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against him in his official capacity is in reality a suit teams, until they have driven to the end of their day's against the State, which can never be brought in any route. They eat but two regular meals a day, for each State Courts against her consent-prescribing the terms, of which they pay 22 cents;—their horses are fed with &c. On this subject I have given an opinion to Gen. oats altogether, which they purchase of the tavern Wm. B. Mitchell, Superintendent of the Columbia and keeper, at a few cents advance on the original cost. Philadelphia Rail Road. (See present Vol. page 176.) The first cost of their meals is more than the tavern It is confined particularly to that branch of your inqui- keeper receives, so that the only profit the tarerner gets ries relative to suits entertained by Justices, for materi- from his customers is that which arises from the sale of als taken for Canal and Rail Road purposes, a copy of whiskey, and the manure made in his yard. These which I herewith send you.

teams do not see the inside of a barn or shed perhaps Yours, very respectfully, during their lives. At night the harness is taken off

ELLIS LEWIS. and laid upon a pole running across the axel trees, and Simpson TORBERT, Sup't. &c.

sticking out behind the wagon-the horses are then

tied to clifferent parts of the wagon, and fed from pro5th Section of the Act of the 6th of April, 1830, vender troughs which are carried for that purpose on referred to in the letter of Mr. Lewis, page 176. the journey, and let the weather be what it may, the

"And be it further enacted,&c. That in cases where poor beasts must stand in the open air at the mercy of injury or damage has been or may be done to private ihe elements. We have often asked the wagoner why property, by reason of the Pennsylvania Canal or Rail he did not put his horses into the stable during the Road passing through the same, or by the taking of any storm; and have as often received for reply, “that they materials for said Canal or Rail Road, it shall be the du- do better by standing out;' and as a proof of the truth ty of the Canal Commissioners to ascertain as nearly as uf their assertion, we do not remember of ever having may be in their power, the amount of damage actually seen what is ilsually denominated a poor horse among sustained, and to make an offer of such sum, to the per the many thousands which have come under our obserson or persons aggrieved, as they shall think reasonable, vations. a record of which offer shall be made, and if the same Many persons have made independent fortunes in should not be accepted, and the damage thereafter as. this business of teaming. We have known some young sessed in the manner provided for by this act, should men to begin as drivers at eight and ten dollars a month not amount to a larger sum than the one offered a and after a few years labor, be the owner of a dozen aforesaid; the person or persons in whose favour such teams--when they get thus wealt!ıy, they ride upon damage be assessed, shall pay all the costs attending horseback, and accompany their teams all in a string, such assessment, and a certified copy of the record of from the Ohio to the Delaware, and purchase flour and such offer as aforesaid, shall be evidence of the amount whiskey, and sell them on their own account to the mer. thereof."

chants and tavern keepers on the route.

The transportation of goods by wagons from the east

to the west is about drawing to a close. The canals PITTSBURG WAGONERS.

between Philadelphia and Pittsburg are already comWHEELING, Sept. 28.

pleted, and the Portage Rail Road across the Allegheny On Wednesday last sixty wagons with merchandise Mountains, to connect the canals on each side, will be

completed early next season, when, on this route, wag. for the west arrined in this place.

ons will cease to run. The Baltimore and Ohio Rail The Baltimore Gazette of Monday says that one

Road is already completed to Frederick, a distance of hundred and one wagons were despatched Westward about 75 miles-the whole will be completed in a few that morning from the Depot of the Baltimore and Olio years—when these improvements shall be in operation, Rail Road.

what is now lermed, a "Pittsburg Wagoner,” will no Few of our eastern people who have not travelled to

more be known. the west, bave any conception of the vast amount of

We did not intend to write so long an article-but transportation east and west from the cities of Philadel; its perusal may not be altogether useless or uninterest. phia and Baltimore to the cities of Pittsburgh and ing to a portion of our readers, who, like ourself until Wheeling on the Ohio, a distance of 300 miles by land. 1817, may be ignorant of the extent of business, habits, The wagons which are constantly employed in this and customs of a Pittsburg Teamster.'- Long Island trade, have the capacity of a one story building 20 feet

