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prothonotary of the Common Pleas, in whose office it is it lawful for ihe court to appoint, if they thought the to have the effect of a judgment.

interests of the township required it. Section 76, Is copied from the 7th section of the act

1. Assessors. of 1803. Section 77, is derived from the 6th section of the act sections of the act of 11th April, 1799, (3 Sm. 393.)

Sections 88 and 89, Are derived from the 5th and 6th of 1803. We have altered the last clause, however, so as to authorize the judges of the Common Pleas to de.

Section 90. The first clause of this section makes ge. termine the amount in which security shall be given. It neral a provision, originally designed for the city and appears to us that the length of time for which the com- county of Philadelphia alone, (act of 2d April, 1822, mission is to be granted, will not always be found a just neral application. The last clause is copied from the

$3, 7 Sm. 558,) but which we think ought to be of gemeasure of the security, and that the court of the county 22d section of the act of 1799. will generally have the best means of determining the question

2. Supervisors. Section 78, Is derived from the 6th section of the Section 91. In this and other sections, we have denoact of 1783, (2 Sm. 85,) and the 26th section of the act minated these officers, supervisors merely: omitting the of 1811, (5 Sm. 234,) with some alterations, in which words in the present laws which seem to limit their da. we have extended the duty, so as to embrace all mo. ties to the roads and highways of the township. It neys received for the use of the commonwealth, and to appears to us, that they may properly stand in the same require an account thereof whenever the Auditor Ge- general relation to townships, that commissioners do to neral shall exact it.

counties; baving the superintendence and charge of the Section 79. This section is new. Considerable in affairs of the township generally, though especially inconvenience at present exists for want of some provi. trusted with the care of roads and highways. We find sion respecting the books of sheriffs after the expiration another motive for an enlargement of the sphere and of their office. Many entries of great importance or functions of these officers, in the consideration of a subinterest to suiters are contained in these books, which, ject of great public interest and importance. We trust after they leave office, are generally carried with them that the time is not far distant, when the education of to their respective places of residence, and difficulties children will become the business of every township in are frequently experienced in obtaining access to them. the state, and when school houses, with competent Some consideration, we think also, is due to the sheriff's teachers, will be erected in convenient districts.' The sureties, who by the loss or concealment of his books, present system is generally conceded to be defective; may be disabled from proving facts of material import but in no point does it appear to us more susceptible of ance to them. This section is suggested with the hope amendment, than in that which devolves the charge of that it will be effectual to remove an inconvenience this subject upon county commissioners, who, from generally experienced.

their limited number, the pressure of other duties or Sections 80 and 81, Are derived from the 9th and pursuits, and the great extent of counties in general, 10th sections of the act of 1803.

are incapable of giving to it that attention which we

think its paramount importance deserves. The expe. 3. Of Township Officers.

rience of other states demonstrates, that to rendered uThe remaining sections of the bill relate to township cation accessible to all, it is necessary to establish school officers. It has been our object, as we have already houses in small districts. It is not necessary, we think, mentioned, to assimilate townships in their structure to create any new offices for the purpose. The superand organization to counties; the principal materials for visors of a township, organised on the plan of this bill, which already exist in certain local provisions which will, we submit, be the proper and competent agents of have from time to time been enacted by the legislature, the people in this and other general concerns of the and which we have merely generalized. The cases of township. We have not, however, in this bill made any township auditors and town clerk furnish an example of express reference to the subject of education, in conthis. Both were originally established in certain dis- nexion with the duties of supervisors. It appeared to tricts only, but as experience showed their utility, they us sufficient, in this place, to provide for the incorpora. have, by successive acts, been extended over the principalition of townships, and for the enlargement of the funcpart of the state It will be seen that the choice of tions of supervisors, leaving it to the Legislature heretownship officers is not made imperative upon the peo- after, to make use of their agency in carrying into effect ple. It has appeared to us best, to leave it to the judg. any system of education they 'may think proper to ment of the inhabitants of the several townships to de. adopt. termine whether they will elect these officers or dispense We may add here, that we have not considered our. with them. In some townships, most of them are al selves at liberty to dispense with the separate office of ready sufficiently familiar and well approved. In others, overseers of the poor, although we are not satisfied that it may be the work of time to make their benefits any necessity exists for its continuance; we see no subobvious, but we think that all will sooner or later fall stantial reasons why the office should not be united with into the adoption of the system if it shall receive the that of supervisors. The system would be more simple, sanction of the Legislature.

attended probably with less expense and fewer incon. Section 82. In this section we have enumerated and veniences, if supervisor's were assimilated in all respects classed all the township officers already existing, or

to commissioners of counties, and had the charge of which we think it for the public interest to provide. In well as roads and highways. Their number might then

education, of the poor, and other township matters, as the term of office, we have followed the existing pro- be increased to three, and their term of service enlarged visions.

