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relative to making the Schuylkill Permanent Bridge a an intolerable nuisance, and praying that the same may free bridge, was referred to the early consideration of be speedily removed. Referred to the committee on the next Councils; the same motion was made by Mr. Logan and Penn squares. Lippincott, with respect to lighting the city with gas, A communication was received from Matthew Walk. and' by Mr. Groves in relation to the Rail Road alonger, inquiring whether the lot of ground belonging to Market street.

the city,situate on the south side of Vine street,between A message was received from Common Council stat: Schuylkill Front and Second, is for sale, and at what ing their concurrence in the ordinance relative to Wills' price and also inquiring the price of the lot upon Hospital, which, with amendments, finally passed both which the Dog House is located.' Referred to the comCouncils. (See page 221.] A message was also sent mittee on Logan and Penn squares. from Common Council, that the body concurred in the resolution allowing $500 to the Mayor for clerk bire.

Mr. Chandler offered the following resolution which

was adopted, and concurred in by Select Council. Mr. Massey presented the following report of the

Resolved, that the commissioners of the Girard Escommittee on the Delaware Avenue, which was laid on tate be, and they are hereby directed to take legal meathe table.

sures for ascertaining the rights of the city in the intesThe Committee on Delaware Avenue, beg leave to re. tate Estate of the late Stephen Girard. port: That they have spent much time in examining and deliberating, upon the important subject of laying and resolutions of the Select Council

, in relation to

Mr. Chandler called up for consideration, the report out a passage or street, along the Eastern front of the City, in accordance with the will and intention of the the fitting up of the old Engine House at Fair Mount, late Stephen Girard, and when they reported the ordi- which were agreed to.

Mr. Mai'land from the committee to whom was refer. nance, now before Councils for consideration, with a plan of the whole city front, made under the direction red the petition of M. Wolf, praying for a salary for his of the committee, by Samuel Hains, City Surveyor, lay: services as Messenger to Councils

, reported the follow. ing out the Delaware Avenue twenty-six feet wide, it ing resolution, which was agreed to, and concurred in by

Select Council. was considered the least possible width that it could be laid out to answer the purpose; as twenty one feet were that the Mayor be authorized to draw his warrant

Resolved, by the Select and Common Councils, intended for a cartway, and five feet for a footway, which they consider indispensable, the object of fixing One Hundred Dollars, and charge the same to appra

on the City Treasurer in favour of Michael Wolf, for the cartway twenty-one feet, was, that two vehicles might pass each other, when another was loading or un

priation No. 21. loading, which is very important, in such a great tho

Mr. Borie from the Committee of Accounts, to whom roughfare as the Delaware front is. As there has been lution in his favour, for the sum of thirty dollars. —

was referred Mr. J. B. Sewell's bill, reported a resoa memorial recently presented to Councils, signed by a number of owners and occupiers of wharf property, Adopted and concurred in by Select Council. objecting to, and remonstrating against the passage of the ordinance as aforesaid, with a letter also from Paul Flat Rock BridgE.—We are informed that on the 19th Beck, jr. who did not think proper to sign the memo- Sept. last. as two marble wagons with thirteen horses rial, (although by far the largest wharf holder in the attached, belonging to Mr. Thomas Morgan, were city,) for reasons which he has not stated, the com. crossing the Flat Rock Bridge, above Manayunk, on mittee have thought proper, under existing circumstan- their return from the city, the Bridge, which was shortces, not to act upon the present ordinance, so late in ly to be taken down for the purpose of the erection of the season.

