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1833

1831. )

MAD RIVER AND LAKE ERIE RAIL ROAD.

271

Somerset-Bernard Connelly, Peter Will.

The time required to travel from the principal points Westmoreland - James Findlay, James Moorhead, in the western and southwestern states, by the route of Jacob D, Matbiot.

the proposed road, (in connexion with a rail road from Washington-Robert Love, Wm. Patterson, William Buffalo and Albany,) to New York, (and we intend to McCreery.

make ample allowance,) will be as follows: Allegheny-Win. Robinson, jr. Robert Hilands, Wil. From New Orleans to New York, 13 days; from Nat. liam Kerr, James Scott.

chez to New York, 11 days; from St. Louis, via the Huntingdon-James Clarke, T'. T. Cromwell. Great National (McAdamized) Road which intersects Indiana and Jefferson-William Banks,

the proposed rail road at Springfield, 7 days; from Van. Armstrong Patterson.

dalia, the capital of Illinois, by do. 6 days; and from InBeaver-Abner Lacock, John Clarke.

dianapolis, the capital of Indiana, also by the National Butler-Samuel Kerr.

Road, 5 days; from Nashville, the capital of Tennessee, Fayette-Joseph Eneix, James H. McClelland, 7 days; from Louisville, Kentucky, via Cincinnati, 5 Greene-William S. Harvey.

days; from Cincinnati, 4 days; and from Sandusky, 3 Venango and Warren- James Thompson.

days—and here we will remark, that the proposed rail Mercer-William S. Rankin.

road will present the most direct route thai can possibly Crawford-John B. Wallace.

be obtained, from Buffalo to each of the above named places. Erie-John H, Walker.

We are unable to form a correct estimate of the

amount of merchandise and agricultural productions From the N. Y. American.

that will pass and re.pass over this road, but we appeal MAD RIVER AND LAKE ERIE RAIL ROAD.

with confidence to all who have travelled over the sec

tion of country through which this route passes, (and we The facts and reasonings of the annexed expose by have been pleased to meet with many of your citizens the Commissioners who are here to superintend the that have,) if in this or any other country, they have opening of books for subscription to the stock of the seen a better soil, with more industrious occupants, or Mad River and Lake Erie Rail Road, cannot, we think, a larger surplus of agricultural productions than is to be but have the effect of recommending the enterprize to tound along this very line of inland communication. We the capitalists of the city,

have travelled much in both the western and eastern "In presenting this road to the citizens of New York parts of the United States, and without favor to this for patronage and support, it will be expected that the section of country, or prejudice against any other, we Commissioners offer to those who are asked to invest confess that we have yet to see the country capable of their funds in its stock, some evidence of its probable vielding the same amount of agricultural productions. productiveness; together with its utility and importance We are not, however, left entirely to conjecture on to the public, as a thoroughfare of travel and commerce. this point, but have at our command an official document,

The connexion of the southern bay of Lake Erie, at from which we will make a few extracts. Sandusky, with the northern bend of the Ohio river at This road connects with the northern termination of Cincinnati, by rail road and canal, has long been looked the Miami canal, at Dayton. This canal is a mere into with interest and solicitude by the people of the dentation from Cincinnati into the country up the Mia. west; and has struck with great force all intelligent mi valley of only sixty-five miles; connecting no im. travellers that have passed from one to the other of these portant point, but merely operating as a drain to take points, as a work in every way worthy of the patronage off a portion of the surplus production along its route; and support of the citizens of New York and Ohio, and near its termination. whose interest so indissolubly unites. The fertility of In the Report of the Canal Commissioners to the Lethe country through which this connexion must be gislature of Ohio, which will be found at pages 342-3, made, its uniform soil and even surface, with its admira- and 4, in the journals of their session, the following facts ble adaptation to the construction of a rail road, point are stated: to it as one that, in a few years, must be as productive “The saving by transportation on the Ohio Canal, as any work of the same character in this or any other (which is 310 miles in length) over the ordinary mode country

of transportation by wagons, is $231,004 and 94'cents Compare this with any other route in the United and the saving by means of the Miami Canal, which is States, and then ask yourself, where it is that you inter- 65 miles in length, is $81,152 and 82 cents. But the cept as large a portion of the travel from the west to parallel in favor of this route does not stop here. The the eastern cities, as you do by this contemplated rail property that arrived at Cleveland during the last road.