Sections 83 to 87. In these sections we have general. 10 three years, as in the case of commissioners. Should ized certain provisions of the present law, which ap- the manner suggested, the change can be effected with

The Legislature be disposed to consolidate the offices in peared to us susceptible of being brought into a common rule. In the 84th section, we have thought it expedient very slight alteration in the present bill. to limit the power of appointment of treasurer and clerk,

Section 93, Is derived from the 12th section of the to cases in which at least thirty electors shall apply for ac: of 1802. the exercise of it. It may happen that the electors of

Section 94, Is derived from the 23d section of the a township may not think the particular office necessary

same act, or expedient; and in such case, we should not think it

3. Overseers of the Poor. proper for the court to interfere. It occasion should Sections 95 and 96, Are derived from the 16th and exist in the opinion of thirty electors, we would make 14th sections of the act of 9th March, 1771, (1 Sm.332.)

1833.)

THIRD REPORT ON THE REVISED CODE.

135

4. Township Treasurer.

merely generalize certain local enactments which we Section 97. In this and the three following sections, think have been found by experience to promote the we have proposed the appointment of an officer similar public good. The first 'act passed on the subject, auin character and functions to the county treasurer, for thorised the choice of township auditors in the counties the fiscal business of the several townships. The pre- of Northumberland, Centre, Venango, Beaver, Crawsent scheme of township organization appears to us to ford, Mercer, Allegheny, Berks, and Schuylkiíí

, (Act be seriously detective, especially in regard to the ma- of 14th January, 1830, P. L. 26.) Since that date they nagement and control of the township funds. Whe. have, by successive acts, been extended to the counties ther the amount be great or small, we think that there of Susquehanna, Luzerne, Warren, Huntingdon, Tioga, ought to be a sufficient check upon the raising of mo. Clearfield, Butler, Montgomery, and Chester; and we ney in the first instance, and afterwards upon its expen now propose to authorise the citizens of every township diture. Now, as the law stands, we find that the in the state to elect auditors; and define the duties of supervisors of the roads, and the overseers of the poor, the persons so elected. In section 107, we have assipossess, separately, the power of levying taxes for the milated their authority to that of county auditors, and purposes of their respective offices, the collection of in section 108 they are allowed similar compensation. those taxes, and the personal appropriation of the funds, We have directed, in section 105, that their report shall without any other check or control than that which be filed with the town clerk, supposing that in his hands arises from the examination of their accounts by the it would be more accessible to the people of the townfreeholders chosen under the act of 1802, or by the ship, than if filed with the clerk of the Quarter Sessions. township auditors in certain counties, under certain In section 106, an appeal is provided from their report, special acts already adverted to. By some other local in the same manner as in the case of county auditors. provisions, supervisors are required to give security for

Constables. the due appropriation of the moneys that may come into their hands. To supply the defect, and guard against

The provisions under this head are mainly derived probable abuses, we propose the appointment of a from the existing laws, so far as they respect the ap. township treasurer, who shall receive and be accounta- pointment of this officer and his security. Those which ble for all moneys accruing for township purposes, and relate to his duties in the administration of justice, &c. who shall give adequate security therefor. We think will be found in a future bill. that economy and regularity in accounts will be promot.

Section 109, Is derived from the 6th section of the ed by the creation of this office. We propose ihat the act of 1st March, 1799, (3 Sm 356.) officer shall be annually elected by the people, and

Sections 110, 112, and 113, Are copied from the shall give security to the satisfaction of the supervisors 29th section of the act of 20th March, 1810, (5 $m. and overseers of the poor. In the details of his duties 173.) and liabilities, we have followed the provisions relating

Section 111, Is derived from the 29th section of the to county treasurers.

act of 1810, the 3d section of the act of 29th March, 5. Town Clerk.