a new one, upon its site, gave way, and carried the The committee were actuated by motives entirely for whole with it, some twenty or thirty feet into the Schuylpublic good, that was their paramount object, and the kill. Five horses were killed on the spot, and another plan they adopted was considered by them as laid out died the next day. Both the drivers were precipitated with as little inconvenience to individuals who own with the general mass, and were badly injured--of one wharf property, as the nature of the case would admit of which there is scarcely any hopes of surviving. The of; for the improvement must be viewed and consider loss of Mr. Morgan, by this sad accident, is estimated ed for the public good, as designed by the testator, who at from 1000 to 1200 dollars, which we understand will required by his will that it should be laid out not less be made up for him, either by the bridge company, or than twenty.one feet wide-they, therefore, recommend the public, or perhaps both united. to the early attention of the next Councils, this impor. rosince writing the above, we have been informed, tant subject, and exceedingly regret, that any thing has that the carter most injured, died on Sunday.--Germ. occurred to postpone the present ordinance and plan Telegraph. from being carried into execution, which they have ev. ery reason to believe, would be found to give as much Maucu CAUNK.-It may not be amiss for us to cor. satisfaction, as any other that could be adopted. lect an erroneous impression which may have been conOn motion of Mr. Lippincott, the Select Council pro had received, that application had been made for the

veyed by our statement last week upon information we ceeded to the consideration of a resolution appropriat. last remaining lot of the Town Plot at present in the ing $40,000, from the Girard Estate, for city purposes. The resolution was adopted in the Select, but did not market, as we perceive that the entire article is copied pass the Common Council.

into some of the city papers. By the statement referred

to, we intended merely the vacant lots offered for sale COMMON COUNCIL.

by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, fronting Mr. Gilder presented a petition praying that Oak on Market square. There are several second hand lots street, in front of Penn Square, may be curbed and held by individuals, that may perhaps be purchased at paved. Referred to the Paving Committee.

a fair price, on the square, besides a number of the lots Mr. Chandler presented a petition from Thomas Mc- rows on each side of Broadway.

with buildings thereon, owned by the company, in the Grath, praying Councils to accept a substitute for one

We are also informed that since the arrival of the of his sureties, for money borrowed from the Franklin Board of Managers, several additional lots bave been Legacy. Referred to the committee on Franklin and placed in the market, among which are a number of Scott's Legacies.

eligible situations for business on Berwick street, be Mr. Elliott presented a petition from sundry citizens tween the store of M'Connel, Foster, and Broaderick, residing in the neighborhood of Schuylkill Front and and the Mauch Chunk Hotel, besides the remaining lots Vine street, complaining of the Public Dog House, as in Market Square and Broadway.-Mauch Chunk Cour.

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1833.]

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF RAIL ROADS.

217

From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.

DY THE EDITOR.

material, between the iron rail and the stone; this would Obserralions on some points relating lo

no doubt lessen it, but to what extent, must be left to THE CONSTRUCTION OF RAIL ROADS.

she result of experiment. The loosening of the rail upon the stone is, no c'oubl, in part dire to the expansion

and contraction of the former, whilst upon a wooden The number of rail roads which are being construct-rail but little sensible effect is produced from this cause, ed, and the still greater number wich it is proposed to the yielding nature of this material serving to prevent construct in our country, render it specially important it; the degree in which this expansion and contraction that all the information which our short acquaintance operate in lossening the rail would, however, be but with this mode of conveyance has afforded, should be asslightly diminished by a thin strip of wood, although it extensively diffused as possible. The question of the appears to be calculated to remove much of the greater utility of rail roads for the general conreyance of mer- evil, the abrasion. chandise and of passengers, may now be considered as The portions of a rail road which pass over the origisettled; but we have much to learn as respects the best nal surface of the soil, are very small; excavation or mode of constructing them so as to insure their durabili. embinkment, to a greater or lesser extent, is necessary ty, whilst the necessary attention is pail to economy in almost every where. The laying of stone sills on these the first instance. There are but few situations in wlich embankments, when receitly' male, has been another rail roads can be carried to any grent extent, without a source of much difficulty in the construction of rail very large outlay for grading, and for building bridges roads, as in such places tjie erth must necessarily con. and culyerts,their utility is necessarily so dependentupontinue to settle for a cons lerable period of time, not only their near approach to a level, that but little diminution displacing the sills at their junctures, but likewise ef. of their cost is to be anticipated so far as these points are feciing the grading, and all the calculations foundled concerned. Not so, however, as regards the kind of thereon. It may not excite surprise that the loosening rails which it is best to employ, the sort of foundation of the rails upon the stone sills was not foreseen in all upon which they should be land, and the best mode of its extent; but it is certainly remarkable that the capital fastening them so as to insure their permanence. The error of using stone sills on now made ground, should present notice will be principally confined to one or have been any where committed; yet such has been the two points connected with the latter part of the subject. case to a considerable extent. To raise these sunken