year by the Ohio Canal was the following: wheat and Is it not by this route that you tap the great artery of four amounting to 112,158 barrels; pork, 13,081 bar: the western travel and western commerce, at its most rels; whiskey, 2,150 barrels. During the same period eligible point, and by that means at once throw your of time, the property that arriver at Cincinnati by the merchandize into the centre of our population, and agri. Miami Canal was as follows: flour 97,578 barrels; pork, cultural wealth at the city of Cincinnati; which is now, 19,758, whiskey, 40,425 barrels. Thus presenting the and must ever continue to be the most important point fact, from official documents, that in the exports of in the valley of the Mississippi.

four, pork, and whiskey, the great staples of Ohio, Cincinnati at this time concentrates nearly all the tra- there passed through the Miami Canal, which is only vel from the nine western and southwestern states, to- 65 miles in length, and yet connecting no important wards the Atlantic cities, and hence the great import-commercial point with Cincinnati, 29,662 barrels more ance of uniting New York by easy and expeditious con- have passed through the Ohio Canal during the same veyance with that place. Construct this road to Lake time. Erie, and your tica and other roads, on to Buffalo, and In the same report we have the following of the tolls you have accomplished your object by opening an easy and water rents paid on each of those canals during the line of conveyance, that can never be supplanted, either last year. On the Ohio Canal, there were paid $82,by a route from Baltimore or Philadelphia, across the 867 42; and on the Miami Canal, 40,928 81-still Allegheny mountains, nor by any other, connecting lake keeping the same relative proportion in favor of the Erie with the great valley of the Mississippi. And the latter, and the productiveness of the country, through traveller from the far west, instead of having to pass which it and the anticipated rail road is intended to form through Baltimore and Philadelphia to reach New York, a line of communication. as is now the case, will then find it much more easy,

and convenient, and cheaper, to pass through New York, in

ISAAC MILLS, order to reach Baltimore and Philadelphia.

Note. - It is proper for us to ate here, that there

JOSEPH, VANCE, } commissioners.

868 00 1,094 63

646 00

166 36 13,441 21 19,853 79 1,673 25 1,008 08 8,298 55 38,782 76

$269,508 49

were but 270 miles of the Ohio Canal, to wit: from | Regulating ascents, &c.
Cleveland to Chilicothe, open during the whole of the Expenses of offices,
last season; the balance of the distance, from Chillico.
the to the Ohio river, was not opened until towards the Services in the markets,
latter part of the season.

Incidental expenses of Councils,

Repairing over water pipes, EXPERIMENT ON THE Rail Roan. - We understand City property, that an experiment was made a few days since on an Purchase of paving stone, inclined plane of the Danville and Pottsville Rail Road on the Broad mountain, to ascertain its practical opera- Repairing footways, tion: the length of the plane being 800 feet, and per. Expenses authorized by Councils, pendicular height 200 feet. The ascending car which Sanitary fund, was raised by means of a descending one, passed up in the short space of ninety seconds, and without any thing to interrupt the smoothness of its ascent. It is under. stood that water power will be made use of on these inclined planes, which is attended with far less expense Composed of the following items, than that which is incident to steam machinery, — Mi

Advertizing, ner's Journal.