1824, (P. L. 172,) and the 4th section of the act of The act of 13th April

, 1807, (4 Sm. 472,) provided 1808, (4 sm, 531,) with slight alterations. The provifor the election of a town clerk in the counties of Phi- so in the 29th section of the act of 1810, which declares ladelphia, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Northampton,

that "no person shall be permitted to serve as constable Wayne and Delaware, and prescribed his duties. By more than three years in any term of six years," having, the act of 20th March, 1810, the provision was extended by various acts, been repealed with respect to many to the counties of York and Montgomery. In 1813, counties of the state, and perhaps by implication from (6 Sm. 59,) it was extended to all the counties in the the act of 28th March, 1820, not being operative in any state, excepting Erie, Crawford, Warren, Mercer, Pot- part of the state, we have not introduced it into the preter, Schuylkill, Butler, Adams, Allegheny,and M'Kean; and by the act of 5th March, 1819, (7 Sm. 159,) seven

Section 114, Is derived from the 29th 'section of the of these ten counties were included in the provision. act of 1810, with an alteration taken from the 3d secThere remain, therefore, only three counties to which tion of the act of 1824. the act of 1807 does not apply. It appears to us that

Section 115, Is taken from the act of 28th March, the power to elect this, and other township officers, 1820, with an alteration limiting the power of a special should be general and uniform. We have already re: which we suppose was the intention of the act.

deputation to the case of a civil suit or proceeding; marked, that from the phraseology of these sections, it will be optional with the inhabitants of a township to

Section 116, Is taken from the act of 4th of February, elect these officers, or dispense with them.

1830,(P. L. 36.) Section 101, Provides that the town clerk shall, ex

Section 117. In this section we have provided, by a officio, be clerk to the supervisors and overseers, and general rule, for the

mode of recovering pecuniary pedeclares his duty in this respect. This provision is new, for. It appears to us, that in the case of public officers,

nalties imposed by the bill, and not otherwise provided and has been suggested by the considerations already the proceedings should generally be in the court of adverted to, respecting the present want of control over the proceedings of supervisors and overseers. The

Quarter Sessions. town clerk will record their proceedings and keep their the operation of a numerous class of local provisions

Section 118. The design of this section is to preserve accounts, and will thus furnish, it is believed, both a guide to them in respect to their duties, and a check contained in acts of Assembly. We have felt consideupon irregularity or abuse.

rable embarrassment in deciding upon the proper course Section 102, is taken from the first section of the act them, will mar the uniformity of the law as actually ad

to be adopted in relation to these laws. To preserve of 1807, with some alterations, which adapt it to the ministered, and may tend to lay the foundation of an system contemplated by the bill. Section 103,"Is taken from the 1st and 6th sections wealth. On the other hand, were we to propose their

irremediable diversity in the usages of the commonof the same act. We have altered the original provi. sion so far as to authorise a fee of ten cents for a search repeal, it might be thought to be an undue enlargement in the books of the town clerk, conceiving that he ought of the scope of the resolutions under which we act. It not to be expected to give his services gratuitously, and might also interfere essentially with the wishes and that those who derive a benefit from his records should convenience of the people of the cities and other dispay a reasonable compensation therefor.

tricts to which they respectively apply. There may

also be differences of situation with which we are not 6. Township Auditors.

acquainted, requiring different legislative provisions. Section 104, This, and the four following sections, these considerations have prevailed with us to introduce this concluding section, and to leave the subject to those presented a certificate of their appointment and took especially interested, to decide how far the general their seats. scheme proposed in this bill will be an advantageous Gen. Murray, from the committee appointed in the substitute for these local acts. If the system proposed forenoon, made report as follows, viz: shall be found lo work well, we suppose that, ultimate- “ The committee appointed to arrange the business ly, local provisions inconsistent with it will be repealed to be brought before the convention, respectfully reby the Legislature.