Advocate. long by six to eight feet wide. These house-wagons are covered with canvass, and are drawn, many of them by five stout horses, but the greater part of them by

JEFFERSON COLLEGE. six or eight. Their loads vary from sixty to eighty cwt. and they travel from 18 to 22 miles a day, making a

Extract from the Minutes of the Alumni Associution trip from Philadelphia to Pittsburg and back again in

of Jefferson College. about 30 or 35 days. Several thousand wagons are

CANONSBURG, Sept. 25, 1833. employed in this business. They go in squads of half According to previous intimation, a number of the a dozen to thirty in a string, and keep company the Alumni of Jefferson College assembled for the purpose whole distance. They have their regular "wagon tav- of organizing an association. The necessary officers erns," as they are called, to stay at over night, and we having been selected, the committee appointed on a have seen over fifty of these teams meet at one place former occasion, consisting of the Rev. Aaron Williams, for rest.

Rev. A. B. Brown, and Stephen Caldwell, Esq., The drivers carry a mattress and a blanket, and after reported a constitution, which was adopted, as fol. they have fed themselves and their horses, and drank lows, their usual potation of whiskey they spread the mat Article 1. The name of this association shall be "The tress upon the floor of the bar-room and lie down to Alumni Association of Jefferson College.” rest—this is the only bed on which many of them Art. 2. The object of this association shall be to prosleep from one year's end to another-they do not un. mote the interests of the College, and the friendly interdress, except merely to take off their coats and do not course of its graduates. perhaps change any part of their clothing from one end Art. 3. The Alumni of the old Canonsburg Academy, of their journey to the other.

now in the learned professions, all the Alumni of the In the morning they feed and card their horses, and college, and those who are, or have been, instructers in as soon as they breakfast and harness, they start on their the Institution, shall be considered members, together journey and do not stop to feed themselves or their with such Alumni of other colleges, an pnorary

vida.

1833.]

MISCELLANEOUS.

287

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graduates of this college, as may be elected on applica- Meeting held at the District Court Room, on Saturday, tion.

the 26th ult, to confer with the Board of Trade, in reArt. 4. The officers of the association shall be a Pre- lation to the Canal Convention to be held at Warren, sident, seven Vice Presidents, a Treasurer and a Secre- in Ohio, on the 2d Wednesday of November, viz. tary; who shall perform the duties usually devolving on such officers, and shall continue in office one year,

Josiah Randall,

Corn, S. Sinith,
Alex. McClurg,

J. R. Burden, or until a new election.

J. M. Atwood,

Jacob Frick, Art. 5. There shall be an annual meeting of the as

John A. Brown. sociation, on the day before the annual commencement, at which time a public address shall be delivered before

And the Board of Trade on the 29th ult. appointed the Society, and all necessary business transacted.

a Committee of Conference, consisting of Art. 6. This constitution may be amended at an an Robert Patterson,

George Handy, nual meeting, by a vote of two thirds of the members Robert Toland,

Wm. McMain, present.

Matthew Newkirk, John Haseltine,
After an Address, by Thomas Livingston, Esq., of Thos. P. Hoopes.
Pittsburg, the association proceeded to the election of
officers. James Ross, Esq., of Pittsburgh, was chosen

At a joint meeting of the committees appointed by the
President-Hon Wm. Hendricks, of Indiana, Charles Town Meeting and the Board of Trade, held at Wa de's
Hammond, Esq., of Cincinnati; Rev. W. Smith, and hotel on Thursday the 31st of October.
Rev. J. Ramsay, D. D., of Canonsburg, Dr. Andrew

Robert TOLAND, Esq. was called to the chair; and Livingston, of York, Pa., Rev. J. R. Wilson, D. D. of Jacob Frick, appointed secretary. Albany, and Rev. Moses Allen, of Washington co.,

On motion of Josiah Randall, Esq. it was unanimous

ly of Canonsburg, was chosen Treasurer, and Stephen

Resolved, that the joint committee do now proceed Caldwell, Esq., of Pittsburgh, Secretary. The thanks to the election of seven delegates to represent the city of the meeting were tendered to Mr. Livingston, for and county of Philadelphia in the proposed Convention his address, and arrangements were made for its publica to be held at Warren, in the state of Ohio, on the 13th tion.