Blacksmiths' work, Accident.-On Thursday last about noon, while Bricklayers' work, two men were employed in the mines of Mr. McIntyre, Bricks, near the West Branch rail road, an immense body of

Care of clocks, rock and slate suddenly gave way, and before the mi. ners had time to think of making their escape, the Care of Franklin square, gangway was completely blocked up, and they found Do Independence, do themselves buried alive. In this awful situation they Do Penn,

do remained until three o'clock on Friday morning, at

Do Washington, do which time, through the unremitted exertions of their friends, who worked without interruption throughout Carpenters' work, the night, they were taken out in a state of great debili. | Cleansing docks and Sewers, ty and exhaustion, but strong enough to warrant the

Do city,
hope of speedy recovery. Great praise is due to those
who exerted themselves with such persevering industry Collecting vaccine cases,
in behalf of these individuals, by which alone their mi. Curbstone setting, &c.
raculous preservation was effected. A horse which Flag stone,
was in the mines was killed, being crushed to atoms by Fuel,
the overwhelming mass.-Miner's Journal.

Gravel,
LARGE TOMATO.—A Tomato grew in the garden of Hardware,
Mr. John L. Wright of this borough, this season, which Hauling gravel and paving stone,
weighed two pounds – Columbia Spy.

Killing dogs,

Laborers and Carters,
THE REGISTER.

Lamp and tin work,

Lime,
PHILADELPHIA, OCT. 26, 1833.

Lumber,
The increasing interest which is at present felt in our

Messengers of offices,

Miscellaneous, city with regard to the attraction of the western trade

Oil, to Philadelphia, has induced us to devote a considerable

Painting and glazing, portion of our number to articles bearing upon that

Paving stone, subject. The article on the Mad river rail-road in con

Pay of Watch, nexion with the one which we lately published, exhibits

Petly bills paid, the plans and the zeal of our neighbours of New York

Printing and stationary, to endeavour to exclude us from any participation in

Pump makers work, the immense trade of the West. We understand, that

Regulating ascents, one great object for forming the “Board of trade” in

Services in the Markets, our city is to counteract those exertions--and that

Taxes they have already taken some steps towards it by the

Trees, appointment of a delegation to the Warren Coven.

Turning, tion.

Wharf builders' work, ,

470 00 1,812 28 2,420 22 8, 107 84 - 250 00 342 60 467 12

24 12 1,032 37 3,307 07

453 00 27,883 26

258 75 1,237 41 392 89

252 98 2,326 61

725 71 18,865 07

1,849 00 44,665 25 2,201 62

353 00 3,247 87

400 00 51,347 97 13,935 20

634 40 31,084 93 34,907 60 3,492 66 1.572 84 2,752 67

896 50 594 00 434 34

89 05 504 30 319 09

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HAZARD'S

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OP EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD.

VOL. XII.-NO. 18. PHILADELPHIA, NOVEMBER 2, 1833. NO. 305

MANUAL LABOR SYSTEM.

ed in the system of educatian adopted by Pythagoras. Report of a Committee of the Trustees of Allegheny And in Persia, Rome, the Grecian States, and indeed, in College, on the Manual Labor system.

every well regulated ancient government, their systems Adopted and ordered to be printed, October 7, 1833.

of education made daily bodily exercise, a requisition. The Committee to whom was referred the subject of monasteries were established, and literary men turned

This system prevailed generally if not universally until Manual Labor in Literary Institutions,

monks, divorced themselves from useful and practical REPORT,

life, and ended their days cloistors, where they be. That they have taken the subject into deep and se. came sluggards and dozed away a life that might, with rious consideration, and are of the opinion that Manual activity, been rendered useful to the world. Labor in Literary Institutions, possesses all the intrinsic

In accordance with this ancient usage, we learn from properties of the great desideratum to preserve the the bistorians of those days, that the most distinguished health and morals of students—to promote a vigorous Statesmen, Soldiers, Philosophers, Historians, and Po. application to study, and a general if not universal ets, connected Manual Labor with Study, and many of spread of useful science throughout our community.

them were dependant on the avails of their toil for sub. Your committee feel sensibly, the high responsibility sistence, while employed in the literary pursuits which resting upon the board in relation to this Institution; have immortalized their names, and placed thern on the they being the guardians of the munificence of the imperishable pages of history as the benefactors of their State, as well as numerous benevolent individuals whose species. funds have erected one of the most spacious and elegant