portIn conclusion, we would repeat, by way of guarding First—That the inequality of tolls charged by the against misconception of the scheme of the present bill, managers of the several companies represented in this 'that it is not intended to embrace the details of special convention, is a subject of primary importance for the duties, belonging to certain officers by common law, or consideration of the convention—it being very desira. assigned to them by acts of Assembly. Many subjects, ble, in the opinion of the committee, that the tolls which may at first sight appear to have been overlooked should be equalized, and it appearing to the committee by us, have been duly considered, and appropriated to that the tolls paid by stage owners vary from one half to other titles, with which we conceive that they may be full tolls. more conveniently incorporated. Thus, the duties of Second-That in the opinion of the committee, the county commissioners and treasurers in relation to un convention should consider the propriety of having preseated lands, of sheriffs and constables in the execution pared and presented to the next Legislature a memoof process in civil cases, of supervisors in respect to rial from this convention, from the several boards of roads and highways, and of town clerks in regard to managers, and from the individual stockholders of the strays, and the like, will be the subject of bills, which different companies, representing the true situation of we hope before long to submit to the Legislature. the companies, and praying that an appropriation of a [The draft of the act will be inserted next week.] sufficieni sum to discharge the debts of the companies

may be made, in such manner as the Legislature may From the Bedford Enquirer.

deem just.” TURNPIKE CONVENTION.

Mr. Gebhart moved the second reading and consider. Agreeably to public notice, the delegates from the ation of the report; and after some desultory remarks several Turnpike Road Companies, hereafter named, on the construction of the 12th section of the turnpike met at the court house in the borough of Bedford, on road law, fixing the rates of toll, and a resolution of the Wednesday, 12th June, 1833, at 10 o'clock, A. M. Robbstown and Mount Pleasant Board passed on 4th

The Convention was organized by appointing George inst. was read, the report was on motion of Mr. Bar. Plumer, President; Christian Garber and Alexander clay, unanimously adopted. Johnson, Vice Presidents; and John Y. Barclay and It was then, on motion, James M. Russell, Secretaries. It was then moved and Resolved, That Messrs. Russell, Gebhart and Barclay ordered that the credentials of the members be present- be a committee to memorialize the next Legislature, on ed, and their names called, whereupon it appeared that the part of this convention, as recommended in the sethe following named gentlemen were duly appointed cond item of the report made by the committee. for their respective Companies, viz:

Dr. Estep than offered the following resolution, viz: For the Washington and Williamsport Company- Resolved, that in the opinion of this convention, the Samuel Hill, Joseph Barr.

several Boards of Managers have the right to lessen For the Somerset and Bedford Company, Henry the toll in particular cases, according to their views of Black, James M. Russell.

the general interests of the country. For the Somerset and Mount Pleasant Company- The resolution produced a debate, in which the mo. John Gebhart, Jacob Lobingier.

ver, Dr. Estep, and Messrs. Garber,Barclay, Russell and For the Robbstown and Mount Pleasant Company, McDowell participated, and on the question being calGeorge Plumer, Henry Null.

led, the yeas and nays were required, and were as folFor the Huntingdon, Cambria and Indiana Company lows, viz: -George Mulhollan, jr., Christian Garber.

Yeas-Messrs. Black, Estep, Gebhart, and LobinFor the New Alexandria and Conemaugh Company gier-4. -James Long, Joseph Cook.

Nays--Messrs. Barclay, Barr, Clark, Cook, Davis, For the Pittsburg and Greensburg Company-David Ewalt

, Garber, Hill

, Jack, Johnson, Lippincott, Long, Shields, Dunning Ř. M'Nair.

T. McDowell, J. McDowell, McNair, Murray, Null, For the Pittsburg and New Alexandria Company- Plumer, Russell-19. James Murray, Samuel Jack.

So the resolution was rejected. For the Stoystown and Greensburg Company-John Mr. McNair then offered the following resolution. Y. Barclay, Alexander Johnson.

Resolved, That

be a committee to corresFor the Bedford and Stoystown Company-John pond with the different Turnpike Companies, and asClark, Richard Ewalt.

certain from them their views on the first item reported For the Mount Pleasant and Pittsburg Company- by the general committee, and whether they will concur James Estep, Jesse Lippincott.

in the sentiment therein expressed, and if so, at what For the Pittsburg and Butler Company-Hugh Davis. time-and that, on receiving the same, they communi

All of whom were present, except Messrs. Shields cate the result, to the different companies:" and the and Mulhollan.

blank having been filled with the names of Messrs. The Convention was then addressed by the President, McNair, Davis, and Estep, was unanimously agreed to. and by Mr. Barclay who stated the object of the con- It was then, on motion, vention, and explained the motives of the managers and Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting, signstockholders with whom the call originated; whereup. ed by its officers, be published in the Bedford papers, and on, on motion of Gen. Murray, it was

all others in the state friendly to the turnpike interest. Resolved, That a committee of seven members be Resolved, that the thanks of this convention be tenappointed to arrange the business to be brought before dered to the President and Vice Presidents thereof, for the convention, and to make report at 2 o'clock, P. M. their able and impartial performance of their duties.