November next. T. Livingston, Esq., Rev. A. Williams, and Alfred

Messrs. Hazeltine and Newkirk were appointed tel. Patterson, Esq., were appointed a committee to select lers, who in a short time reported, that the following a speaker for the next annual meeting.

gentlemen were elected, viz. On motion, it was Resolved, that the Secretary of the Josiah White,

Jacob S. Waln, association prepare, and cause to be published, such

George N. Baker, Jesse R. Burden, of the proceedings of this meeting as he deems pro Abraham Miller, George Handy. per.

Thomas P. Hoopes,
The society then adjourned, to meet at the time spe. On motion it was-
cified in the constitution.
E. P. OLIPHANT, Chairman.

Resolved, that the Delegates now elected, be auAlex. T. MÄGILL, Secretary.

thorised to exercise a sound discretion upon the choice

of routes to connect the Ohio and Pennsylvania Canals, PUBLIC MEETING-TRADE WITH THE WEST. and upon all other matters that may be presented to

A large and respectable meeting of the citizens of the convention for their consideration. the City and County of Philadelphia, was held at the

Resolved, that the Delegates be authorised to fill County Court Room, on Saturday evening last, for the any vacancies that may occur in their body, purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be appointing delegates to the Canal Convention to be published in the daily papers. held at Warren, Ohio, on the 13th November next.

ROBERT TOLAND, Chairman. Herre Troti, Esq. the President of the Common

Jacob Frick, Secretary. Council of the City, was called to the Chair, and

Robert Bethell, Esq. was appointed Secretary, LIME SPREADER.–We last week had an opportunity of

The meeting was addressed in energetic and appro- witnessing the performance of a machine for spreading priate terms by General Robert Patterson, who offered lime, invented by Mark Wilson of this County, and by the following resolutiuns:

him patented. Although the machine was much worn, Resolved, That a committee of five persons be ap- being one of the first constructed, it spread near 100 pointed to confer with the Board of Trade in relation to bushels in an afternoon. It is quite simple and could the Canal Convention to be held at Warren, in the State be made, with the exception of the cog-wheels by any of Ohio, on the second Wednesday in November next one accustomed to the use of a saw and hatch et. It and to adopt such measures as may be proper to carry spreads the lime in any proportion desired, from 10 to into effect the objects of the proposed Convention. 70 bushels to the acre, and with more uniformity than

The resolution was seconded by Colonel Chew in a can be done with a shovel. The machines are made speech of considerable length, and unanimously adopt for one or two horses, and it is ascertained that two ed.

men can spread with a two horse machine, four hundred The Chairman appointed the following commit. bushels per day. It can be used in windy as well as tee:

calm weather, no inconvenience arising from the dust Josiah Randall, Alexander M'Clurg, John M, Atwood, therefrom. Mr. Brock of this place has obtained the John H. Brown, and Cornelius S. Smith.

right of vending patents for the use and construction of On motion of Judge Sutherland, the name of Dr. the machine in this County, with the exception of the Jesse R. Burden was added to the committee; and on upper townships. We conceive it to be an improve. motion of Josiah Randall, the name of Dr. Jacob Frick ment of much consequence to farmers, who make use was also added.

of lime as a manure, entirely doing away a most disaOn motion of General Patterson, it was resolved, that greeable, yet necessary branch of their business. The the proceedings be published in the newspapers, and machine, for two horses,costs about 30 or 35 dollars, and on motion of the same gentleman, the meeting adjourn. as no one farmer would have constant use for them, by ed.

IIENRY TROTH, Chairman, three or four joining together, the expense would be so ROBEBT BETUELL, Secretary.

trifling that we should presume every neighborhood

would be able to have among them one of these labor The following gentlemen were appointed at a Town saving machines.-Bucks Intelligencer.