On the Baltimore and Olio rail road, the plate rail sills, with the rails upon them, is a work of great labor, has been exclusively used, and the same has been most and one, which in high embankments, it may be necesgenerally adopted in other places. These iron plates, sary to repeat several times. This settling of the earth which are usually about two inches and a quarter wide, must take place, whatever be the kind of rail used, but and five-cighths thick, were at first laid upon rails of the derangement is much less when the plates are laid wood, to which they were securely fastened by nails; it on wooden string pieces, and the labour of readjustment was generally believed, however, that a foundation may be performed with much greater case. consisting of sills of granite, or other hard stone, in place We have recently traveled along the rail road lead. of the wooden rail, would, by its permanence, more than ing from Philadelphia to Germantown, and also on the repay the extra cost of it in all situations where it could Pennsylvania rail road, now in the course of construc. be readily procured; on the road first named it was tion between Philadelphia and Columbia, on the Sus. therefore adopted, after carrying the woolen rails to quehanna. On the whole of the former, and on a large the quarries where such stone could be obtained. It portion of the latter, the rolled iron edge rail has been is believed that not the slightest doubt cxisted on the adoptel. The general plan of forming the foundation minds either of the engineers or tire directors, of the of these rails is to sink stone blocks, (cach containing superior utility of stone in every respect; and, in confor. about two cubic feet,) at the distance of about three feet mity with this opinion, many miles have been laid with from each other, and upon these blocks to fisten cast it, and the iron rails carefully secured thereto. In riding iron chairs, which receive the lower elges of the rails, over this road, the moment of passing from the woolen and into which they are fastened by suitable wedges. to the stone rails can be at once both heard and felt by The want of stability in these blocks is already manifest the passengers in the car. Upon the wood the sound is in both these roads, although they are not yet completless harsh, and the vibration less rapid than upon the lead, and upon one of them, the Pennsylvania road, locounyielding stone, the elasticity of the woolen rail ren-| motive engines have not yet run. The blocks have in dering it the most pleasant to ridle upon; a mere differ. some places sunk so as to render the line of the rail un. ence of this kind, however, was not to be considered as dulating to such an extent as to be visible wbile passing presenting any valid objection to the use of a material along it. The same circumstances which produce the so permanent as the stone. On a recent visit to Balti- sinking of the stone sills must operate will equal or more, where we had an opportunity of co:rversing with greater force in the case of the blocks and chairs. In individuals whose talents and interest in the road give some places also the rails have been pressed out, and in value to their opinions, we learned with mich regretone instance, at least, on the Germantown road, the that the result of the experience which they have liud, rails were so fur separated as to allow the wheels of the has led them to a conviction that the stone sills must be locomotive engine to fall between them. The numer. abandoned, and string pieces of wood resorted to ons curves on these roads render the rails much more throughout the route, in consequence of the gradual, liable to be pressed out than those on straighter roads, bat inevitable loosening of the iron rails. This has not as the Aanches of the wheels, when the engines and arisen from any defect in the method by which the rails cars are moving at high vclocities, bear with a force were secured to the stone, but from causes which can which is with difficulty resisted against the outer rail of not be obviated by any skill or care on the part of the the curve, and especially at the moment of changing workmen, as it is the result, principally, of the vibra from one curve to another, or from a straight track to tion produced by the passage of locomotives and cars a curve. upon the rails. However carefully such rails may be There is an old saying that “once well done, is twice laid, the points of contact between them and the stones done,” and although it is much more easy to point out will be but few, and as these are abraded by the vibra- defects than it is to prescribe adequate remedies, it is a tion, the rails will have a small degree of play; this evil thing of high importance in extensive and costly, pub. will necessarily go on increasing, and the heads of the lic works that they should not be disgraced by im. nails will eventually be worn off by it, as bas actually perfections in the mode of executing them. Although happened.