And, the president having appointed Messrs. Murray, The convention then adjourned, sine die. Gebhart, Estep, M'Nair, Hill, Russell, and Barclay, to

GEORGE PLUMER, President, compose the committee, on motion of Mr. Gebhart, the

CHRISTIAN GAMBER, ? Vice convention adjourned till 2 o'clock.

ALEXANDER Johnston, ) Presidents, At 2 o'clock, the convention having re-assembled, Attest, egates from the Chambersburg and Bedford Company; Joam. Russerlay} Secretaries.

1833.)

GENERAL BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT.

137

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From the Military and Naval Magazine.

Dale's squadron, met with Captain Vashon, of the BriA SHORT HISTORY OF THE CONTINENTAL tish Navy at Gibraltar, who then commanded the FRIGATE ALLIANCE,

Dreadnought, ninety.eight, and was informed by him,

that he commanded the English sloop of war before The following sketch has been communicated by an spoken of. Captain Vashon made the most respectful officer of the Navy, who was personally intimate with inquiries after Commodore Barry, and stated the facts Commodore Barry, and who has had other opportuni- as they had been frequently related before, by the ties to become acquainted with the facts narrated. Commodore himself, and in the most magnanimous

The continental frigate Alliance was built at Salisbu- terms accorded to that gallant officer, a full and genery, on the river Merrimack, in Massachusetts,

rous portion of his approbation, for the masterly maThe alliance with France, in 1778, induced our go neuvering of the Alliance, on that occasion. Captain vernment to give the frigate the name she bore. Vashon stood high in the British Navy, as a distinguish

When the Trumbull frigate was captured, in 1781, ed seaman, and observed, that the commander of the the Alliance and Deane frigates composed our whole na- seventy-four, who was then an Admiral, spoke often to val force of that class of ships.

him on the subject of their pursuit of the frigate alliThe Alliance was commanded by many of the most ance: always giving the Commander great credit for distinguished officers of the Continental Navy-Barry, his conduct. Commodore Barry, on this, as on all oth. Jones, Nicholson, and others. Commodore Dale served er occasions, evinced his love of justice, and spoke of in her as first lieutenant, under Jones,

Captain Vashon's conduct, bravery, and ability, in terms The history of this ship furnishes many pleasant anec. of the highest commendation. dotes, illustrative of great gallantry, and good humor, many of them occurring at periods of time when it would

From the Pittsburg Gazette. be supposed that the minds of responsible characters

BRADDOCK. were naturally otherwise engaged. The frigate Alli. ance, while convoying the sloop of war command. The late publication of Walpole's Letters, has brought ed by Captain Green, from Havanna, having on board up again the name of this unfortunate officer, who met the money

that founded the Bank of North America, his fate in our neighborhood. Walpole is not very good was chased by a seventy-four, and a large sloop of war; authority; in giving the current scandal of the day, he the seventy-four and our sloop sailed nearly the same; evidently cares more for piquancy than accuracy. That but the English sloop out-sailed ours, and no doubt Braddock was rash and opinionative, we know. Dr. would have come up with her, and in all probability, Franklin was a good deal in his camp, had much perhave so injured her masts and sails, as to allow the sonal intercourse with him, and thus speaks of him in seventy-four to come up, when she would of course his Memoirs, have been taken; on each of those attempts to close "This General was, I think, a brave man, and might with our sloop, Commodore Barry, who took his station probably have made a figure as a good officer in some on the weather quarter of our sloop, bore down on the European war. But he had too much self-confidence, English sloop and engaged her. The Alliance being too high an opinion of the validity of regular troops, of superior force, the English sloop was compelled to and too mean a one of both Americans and Indians. sheer off, and thus the money was preserved, which George Croghan, our Indian interpreter, joined him on contributed much to the happy termination of the war his march with 100 of those people, who might have with England.

been of great use to his army as guides, scouts, &c., if In one of the encounters of the Alliance frigate and he had treated them kindly: but he slighted and neBritish sloop, a shot entered the corner of the Alli glected them, and they gradually left him. In con. ance's counter, and made its way into a locker, where versation with him one day, he was giving me some all the china, belonging to the Captain, was kept; an account of his intended progress.