Mauch CHUNK, Oct. 26. Line of Stages between Pottsville and Harrisburg. ENTERPRIZE. -We notice with pleasure the recent We understand that this line of Stages has been pur. manifestations of laudable enterprize, and public spirit chased by our fellow citizen, N. J. Mills, who intends among the citizens of this place, in the promotion of im. sparing no pains in rendering travelling on this route provements which are calculated to contribute material- equal to any in the state. The stages are entirely new, ly to the credit and respectability of the place, as well the horses good, and drivers careful and attentive. As as to become objects of great utility to its inhabitants. this is the nearest and cheapest route between Pottsville Within a few days a subscription has been opened for and Harrisburg, the proprietor, no doubt, will receive the erection of another Meeting House intended for the support of a liberal public.—Ib. the use of the Presbyterians and others, as occasion may require, and we understand that it has hitherto met

A Reading paper mentions that a flock of wild geese with a degree of encouragement from the liberality of passed over that place last week. During the present our citizens, which has exceeded the fondest anticipa- week many flocks have passed over our borough. Pi. tions of its friends. A communication upon the subject geons also made their appearance in the early part of by the Committee appointed to receive subscriptions, the week. During one or two days there was an inwill be seen in another column. We would also congratulate our friends of the Meth. borough, since which the pigeons have disappeared.

cessant popping of fire arms in the environs of our odist Society in this place, (who are really the pioneers 16. in tbe cause of erecting a house of worship) upon the progress of their Meeting House, which has recently been raised, covered and painted

on the outside, and inches in circumference, fifteen inches in length,weigh.

Large Beet.-A Red Beet measuring twenty-five which exhibits an appearance on Broadway (although

ing fifteen pounds, has been left at this office by our plain and unassuming) which does credit to their enterprise and perseverance.

townsman Jacob Seitzinger, Esquire, in whose garden Hitherto the inhabitants of this place have been de

it grew,

We challenge the state to produce one of rendent upon the liberality of the Lehigh Coal and equal size. ---Columbia Spy. Navigation Company for a place of worship in the Town llouse, which was erected for that among other purpo.

West CHESTER, Oct. 29. es.-Mauch Chunk Courier.

EARLY WINTER.—There have been already, consid.

erable falls of snow, in th northern part of New York, Mauco CHUNK.-It may not be amiss to remark, that and the Eastern States. Large flocks of wild geese since the commencement of the improvements on the have passed along the course of the Brandywine in this Lehigh, and the building of Mauch Chunk, even up to county, on their way to the Chesapeake. — American the present time, the increase of population has been so Republican. rapid in proportion to the increase of buildings, which have till recently been erected by the Company only as the necessities of the place demanı), so great has been

THE REGISTER. the scarcity of room, for all purposes, that hitherto the Town House has been appropriated to the use of dis

PHILADELPHIA, NOV. 2, 1833. pensing light and instruction in various ways-the base. ment story being used as a Printing Office, (the art of printing being the ground work,) and the second story for schools , and the third for meetings of every descripcils to devise a more efficient system of police will be

The report of the Commissionei s'appointed by Countion, for public teaching in spiritual things.- 1b.

found in, and occupies a considerable space of our preH. H. Burr, assignee of Theo. Burr

sent number. Few subjects are more interesting and

important to our citizens than this. It is an able report, The Danville Bridge Company.

The plan appears to us, as far as we are competent to U.S. Court-Western District. This suit, brought

judge, to be excellent; and if adopted,(as we trust it will to recover damages for an infringement of a patent right obtaiued by Theodore Burr for an improvement in be)we have nodoubt will be found an efficient substitute, bridge building, was decided last week. The jury for the present system, which has long been considered brought in a verdict of $900 damages, which the Judge

very

defective. trebled, making $2,700, with costs. PottsviLLE, Oc!ober 26.