About two centuries ago, Milton wrote a pamphlet in buildings for collegiate purposes,* and furnished it with which he urged the necessity of Manual Labor to secure one of the best Librariest and Philosophical apparatus the health and morals of the student. And since then, found in any Literary Institution in the West, and infe. Jahn, Ackerman, Sulzman, and Frank, in Germany; rior to but few in the Union. And to answer the pur. Jissat, Rousseau, and Londe, in France, have all written poses of these benevolent designs, it is not only neces. largely on the subject. But it was reserved for the sary to establish a classical school within the walls of Rev. Mr. Wesley, whose extensively useful labors renthe college edifice, but to have that school conducted dered him one of the greatest bene factors of his age, to on such principles as will be most conducive to the first revive this ancient mode of instruction by connect. health and morals of the students.

ing useful labor with Literary studies; by founding and But no fact is more clearly established in the annals putting into successful operation, the “Kingwood Acaof modern literature, than that the present most com lemy" in England. And, also by establishing an itinemon mode of instruction, is deplorably defective in both rant ministry, the economy of which requires the ministhese important particulars. A con-tant application of ter to labor and study every day. the mind, without giving the body suitable exercise, en.

And considering the usual idle mode of recreation, or ervates the system, stupefies the faculties, impairs the spending leisure hours at Schools and Colleges, as a sin. health, and of course prevents vigorous application to ful waste of time, and of course tending to immorality; study, and eminence in the attainment of useful science. and that regular exercise in some useful employment is And such are the deleterious effects of this course upon necessary for health as well as morals; and above all

, the student, that, according to the estimate of several desiring to qualify the young men under his care for eminent Presidents and Professors in Colleges, one usefulness in life, he made it the duty of students to fourth of those who may be called close applicants, spend their hours of recreation or relaxation from study come to premature graves, while the great majority of in some useful employment. And it is highly probable, the remainder drag out a feeble existence, with sickly as Mr. Wesley made the Bible the standing rule of his frames and shattered constitutions.

conduct, that when he founded this school he had his In the mean time, according to the proverb, "an idle eye upon a similar one, founded by Elisha the prophet, man is the devil's work shop.” He being an active -for the sons of the prophets," - in which the students agent, he will be doing something; and if not usefully lub red; for they "borrowed axes, and chopped timber employed, will be doing mischief. Hence the idle man.

to build them houses," &c. ner in which studenis usually spend their leisure hours,

In the introduction of Methodism into America, the tends strongly to vice and immorality: so much so, that economy of its founder was adhered to in this particumany pious parents have feared to send their sons to lar. And Cokesbury College, near Baltiinore, founded College, lest their morals should be polluted, and them by Bishops Coke and Asbury about furty-five years ago, selves be rendereri a curse instead of a blessing to the had connected with it work shops, gardens, &c., in world.

which the students were required to spend their hours That these erils exist, and that the best, if not the of recreation, instead of idle plays which were strictly only remedy for them within human grasp is Manual forbidden. But this building was consumed by fire, (as Labor, to occupy the hours of relaxation from study, was supposed,) by the hand of an incendiary. Another appears from the testimony of nearly one Irundred gen. was built, but it sharing the same fate, the Methodists tlemen, Presidents and Professors in Colleges, and oth became discouraged and made no more attempts of the erwise distinguished for their literary attainments and kind for many years. thorough knowledge of men and things.

The next effort was in the Maine Wesleyan SeminaBodily exercise for some hours each day, was requir- ry,” the mo:lel of which was taken from the above

named schools. But these institutions being under the * 120 by 44 feet.

+8,000 vols.

patronage and general superintendance of the Methodist VOL. XII.