After taking African servant of the Commodore, a great favorite, Fort Duquesne,' said he, 'I am to proceed to Niagaran up to the quarter deck, and called out “Massa, dat ra; and haring taken that, to Frontenac, if the season dam Ingresse man broke all de chana!" "You rascal," will allow time, and I suppose it will; for Duquesne said the Commodore, "why did you not stop the ball?" can hardly detain me above three or four days; and then “Sha, massa, cannon ball must hab a room.

I see nothing that can obstruct my march to Niagara.' At the close of the war the Alliance was sold by the Having before revolved in my mind the long line his government, and purchased by Robert Morris, and Cap army must make in their march by a very narrow road, tain Green, and with Commodore Dale in the capacity of to be cut for them through the woods and bushes, and chief mate, made the first voyage from Philadelphia to also what I had read of a former defeat of 1500 French, China, that ever was attempted out of that port; and who invaded the Illinois country, I had conceived some little did they suppose, at the time they started, that a doubts and some fears for the event of the campaign. small craft from Salem was on her way before them; But I ventured only to say, 'To be sure, Sir, if you arbut such was the fact, for on their arrival in the Indian rive well before Duquesne, with these fine troops, so ocean, they fell in with a small Yankee schooner, and on well provided with artillery, the fort, though completehailing her, answered from Salem. Captain Green in- ly fortified, and assisted with a very strong garrison, quired what charts they had: the answer was none, for can probably make but a short resistance. The only there were none to be had; but we have Guthrie's danger, I apprehend, of obstruction to your march, is grammar. This passage was performed out of season; from the ambuscades of the Indians, who by constant and it is believed to have been the first ever made out practice, are dextrous in laying and executing them: side of New Holland, by an American.

and the slender line, nearly four miles long, which your Com. Barry, while commanding the Alliance, was army must make, may expose it to be attacked by surchased by the Chatham, sixty-four, off from the en- prise in its Aanks, and to be cut like a thread into sevetrance of the Delaware bay, and it has been said, that, ral pieces which from their distance cannot come up in on that occasion, the ship sailed fifteen knots, and run time to support each other' He smiled at my ignorance, down the Speedwell, British sloop of war, the command. and replied, "These savages may indeed be a formidable er of which attempted to prevent the escape of the Al. enemy to your raw American militia; but upon the liance,

King's regular and disciplined troops, Sir, it is impossi. The Alliance, after all the wonderful escapes from ble they should make any impression. I was conscious the enemy, and long and perilous voyages, died a natu- of an impropriety in my disputing with a military man, ral death in the port of Philadelphia, and laid hier bones in matters of his profession, and said no more. The on Pellet's Island opposite that city.

enemy however did not take the advantage of bis army, In the year 1802, an officer attached to Commodore which I apprehended its long line of march exposed it VOL. XII.

18

to, but let it advance without interruption till within part of the unfortunate General. By mere accident, nine miles of the place; and then, when more in a body, Franklin learned, long afterwards, that Braddock, in (for it had just passed a river, where the front had halt. his despatches to Government, had borne earnest testi. ed till all were come over,) and in a more open part of mony to the Doctor's zeal and efficiency. the woods than any it had passed, attacked its advanced “The Secretary's papers, with all the General's or. giard, by a heavy fire from behind trees and bushes; ders, instructions, and correspondence, falling into the which was the first intelligence the general had of an enemy's hands, they selected and translated into French enemy's being near him. This guard being disordered, a number of the articles, which they printed, to prove the General hurried the troops up to their assistance, the hostile intentions of the British Court before the which was done in great contusion, through wagons, declaration of war, Among these, I saw some letters baggage, and cattle, and presently the fire came upon of the General to the ministry, speaking highly of the their flank: the officers being on horseback were more great service I had rendered the army, and recommend. easily distinguished, picked out as marks, and fell very ing me to their notice. fast; and the soldiers were crowded together in a huddle, having or hearing no orders, and standing to be

From the Commercial Herald. shot at till two-thirds of them were killed; and then be.