The Trustees of Allegheny College, now under the Snow. -On Sunday last we had a slight sprinkling of

charge of the Methodist Conference, have published snow in this borough. On the Broad Mountain, we understand, it snowed throughout the greater part of a long report on the Manual Labor System, which is the day, and clothed the country round about in the also inserted this week. It appears they are in want of livery of winter:- Miners' Journal.

funds to carry their plans into effect. A large and beautiful Organ, lately purchased in Philadelphia for the Episcopal Church of this borough, has arrived in safety and been erected, and in all pro

On the morning of the 29th ult. there was visible on bability will be heard by those who attend divine service the roofs of the houses, a severe white frost, and during in said church to-morrow,-16.

the day a spitting of snow, being the first this season. We understand that the inclined plane, No. 2, (being

And on the 30th, the houses were whitened by snowthe second inclined plane,) of the Danville and Potts. and the flakes, large and abundant, fell for some time, ville Rail Road, will be put in operation for the purpose but they ceased by 8 or 9 o'clock, A. M. and the of experiment, this afternoon; and we announce the weather became clear and pleasant. In several papers fact that those who would like to witness it may em from the interior, we observe notices of considerable brace the opportunity. We also understand that the Omnibus will leave Mount Carbon at half past 2 o'clock. falls of snow, and fights of wild gecse towards the -16,

south, indicative of the approach of winter.

VS.

HAZARD'S

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA. .

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPEOTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD.

VOI. XII.-NO. 19. PHILADELPHIA, NOVEMBER 9, 1833. NO. 306.

HOPKINSON'S ADDRESS BEFORE THE LAW / which he will limit the extent of his knowledge. It ACADEMY

confines the movements of his mind in narrower chan. An Address delivered before The Law Academy of nels; engages him in exertions less diversified, and di. Philadelphia at the opening of the session of 1826-7, rects him to fewer objects of excitement and ambition. by Joseph Hopkinson, LL. D. Vice Provost of the Not so in the United States: the lawyer here is one day Academy.

in a Court of Common Law, and another in Chancery. Gentlemen of the Law Academy of Philadelphia,

He examines and discusses, with equal learning and fa

cility, questions in every branch of the science; civil, In addressing you, at this opening of your session, it maritime, ecclesiastical. He sometimes addresses a is not my design to carry you through any learned or judge without a jury, and sometimes a jury without a difficult disquisition. It will be my more humble un- judge. There is no department of human knowledge, dertaking to present to your consideration some practi- even to the most ordinary occupations of men, that may cal lessons, which may be found useful, not only in your not in turn be useful to him;-there is no variety of the preparation for the bar, but in your subsequent pro. human character that he may not, on some occasion, use gress in your profession.

to his advantage. Every thing connected with the nature When a young man enters upon an occupation which and business of men, may demand his acquaintance and is to be the business of his life, it is all important that attention. The study of the constitution and political he should entertain just notions of the profession he relations of his country, at home and abroad; of the has adopted. A mistake of this point may mis direct great principles of international law which govern the him in his whole course. If he elevates' his aim too intercourse of independent states, is indispensable to high or too low, he will miss his object, and all his ef- every American lawyer who hopes to tread the loftier forts will but exhaust his strength and embitter his paths of his profession. The actual state of our coundisappointment. To do his duty, it is necessary to try, as well as its experience; the possession and dispo. know what is required of him; to attain distinction and sal of all political power by the people themselves, and excellence, he must learn in what they consist. the manner in which they have chosen to entrust it,

The student of law, in this country, who commences fully confirm my view of the subject. It is so far from his labors with sordid and narrow views; who has no being true, in a land of laws, that no lawyer can be a other object than the profits of the profession; and will statesman, that we have scarcely had a statesman who be satisfied if it procures for himself the means of ex- was not a lawyer. Where there is no government but istence, may be respectable and useful, but he will ne- by the law, or rather, where the law is the government, ver reach the high eminences of his calling, nor add the ministers of the law will have influence and respect, any thing to its dignity and importance.