the comparative novelty of rail roads as a medium of It has been proposed to obviate the foregoing defect! general intercourse and trade, forbids the supposition by interposing a thin strip of wood, or other yiekling that we have yet ac pureti a knowledge of the best mode VOL. XII,

28

of constructing them, this will not serve as an apology of preventing the escape of sparks from the fues of lo. for a perseverance in known and manifest error. The comotive carriages, in which wood is used as fuel. The abandonment of three-fourths of the rail roads which company have furnished a brief statement of the plans have been projected will not be attended by any actual which had been tried before the offer of the premium, loss, whilst their imperfect construction will not only which statement has been communicated to those ap. disappoint the public expectation, but discourage fui- plying for information to the Institute. ture undertakings of the kind. The first failure may The experiment of monthly conversation meetings, be the result of inexperience, and be, therefore, alto- made by direction of the annual meeting of the Instigether pardonable, but when the evil and its causes are tute, has been highly successful. As was anticipated, evident, the course of procedure ought to be changed, the absence of formality in these meetings has induced in spite of the prejudices of workmen, or the interest of many to contribute to the information of their fellow contractors.

members who otherwise would hardly have come forThe remedies to be applied to obviate or to lessen the ward, and where no special and avowed communica. defects which have been referred to, must necessarily tion has been made, interesting remarks and discussions depend upon the means under the control of the engi- have been engaged in by many who came as listeners neer,and will therefore differ in different places. Along only. The months of July and August would be un. a large portion of the line of the Pennsylvania rail road, favorable to the assemblage, in comfort, of so many locust timber may be readily obtained, and where the persons as frequent these meetings, and the Board re. embankments are not very high, blocks of this wood spectfully recommend their omission during these two might rest upon broken stone on the original surface of months. the ground, and extend up to the level of the road; and By a resolution of the House of Representatives of these posts might, when necessary, have ties from one this state, the Secretary of the Commonwealth was dito another across the track, to prevent their spreading. rected to refer to the Managers of the Institute, the bill This timber is the most durable known, and the chairs relating to "weights and measures, and to admeasurewould be readily affixed to it. Long blocks of stone, ment,

," with a request that report should be made, in like the sills upon which rails have been laid, extending relation to it, at the next session of the legislature. This across from one rail to the other, and receiving the bill, with the resolution of reference, &c. was received chairs for the edge rail, would completely prevent their at the meeting of the managers in June last, and refer. spreading. This expedient has been resorted to in red to a committee of nineteen to report to the Board. some places on the Germantown road, the long stones The names of the committee are appended to this rehaving been used as the joints of the rails, and stone port. blocks in the intermediate parts,

The committee on instruction have already commencThese remarks are intended as mere hints which may ed a revision of the arrangements of last year, in regard in some cases be made useful, or serve as inducements to the several branches thereof. The drawing schol to the competent engineer, to devise better modes of has received particular attention, and will, it is hoped, procedure.' The mentioning of a competent engineer, be materially improved in its organization. The com. reminds us of one other point essentially connected with mittee have made arrangements to obtain from the prothe subject in hand, a remark respecting which shall fessors, and to furnish to the class, a programme, or close the present article. We have some gentlemen in outline, of each of the regular courses of lectures. our country to whom the foregoing title may be justly The managers have made, during the last quarter, applied, but numbers are so dubbed, who have not the an arrangeinent by which the collections in natural his. slightest claim to the appellation, and, in not a few in tury, books, and other property, of the Maclurean Ly. stances, the direction of important works has been en. ceum of this city, have been transferred to the Institute, trusted to such men because they might be got cheap. the members of the Lyceum becoming life members of Real talent in this line is never too highly paid for; but this association. The entire right of disposal of this a Board of directors will not unfrequently sacrifice hun property has been vested in the Institute, and a com. dreds of thousands, to save a thousand or two of dollars mittee has been appointed to effect the transfer of the in an annual salary.