35

Episcopal Church, and having grown out of her econo- advantage became one of the great teachers of the my, appear to have attracted no attention out of that world in the science of astronomy. Shakespeare, was body, and to bave been viewed as a part of her religious a butcher when a boy. institutions, and suitable only for the members of her Samuel Lee, a curpenter, labored and studied toge. communion, or of their sons.

ther, in early life, yet became the most distinguished But shortly after the establishment of the Maine Wes- linguist of the age, and professor of Hebrew in the leyan Seminary, come enterprising spirits in the state of University of Cambridge, England. Adam Clark, a New York, succeeded in getting up the "Oneida Insti furmer's son, an apprentice to a draper, became one of tule,” to test the Manual Labor System; and -uch has the most celebrated linguists and divines in the world. been its success, that the system has become the most And Rittenhouse, the astronomer, was a brass fuunder. popular of any mode of instruction now extant, and not to these distinguished names might be added a host of only new schools and colleges are being erected on the others, well calculated to inspire the youthful mind with plan in different parts of the Union, but many of the old ar lent desires for like distinctions, and to remove those colleges are also adopting it, as an important improve- barriers which poverty may seem to interpose to prevent ment in the modus operandi for instructing the youth of their progress; and especially as very few of the above our land.

named individuals enjoyed the facilities offered the StyAnd such is the prevailing conviction of its utility, dent by the Manual Labor System. that the benevolent societies of the day, have added to But notwithstanding this system strikes the intelligent their mighty phalanx one in New York to promote Ma- eye with imposing aspect, as to the theory; yet, serious nual Labor in Literary Institutions. This Society em: difficulties have to be surmountes before it can be car. ployed Mr. Theodore D. Weld as its agent, during the ried into practical effect. Not but that young men, and year 1832, who travelled very extensively, and corres- those who are destined to be “the bone and sinew” of ponded with literary gentlemen much more so, and in our country; and will make our pulpits, our forums, his report bas collected a mass of information apparent and our legislative halls resound with their powerlul and ly sufficient to satisfy the most skeptical mind, that this persuasive eloquence, may be found who will labor and is the best, if not the only system of education in use, in study in these Institutions, but to aid them in their which the health and morals of the student can be safe. course, the Institution must be furnished with the ne

And that our young men can prosecute their studies cessary means to labor with. The student cannot bring with great success, and at the same time labor, not only a farm, a shop, tools, &c., with him, these things must enough to preserve their health, but also, to defray all be provided to his hands, and when once furnislied may the expenses of tuition, board), books, clothing, &c., is be used by succeeding students to the latest age of time, easily demonstrated by numerous cases in which men being favoured with the repairs and renewals which have risen to the bighest eminence by their own exer. their use and time may require. tions. Thus, Gifford, the cabin boy, became one of Our College, therefore, to be furnished with the ne. the most influential writers of his day. Metastasio, a cessary apparatus for the Manual Labor System, must friendless boy singing verses through the streets, became have a farm, furnished with a sufficient stock of one of the great ornaments of Italian literature. The cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, &c., and implements of hus. two Milner's, raised themselves from the weaver's bench bandry suited to an agricultural establishment. We to the highest eminence in the literary and religious must have houses, barns, and other out houses for the world. Epictetus, born a slave, became the pride of comfort and convenience of those who manage the farm. the stoics, and the familiar friend of the best Empe. We must have, also, work shops for our mechanics, and rors of Rome. Ferguson and Murray, raised themselves dwellings for those who manage them: together with from being shepherd boys to be distinguished instructers (wellings for our Professors, and boarding houses for of mankind. Brown, the author of the Concordance the students. But all these things cost money. Commentary, and Dictionary of the Bible, was a shep There will, in all probability, be one hundred stuherd boy. Pope Adrian, was the son of a barge builder, dents in the laboring departments in the course of two availed himself of the privilege of a charity school at Lou- years, if provision is made to receive them. Of these, vane, and being too poor to buy candles to study by fifty will probably be farmers, and fifty mechanics. Al. night, he would read in the church porches and at the lowing each student to work three hours per day, the corners of the streets, where lamps were kept burning daily labor of one hundred students will be equal to By unwearied diligence in this course, he became emi. thirty men at ten hours per day, one half of whom will nent for his acquirements, and rose to be preceptor to be farmers. And to employ fifteen men profitably, will Charles V., by whose influence he was promoted to the require a farm of at least 200 acres, which would cost, pápal Chair. Terence was a slave, yet raised himself in the neighborhood of the College, probably $20 fer to such eminence that the haughty Counsels of Rome per acre, or

$4,000 couried his society, and delighted to do him honor. And to furnish this farm with teams, wagons,

Franklin, a printer, raised himself, by studying while carts, chains, ploughs, harrows, axes, hoes, laboring at his business, to such an eminence in literature scythes, &c., for its proper management, and general science, that he became the greatest phi would cost at least

500 losopher and ambassador of his age The two Ste- And to furnish it with sheep, cows, hogs, poulphen's, Robert and Henry, father and son, rose from try, seed, &c.