will be called to aid in administering the government, It is a reproach, often visited on the profession, that and receive the confidence of their fellow citizens in all its studies are technical; that it confines and cramps their most honorable service. Where the will of a the powers of the mind, and extinguishes the ardour despot is the only rule of right, or rather the only rule of genius in the dull routine of prescribed opinions and by which right is decided-where a controversy is setoperations; that it is inimical to liberal and extended tied by the caprice or ve nality of a bashaw,who instantviews, and habituates us to consider and decide every ly executes his own sentence, and cruelly punishes even question by some arbitrary precedent or artificial rule, a murmur of disobedience, it would be ridiculous to rather than by general principles and great results. look for a profession whose privilege and duty it is to From a hasty adoption of such opinions, it is passed investigate and expound the law to the understanding of almost into a maxim, that a lawyer cannot be a states the judge. Who can fathom the depths, or influence man. This sentiment is peculiarly acceptable to those the motions of absolute power; who can unfold the prinwho have endeavoured, in vain, to become lawyers, and ciples of its decrees? What is our experience of the find it more easy to impose upon themselves, and some political importance of our profession? Of six Presi. times upon others, the belief that they are great states. dents, five have been lawyers; and the other a being men, with intellects too gigantic for a business which who stands exalted and alone, “unimitated and inimita. puts some restraint upon the imagination, and assumes ble,” who furnishes no example for other men, because some guidance of the judgment. The failure of some dis- none can hope to follow him. Our secr. taries of state tinguished advocates in England, when they have tried have all been lawyers: and, generally, the heads of the their strength on the floor of the House of Commons, other departments, and foreign ministers. In both and mingled in the war of politics with the mightiest houses of Congress, the men who take the lead in di. of the land, has afforded some ground for this stigma recting the destinies of the nation, and in managing all on the profession. It is obvious that the argument its concerns, are distinguished lawyers. Nor can these drawn from such instances is very unsatisfactory, and facts be evaded by the calumnious pretence that an the premises by no means broad to sustain the American statesman could claim no such rank in Eu. whole conclusion. Without discussing the question or rope; and is deficient in the talents and knowledge rethe fact, as it may exist in that country, we are altogeth- quired of those who are so esteemed in foreign states. er confident in denying it in this

. The profession of Without going back to the period of our revolution, in the lawyer in England is much more technical than which the capacity and wisdom of our statesmen, united with us. Its divisions into various branches and jurisdic- with a full and minute acquaintance with the whole sci. tions may produce a higher degree of perfection in ence of government, and all the abstract questions that each, but it certainly diminishes the basis on which the arose in the controversy, enforced by close reasoning and student is to erect the fabric of his reputation, and by impressive eloquence, triumphed over the utmost efforts Vol. Xn.

37

of those disciplined politicians: let us look at the histo- debt or ejectment, in their usual course, through a ry of our country in her foreign and domestic relations court of law; but he must fix his eye on higher destifor the last thirty years. Our unexampled increase in nies, and more important services. He must believe wealth, power, and population, bears conclusive testi- that to his integrity and knowledge and talents, the mony to the competency and wisdom of our interior best interests of his country may hereafter be committed; government. But we rise still higher in contemplating and he must prepare biniself to fulfil these dignified duour foreign connexions and difficulties. The French lies with honour and success. He must lay his foundation revolution, with its effects and consequences, threw the commensurate with the noble superstructure that is to civilized world into a state of unprecedented convulsion; be raised upon it. What a stimulus to rouse every action! the intercourse held between its several parts was in what a rich reward is offered to perseverance and taterrupted and changed; new situations and relations lent! The prize is not to be gained by indolence or were produced; new assertions of right, and complaints vanity. The student who, feeling the quickness of his of wrong, were constantly arising; every thing became intellect in its exercise upon lighter subjects, and trustunsettled and dangerous; the great effort of the con- ing that he is blest with the gifts of genius, neglects tending parties was to draw every nation into the con. the grave and complicated studies of the law, and test, and tu trample upon all who resolved to avoid it. hopes to find a substitute for knowledge in the agility This state of the world necessarily produced occurren- or brilliancy of his parts, will end his career in the ces and collisions, in which a people, determined to be most mortifying failure and disappointment. While he neutral, and also to assert and defend their rights, as is figuring and Aaming round the bar of a Court of established and protected by the laws of nature and Quarter Sessions, and drawing all his business and imnations, had a daily call for a perfect knowledge of portance from the crimes and vices of aociety ; -while those rights, even to the most abstruse learning, as well his legal reading will be confined to a few treatises on as for great discretion and firmness in inaintaining them. criminal law; his eloquence to the trite topics of crimiThis was done by American statesmen to the eventual nal defence, and his professional intercourse to the tesafety and honor of their own country,and the acknow. nants of county jails, he will see some more slow and ledged admiration of every other. These statesınen laborious competitor, who started with him in the race, were American lawyers.