articles to our Hall. In process of time, it is hoped to The foregoing remarks have been elicited by what exchange such of these articles, as do not come within we have recently seen and heard, and are committed to the scope of our society, for others more directly inpaper during the continuance of the tour in which they teresting to us, retaining such as will add materially to have been suggested.

the interest of our collection of minerals and geological

specimens. From the Journal of the Franklin Institute of Sept. 1833.

The eleventh volume of the Journal of the Institute FRANKLIN INSTITUTE.

has been completed by the appearance of the June

number. This journal, from the amount and interest Quarterly Report of the Board of Managers.

of the original matter which it contains, furnished in In compliance with the requisitions of the constitu- relation to the patents by theeditor, and in the miscel. tion, the Board of Managers of the Institute submit their laneous matters by occasional correspondents, may, report for the past quarter. Although the quarter has it is believed, stand an advantageous comparison with been one of those in which the active operations in the scientific journals at home, and with those in the same interesting branch of instruction are suspended, it has walks abroad. The circulation of this periodical should not been devoid of interest. The preparations for the be anxiously promoted by every member of the Instiexhibition of domestic manufactures, to be held in the tute: they would thereby aid in diffusing through its autumn, the experiment of monthly conversation meet. means useful information in relation to the mechanic ings, which has been in progress, the reference of the arts, and in general science, and look to an increase of subject of weights and measures to the Institute, and subscribers to produce a diminution in the present the transfer of the collections of the Maclurean Lyceum price of subscription; in this point of view, each sub. to this society, have added variety to the usual duties scriber is interested in increasing its circulation. and business of the institution.

Committee on Weights and Measures. The committee on premiums and exhibitions hold A. D. Bache, S. V. Merrick, W. H. Keating, Rufus statod meetings with the committee of arrangement, to Tyler, M. W. Baldwin, Benjamin Say, Asa Spencer, mature and execute their plans for the distribution of Abram. Miller, Thos. P. Jones, M. D., R. M. Patterson, information to manufacturers and mechanics, in relation M. D., Sears C. Walker, Benj. Stancliffe, Thos. M'. to the objects of industry to be exhibited in the coming Euen, M. D., Edmund Draper, David H. Mason, Benj. autumn. By the liberality of the New Castle and Reeves, Frederick Fraley, Samuel Moore, Samuel Frenchtown Rail Road Company, that committee have Hains.

A. D. BACHE, Chairman. been enabled to offer a premium for a successful method WILLIAM Hamilton, Actuary.

1833.]

TRADE OF LAKE ERIE.

219

Sun rise. 9 A. M.

Mer. or

noon
3 P. M.

THERMOMETER IN PHILADELPHIA A. "H. would realize more than the cost of this road in the in. Account of the heat of weather by Thermometer, with the stances, who then can doubt that this rail road will be

creased value of these lands. Under all these circumwind, kept in the Philadelphin Alms House.

made, and that before long? 1833. Remarks.

From the Venango Democrat.

PUBLIC MEETING, Sept. 170 713 78 80 NE moderate and cloudy.

