and endorsed or boundary, thence along the said western line to the “quære, if in the purchase.” As controversies hare south line or boundary of the said province, then by the existed and may still exist, respecting this boundary, said south line or boundary to the south side of the said more cannot with propriety be said upon this point Kittochtinny bill, thence by the south side of the said

The last purchase of the proprietaries from the Indi. hill along the said hill to the place of beginning, &c. ans, was made at Fort Stanwix, November 5th, 1768, And whereas by an endorsement in writing on the back and was as follows: of the said deed, it was stipulated and agreed on We, Tyanlasare, alias Abraham, sachem or chief of part of the said land proprietaries, by their agent, that the Indian nation called the Mohocks, Senughsis of whenever the lands in the said deed, over the A palachian the Oneylas; Chenughiata –of the Onondagos; Gaus. or Allegheny hill, should be settled, the Indians who tarax-of the Senecas, Sequarisera--of the Tuscaroras; signed the deed were to receive a farther sum, not ex. Tagaaia-ot the Cayugas, in general council of the Six ceeding the consideration money in the said deed men: Nations at Fort Stanwix, assembled for the purpose of tioned, &c. And whereas since the execution of said settling a general boundary line between the said Six deed, it having been represented to the said proprie nations, and their confederates and dependent tribes, tors, that notwithstanding the said purchase was fairly and his majesty's middle colonies, send greeting, &e. made, yet there were some among the Indians who in consideration of ten thousand dollars, ihey grant to were disgusted with the said purchase, and were desirous Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all that part of the that all that part of the said purchase for which they province of Pennsylvania, not heretofore purchased of were to receive a further consideration by the terms of the Indians, within the said general boundary line, and the indorsement of the said deed should be reserved beginning in the said boundary line, on the east side of for them, they the said proprietors, Thomas Penn and the east branch of the river Susquehanna, at a place Richard Penn, did authorize, appoint and empower called Owegy, and running with the said boundary line, Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser, Esqrs. their agents down the said branch on ihe east side thereof 'ull it and attornies, to release and surrender to the said Six Na. comes opposite the mouth of a creek called by the Intions all the lands comprised within the herein before dians Awandac, (Tawandee,) and across the river and recited deed, lying to the northward and westward of up the said creek on the south side thereof, and along the Allegheny bill, provided they the said Six Nations the range of hills called Burnett's bills by the Englisti, or their deputies at the same time, did fully and effec. and by the Indians

on the north side of them, tually agree, stipulate and settle the exact and certain to the heads of a creek which runs into the west branch bounds of the residue of the said lands, included in the of the Susquehanna, which creek is by the Indians callbefore mentioned piircbase, which were sti I to remain ed Tiadaghton, and down the sid creek on the south to the said proprietors, after such surrrender made, as side thereof, to the said west branch of Susqnebanna, by a letter of attorney duly executed by the said propri- then crossing the said river, and rinning up the same etors,dated 7th of November last past, may more fully ap- on the south side thereof, the several courses th-reof to

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