300 being the most laborious printers, to be among the most The necessary buildings, houses, 'barns, out learned men of the age. Brindley, when a boy a carter houses, &c.

2,000 and ploughman, afterwards a mill-right, became a cele- Mechanic shops for fifty students, or twenty brated engineer in constructing canals, tunnels, aque hands, furnished with tools, materials for ducts and locks. Sir Humphrey Davy, the son of a working, &c.

2,000 wood carver, and an apprentice to an apothecary, became The necessary houses, ware-houses, &c.for suthe greatest chemist of the age. Columbus, a sailor, perintendent of the mechanical department, 2,000 became the greatest geographer, astronomer, and dis. Boarding houses 100 students, say

5,000 coverer, of his times Ben Johnson, the dramatic poet, Dwellings for four Professors, (supposing two was a muson and a soldier, when young. Roger Sher. Professors to reside in the two wings of the man, a shoemaker, became one of the most distinguished College,) with necessary out-houses,

4,000 orators, and patriot Statesman of the American Revolu- The necessary fixtures to the College to pretion. Herschel, a British soldier in Nova Scotia, first pare it for the reception of students,

200 commenced studying the motion of the planets when walking on the sentry's post at night, and being dis Making in all the round sum of

$20,000 charged that he might pursue his studies to greater These several sums may vary from this calculation,

1833.)

MANUAL LABOR SYSTEM.

275

but they are more likely to exceed than fall short of the dollars, and in some instances even to the value of seveestimate. And as it is very desirable to place a classical ral hundred dollars; but by not thus improving, they of education within the reach of every young man in our course sustain a loss of the same amount. country, who may have a taste and inclination to pur In addition to these items, we may enumerate the sue it; your committee do most earnestly wish that the losses sustained from having a poor quality of fruits, In-titution could be so endowed as to support the Pro. grain, vegetables, &c. Good fruit requires no more fessors without the aid of tuition fees, when the student, cultivation, and occupies no more ground, than poor; who, by his own industry and the help of his friends, and the same may be said of grains, grasses, and vege: could furnish means to pay for his board, clothing, and tables. But the difference in the unlue of a crop of good other incidental expenses, could have the pr vilege or bad quality is certainly very great The apples which of a gratuitous collegiate course. To do which, it would ( grew on less than one acre of ground, bring of a supe. require an endowment of at least $80,000. Which | rior quality, brought in the New York marke $500, would extend the present real wants of the Institution while the same amount of fruit, of ordinary quality to $100,000.

would not have brought $100. If a farmer raises 1000 But great and discouraging as this amount may ap- bushels of wheat of a quality which will demand in marpear at first sight, we are not to be discouraged. The ket six cents per bushel more than ordinary wheat, he history of our happy republic, and of the church, to- will gain sixty dollars in the value of his crop. If the gether with the rise and progress of the settlements of difference in price should be twelve cents per bushel, the West, teach us not to despise the day of small the value of the crop would vary one hundred and twenthings. If we cannot raise the means to accomplish the ty dollars. And the loss or gain in all these cases, whole at once, let us do what we can. We have not depends on the ignorance or knowleilge of the farmer, forgotten that we creeped before we could walk, and in reference to the best mode of cultivating the soil. we could walk before we arose to the size and stature and taking all these tings into consideration, after of men. Nor do we know, in the history of kindred making sufficient deduction to be safe, and without institutions, even in those whose present gigantic forms undervaluing in the least the intelligence of our worthy are the admiration of the world, that any one appeared farmers, under the present state of the agriculture of at first in their present magnitude. They all passed our country; it is presumed that on an average they through the different stages of infancy, youth, and lose, in the value of their crops, fruits, horses, cattle, manhood, before they arose to the honorable standing &c. at least $50 per annum, which would make the anof hoary age.