Pursuant to public notice, a meeting of the friends 2,6062 66 70, NE tu NW mod'e, and cloudy. borough, on Wednesday evening the 28th ult. which

of Internal Improvement met in the Court House, in this 3 6062

643653 NE moderate and cloudy. 466 70 723 80 s strong breezes and clear.

was attended by a numerous and highly respectable 574761 803 82 SW strong breezes and clear.

body of citizens. After the meeting was organized, the 671713 75 78 NW to W, mod'e and clear.

following preamble and resolutions were unanimously 76871 73 71 NE cloudy with rain.

adopted and agreed to: 8 64 641 66 66 NE strong breezes with rain.

Whereas, the trade of Lake Erie being of such vital 9 59 613 65 69 SE moderate and cloudy.

importance to the welfare of Pennsylvania and her com10'64 67 72.71 SWto NW strong, &clou’y, rain. monwealth to endeavor by every possible means in their

mercial metropolis, it behoves the citizens of this com1163 641 674 69 NW, light breezes and clear. 12 62 62 60 581 NW to NE, some rain.

power, to open a channel of communication that shall 13 54 54 563 591 NW,moderate breezes, & clear.

subserve this great purpose, Therefore, 14 50'55 60 164 NW, moderate and clear.

Resolved, That a connexion by canal and rail road of 15154 59 64 67 NW to SW, moderate & clear. French creek, by the nearest possible route, is the sure

the west branch of the Susquehanna and the waters of 1656.60 65 664 NE, light airs, and clear. 17|5861 65 69 E. light airs, and clear.

way to open an avenue that will at once give to Phila. 1864 65 66 67SSE to SW fresh breezes, rain.

delphia the predominance over the Lake trade. 19 67703 75 79 SW fresh breezes and hazy.

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by 20171 74 794 843S W fresh breezes and hazy.

the Chair, to draft a petition to the next legislature for 217270 66 65 NW fresh breezes with rain.

an act of incorporation for the furtherance of this object,

and said committee be requested to have the petitions 22 58 56 61363NWstrong breezes,light clouds. circulated for signature, and forwarded to the Senate 23 52531| 5965 NW fresh breezes and clear. 24 54 595 633 66 NW to SW light and clear,

and House of Representatives early in the session, and 25 58 62 664 72 SW and clear.

the Senator and Representative from this district be 26626.31 694 743 SW and clear.

requested to use their influence for the immediate pas276367| 74 77 SW and clear.

sage of this act. 2816468 72 75 NE and clear.

Resolved, That we have full confidence that the 29/6671 76 784'SSE to SW, light clouds.

next Legislature will appropriate funds and authorise

the construction of the canal from the French creek 30/65 663) 77 735 NNW to NE and clear.

Feeder to Erie harbor, and that we will accede to the

route which shall be chosen or selected by the Board of From the Crawford Messenger.

Canal Commissioners, after a full and satisfactory exaRAIL ROAD FROM FRANKLIN TO THE SUS mination of the subject. QUEHANNA.

Resolved, That a connection with the Ohio canal is

of immense importance to the welfare of this country, it In this day's paper will be found the proceedings of a being best calculated to bring the surplus water power meeting held in Franklin, Venango county, relative to of French creek into requisition, thereby affording an the incorporation of a company to make a rail road from easy means for the converting of the wheat of Ohio, into that place to the west branch of the Susquehanna. Aour for our eastern market. The distance is said to be but 140 miles, and the work Resolved, That the Shenango canal interest is identiis considered by good judges to be entirely practicable, fied with ours, provided a connexion with the west and can be done at a moderate expense, far below the branch of the Susquehanna is speedily made; thus opengeneral average of rail road communications. There ing a nearer route for the surplus produce of Mercer will be but few important streams to pass. The Alle county to the Philadelphia market. gheny river may be said to be the only one of any con Resolved, that the proceedings of this meeting be siderable magnitude; besides the country presents a very signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and published gradual ascent to the dividing ridge between the Alle- in all the papers friendly to this measure. gheny and Susquehanna. 'This route, in connexion After the passing of these resolutions, the following with the state improvement, (when completed to Lake gentlemen were appointed a committee of correspondErie,) will open a communication that will be but 445

ence, viz. A. M'Calmont, John Galbraith, John Ander. miles from Erie harbor to Philadelphia. Any one who son, Alonzo Livermore, James Thompson, James R. will take the trouble to examine this subject, will see Snowden, and James Glenn, Esqrs. that this will be of immense advantage to Pennsylvania,