whose capacity he probably held in contempt, passing The voluminous correspondence between our depart- regularly and surely on to the high honours and emment of state and the British and French ministers, ployments, which await the lawyer who has given his through these years of violence and trouble, is sufficient days and nights to the acquirement of the deep and vato repel the charge of inferiority in our statesmen. It rious knowledge, which brings strength, and fulness, contains a rich body of learned and lucid argument and ornament, to the character and exercise of his proupon very interesting topics of national law, and is wor- fession; and which can be obtained only by long and thy of a careful and repeated perusal. At a subsequent careful reading, and profound reflection. It is not period, when our war with Great Britain was terminat. enough to read;—the manner of reading should be ated by the peace of Ghent, the Marquis of Wellesley, tended to. It will not do to run over, or even peruse speaking in the House of Lords, of the negotiation, attentively, any given number of pages in a day; it is declared that he was at a loss to account for the aston- not to heap upon the memory line upon line, and case ishing superiority of the American over the British after case, that will make a lawyer. In the study of the Commissioners, in their correspondence and discus law, as in every other science, there is danger in readsions.

ing too much and thinking too little. The power of How imposing is the majesty of the law! how calm the understanding; the faculty of precise and accurate her dignity; how vast her power; how firm and tranquil discrimination, a most essential quality in a lawyer, may her reign! It is not by armies and feets, by devastation be overwhelmed or weakened by referring every thing and blood, by oppression and terror, she maintains to the memory, by constantly collecting and using the her sway and executes her decrees;---sustained by Jus- thoughts and opinions others, and never consulting our tice, Reason, and the great interests of man, she but own. The student should frequently lay down his speaks and is obeyed. Even those who may not ap: book, and, by reviewing what he has read, incorporate prove, hesitate not to support her; and the individual the subjects with his own mind, and make it his owo; on whom her judgment falls, knows that submission is he must examine, analyze, and test, by his own reason not only a duty he must

perform, but that the enjoy- and understanding, the opinions and principles of his ment and security of all that is dear to him depend up- authors: without this, his memory will become an over. on it. A mind accustomed to acknowledge no power loaded magazine of pages and cases, which he will be but physical force, no obedience but personal fear, must unable to apply to any use. The memory, however, view with astonishment a feeble individual, sitting with is not to be neglected. It is capable of much improve. no parade of strength; surrounded by no visible agents ment by a proper cultivation and judicious exercise. of power; issuing his decrees with oracular authority, Some men complain of a want of memory, when the while the great and the rich, the first and the meanest, real failing is the want of attention; reading with a wanawait alike to perform h's will. Still more wonderful it dering, unsettled mind, instead of fixing it closely and is to behold the co-ordinate officers of the same govern exclusively on the subject. We seldom entirely forget ment, yielding their pretensions to his higher influence. what has been forcibly impressed; we easily remember The executive, the usual depositary and instrument of what has greatly interested us. power; the legislature, the very representative of the It is not my intention to point out any course of stupeople, give a respectful acquiescence to the judgments dy; this would require much more time than this occaof the tribunals of the law, pronounced by the minister sion would afford, and is not within the limits of my and expounder of the law. It is enough for him to design. But I cannot forbear to recommend, what, I say, It is the opinion of the Court,and the remotest fear, is not sufficiently estimated as a preparatory study corner of our republic feels and obeys the mandate. of a lawyer; I mean elegant literature; that which is of What a sublime spectacle!—this is indeed the empire of the first order, and formed by the soundest principles of the law: and safe and happy are those who dwell within taste. Without speaking at present of the ancient moit-may it be perpetual.

dels of History, Poetry, and Eloquence, I would call I have alluded thus briefly to these matters, only for your attention to the distinguished classics and scholars the purpose of giving a proper elevation to the views of our own language. In addition to Shakespeare, of the American student of law. He must not consider Milton, and Dryden, an English library will furnish himself as the mere drudge of a mercenary occupation; plentiful, and rich materials to strengthen and adorn he must not believe that he does enough for himself or the mind. The days of Elizabeth and Anne abound his profession, if he is qualified to conduct an action of with writers of the first eminence for force and skill of

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