nual amount or loss sustained by this county, equal to It is believed that a sufficient sum may be raised to the whole wants of this Institution, to place it in the commence, if not complete, the preparations for the most favourable and fourishing circumstances. Manual Labor System, as soon as the public mind is But if our two thousand farmers would give on an av. sufficiently awake to the importance of the subject: and erage only ten dollars, the amount necessary to put the this will be the case as soon as the public see what is Vanual Labor System into complete operation, would palpably true in reference to it. The inhabitants of this at once be secur d. And then, if they in return, should county alone, if so disposerl, could raise the amount,

so improve in their agricultural knowledge as to save and in a very few years reap a benefit of more than 200 but len dollars per annum, instead of fifty, and that not per cent in the value of their estates, the improvement under five or ten years, it would be the most profitable in the mode of raising stock and cultivating the soil, stock ever invested But the Institution does not conand the consequent increase of the products of their fine its expectations of support to this county, nor will farms.

the benefits derived from its successful operation be There are, at this time, perhaps, 19,000 inhabitants in confined to these bounds. The neighboring counties, this countv, of whom probably two thousand are farm both in Pennsylvania and Ohio, are expected to share ers, Now it is well known that our farmers in general, largely in the benefits,and it is most confidently expectlabor under very serious disadvantages in their agriculo ed ihat they will share largely in the contributions netural pursuits, from the want of that information science cessary for its support. would give them. Every farmer knows the benefit of a good coat of manure on his land; and he knows also, College himself, to acquire a knowledge of these im

It is not necessary that every farmer should attend the that soinetimes the manure does not produce the same effect it does at others. If, therefore, he knew how to provements in agriculture. This knowledge will be

disseminated in different ways, make manure so as to suit every kind of soil, and suit the crop to the soil, and the manure to the crop, he would

1. The College farm will be conducted on the most save the labor and gain in crops perhaps fifty dollors a approved plan, and the farmers in the neighborhood, year.

will be able to observe and profit by it. 2. The loca. A distinguished citizen of Massachusetts, who is also tion of the College at the seat of justice for the county, a practical agriculturist, says, that " in that State will give the farmers of the county an opportunity, there are about 400 townships. In each of these town. when they attend Court, or visit the town on other ships there are at leas' one hundred farmers who experi. business to visit the farm, and notice the mode of its ence an average loss of fifty dollars each, per annum, in cultivation. 3. It is hoped that every township in the consequence of lacking that chemical knowledge neces. county will furnish more or less students, who wish to sary for the judicious mixture of manures, and adapting obtain a good English, if not cassical education, and them to the different kinds of sols, in order to obtain will return to their farms scientific agricul urists, and the greatest product, fro:n the culture of different from these, all in their immediate neighborhood may grasses, grains, and vegetables. I have not a doubt,” learn the improvements of the day. 4. These improve. he says, that the farmers in this State annually sustain ments may, and no doubt will, be published in the couna loss of $2,000,000, for the want of that knowledge of ty papers, which will give them general circulation. the practical uses and application of chemistry, geology, All which means of dissernination, will in a few years, &c. which they might obtain in a Manual Labor Insti- greatly improve the mode of cultivating the soil, im. tution, and which most of them could not afford to proving the stocks, &c.; and the farmer will of course procure elsewhere."

be the gainer annually to a considerable amount Again it is a well known fact that the breed of horses, The farmers of the suriounding country will derive a cattle, hogs, sheep, &c., in this county are not of the very considerable benefit from the system, in another most valuable kind; and as it would cost no more to particular. They will not only learn the best mode of raise animals of good quility, than those of poor the cultivation; but as the College farm will be furnish-d farmer by improving the character of his stocks might with the best breed of horses, catile, &c., and the best be the gainer annuilly, of from fifty to one hundred kinds of seed, and an extensive nursery of the best kind

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