J. D. WOOD, Chairman. it being the shortest route from any of the Atlantic ci JAMES GLENN, Secretary. ties to Lake Erie. Philadelphia will then by means of this improvement be enabled to send goods to Erie in

From the Crawford Messenger. about the space of six or seven days. Thus it will be obvious to all, that Philadelphia will have a decided ad.

MBADVILLE, Sept. 3, 1833. vantage over the city of New York in sending and re. Mr. d. Livermore, -Sir, a question has arisen, and is ceiving goods to and from Lake Erie. No doubt can in some degree agitated at this time, with regard to the erist but the trade of this road will be very profitable. future prosecution of the public works, and as the opiThe Lake trade is now immense, and is fast increasing nion of the friends of the different routes by which it is, This year the tonnage on Lake Erie has increased thirty- and has been proposed to connect the waters of Erie three per cent. on what it was last year. Merchants with those of the Delaware, have been variant, and each engaged in forwarding upon the Lake state that this party urge their claims with great zeal, and we hope has been the average annual increase for the last five with honest motives, to the final completion of this years. The citizens of Philadelphia own full two-thirds great, and much desired object. But as all seem to of the land through which this road will pass. They depend upon the waters of French creek to supply in a

great measure the different routes by which the connec out of the question to feed both Elk creek and the tion is to be carried into effect, it becomes necessary to Shenango without increasing the size of the French be satisfied, whether that stream will be amply suffi. creek Feeder at an expense fully equal to the first cost. cient to furnish the necessary supply.

This will render it extremely doubtful whether it The undersigned, with an ardent desire and sincere will be policy for the commonwealth to make in conwish to see a connexion of the eastern and western inle- junction the Shenango and Elk creek line. Therefore rests, by means of canal, slack water, and rail road, as I am fully of the opinion that the Shenango should be each in their turn may become expedient, put the fol- made in preference. This line will therefore become lowing queries to youi, confidently relying upon your allied to the French creck line via Waterford to Lake ability, and disinterestedness as to local interes', or feel. Erie, which will be the proper route. ing, with regard to routes, and that your decision or It may not be amiss to state that I have recently taken opinion, would be such its ought to satisfy every man, a measurement of the water available for the summit whose mind was open to conviction.

level at Waterford, and I find that in the Cryest time Therefore, will the water of French creek be suffi. this season there is fully one burdred feet per second. cient to supply at all times, when needed, a canal by the I made two different measurements which corresponded way of Conneaut lake and Elk creek to the town of Erie, so nearly that I fecl satisfied that the result was correct. and at the same time, from the summit level down the I also made a measurement above the entrance of the Shenango to New Castle, and all this independent of Feeder above Meadville, and found 138 feet per second. what will be needed to supply the canal, &c. from the These measurements were taken at as low a stage of aqueduct to Franklins

the stream as had been known at any previous time by In the next place, should the connexion be formed by the oldest inhabitants. the Conneaut and Elk creck route, will the state in your As fifty feet of water per second, is an abundance for opinion ever make a canal from New Castle to Conne- the supply of the Waterford summit, I think no further aut lake? And if the Elk creek route should be adopt- doubt need exist relative to a sufficiency of water for ed, will the state ever carry on her improvement up that route; you will therefore perceive that a rail road French creek to Waterford, and from thence 10 Erie by is unnecessary, and should by all means be avoided, if canal or rail road?

possible, as trans-shipments would be extremely detriAnd further, if the Waterford route should be adopt mental to the improvements. It may be proper here to ed, do you believe the state would make a canal from state a few practical facts relative to the feeding of ca. New Castle to Conneaut lake?

nals. The Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal Any information you can supply us with on the sub- was one instance where an attempt was made to feed ject of tbe above, or any that may be pertinent on the sixty miles of canal from one feeder. This did not subject of the canal, that may be useful to the inhabit succeed as you will see by reference to the report of ants of this region, the undersigned would feel much the Canal Commissioners of 1831. The New York Caobliged to you to communicate it.

nal Commissioners undertook to feed from the Little DAVID DICK, Falls to the Scholarrie creek, a distance of 45 miles, ISRAEL BERLIN, but were unsuccessful, and were obliged to build ano. and others. ther dam across the Mohawk near Canajoharrie.

The canal from the large dam upon the Kiskeminitas FRANKLIX, S pt. 13, 1833,

to Pittsburg, is 36 miles, and it was found extremely Messrs. David Dick, Israel Berlin, and others.

difficult the two first seasons to keep up the supply of Gentlemen--Your communication of the 3d instant, water on the lower levels. There are many causes why was duly received, and I now answer your inquiries as a canal will not give the quantity of water that theory near as my present information will admit,

would demonstrate; an important reason is the sinuosiThe great question "whether a canal can be fed by ties to which they are liable. The French creek Feedthe water from the French creek both down the She- cr is extremely objectionable on account of its numerous nango and Elk creek routes, besides giving a sufficiency bends, curves, and irregularities. I have no doubt, but to the Franklin line,” I believe is easily answered in the I could the Feeder be constructed perfectly straight and affirmative. But I do not believe, that water can be passed through atford into Connealt lake would be nearly doubléd, even

regular in its size, that the quantity of water it woukl The French creek Feedler in sufficient quantity to sup. were the distance the same it now is. ply both Shenango and Elk creek routes of canal.

The foregoing gives my views in general to your inquiwell know that a descent of three inches to the mile has rics. I have given them candidly, in the hope they may been given to the Feeder line in order to increase the have a tendency to unite the friends of improvement in quantity over what a level canal would give of the same the great struggle towards completing a canal to Lake size. But this descent will rot be much more than can be Erie. I am, gentlemen, given to a level canal whicre locks intervene in the space

Yours very respectfully, of five or sis miles. Each level (or space betwixt the

ALONZO LIVERMORE, Engineer. locks) may, and is in practice often filled at the upper lock fully fivc feet deep, and reduced at the lower one, to three and a half or four feet. This gives the (lescent

AN ORDINANCE. upon the surface of the water of from two to three in Helative to the Management of the Wills Hospital. ches to the mile, and secuires the supply of water equal Section 1. Be it ordained and enacted by the citizens 10 the Feeder line or nearly so when required. It is found in practice that to feed forty miles of canal bled, That the building recently erected out of the le

of Philadelphia, in Select and Common Councils assem. requires the maximum discharge of a canal the size of gacy devised to the city by the late James Wills

, situated ours through the dry season especially along a sliding on Sassafras street, between Schuylkill Fourth and country, without any additional supply of water al Fifth streets, shall be known and designated by the name though the quantity of water at the source be unlimited. of the Wills Hospital for the Indigent Lame and Blind.

The Feeder line is 23 miles, the Shenango to Crooked Section 2. And be it further ordained and enacted by creek is 171 miles, and the Elk creek livie is 47 miles,' the authority aforesaid, 'I bat the Select and Common making altogether 87} miles to be fed through the Councils shåll assemble in joint meeting, on the fourth Feeder, if we except a supply of about twelve fect per Thursday of October nest, and shall then and there second, which is said to be available on the Elk creek choose by bailot, nine suitable persons, who shall reside route.

1 With this addition, I think the Elk creck line can be ljospital.

in the city, to be denominated Managers of the Wills fed, if Connenut lake is made a reservvit, but it will be Section 3. And be it further ordained anul enacted by

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