SKETCHES OF PENNSYLVANIA. ing seized with a panic, the remainder fled with precipitation. The wagoners took each a horse out of his

No. 10, team, and scampered; their example was immediately We proceed, according to promise, to attempt a gefollowed by others; so that all the wagons, provisions, neral account of the Susquehanna river. artillery, and stores were left to the enemy. The Ge. The principal branch of the Susquehanna has its rise neral being wounded was brought off with difficulty; in the Otsego Lake, in the county of Otsego, and state his secretary, Mr. Shirley, was killed by his side, and of New York. This beautiful sheet of water lies about out of 86 officers 63 were killed or wounded; and 714 50 miles north of the boundary line between Pennsylvamen killed of 1,100. These 1,100 had been picked nia and New York, and about 20 miles south of the Mo men from the whole army; the rest had been left be- hawk river, and the Little Falls. At the foot of the hind with Col. Dunbar, who was to follow with the lake, and where its outlet forms the infant Susquehan. heavier part of the stores, provisions, and baggage. na, is the beautiful village of Cooperstown, remarkable The flyers, not being pursued, arrived at Dunbar's as the scene of the incidents in the favourite novel of camp, and the panic they brought with them instantly the Pioneers. To that justly celebrated work we must seized him and all his people. And though he had now refer for an accurate and yet highly poetical descripabove 1000 men, and the enemy who had beaten Brad. tion of the romantic scenery from which the Susque. dock, did not at most exceed 400 Indians and French hanna derives its birth. together, instead of proceeding and endeavoring to re- The outlet is narrow, and gives but faint promise of cover some of the lost honor, he ordered all the stores, the greatness to which its waters are destined before ammunition, &c. to be destroyed, that he might have they mingle with the tides of the ocean. It is said that, more horses to assist his flight towards the settlements, during the revolutionary war, on the occasion of an exand less lumber to remove. lle was there met with re- pedition against the Indian settlement in Pennsylvania, quests from the governor of Virginia, Maryland, and a dam was constructed across the outlet, so as to conPennsylvania, that he would post his troops on the fron. fine the waters of the lake for some days, and consider. tiers, so as to afford some protection to the inhabitants; ably to raise its level. When the boats were prepared but he continued his hasty march through all the coun- and manned the dam was opened, and the expedition try, not thinking himself safe till he arrived at Philadel. Hoated for many miles down stream upon the artificial phia, where the inhabitants could protect him. This freshet thus produced. This simple expedient was at whole transaction gave us Americans the first suspicion a late period resorted to with success by the Lehigh that our exalted ideas of the prowess of British regular Coal Company, for the purpose of forming a descend. troops had not been well founded.

ing navigation. It was subsequently abandoned, from “In their first march, too, from their landing till they conviction that such a navigation could not be permegot beyond the settlements, they had plundered and nantly profitable, and the noble canal from Mauch Chunk stripped the inhabitants, totally ruining some poor fami- to Easton was substituted in its place. lies, besides insulting, abusing, and confining the people Besides the stream issuing from the Otsego Lake, if they remonstrated. This was enough to put us out of two other head branches of the Susquehanna of nearly conceit of such defenders, if we had really wanted any equal importance, the Unadilla and the Chenango, rise How different was the conduct of our French friends in in the same neighbourhood. Every one accustom1781, who, during a march through the most inhabited ed to examine a map with a view to practical results part of our country, from Rhode Island to Virginia, near will be struck by the proximity of the head waters of 700 miles, occasioned not the smallest complaint, for the the Susquehanna to the Mohawk river, in the valley of loss of a pig, a chicken, or even an apple!

which lies the great New York canal. We have said “Captain Orme was one of the General's aids de that Otsego Lake is 20 miles south of the Mohawk at camp, and being grievously wounded, was brought off the Little Falls. The head waters of the Unadilla are with him, and continued with him to his death, which about the same distance from Herkimer on the Mohappened in a few days, told me that he was totally si- hawk, and those of the Chenango an equal distance lent all the first day, and at night only said, “Who would from Utica. To this we may add, that the head of the have thought it?” That he was silent again the follow. Cayuga Lake,which is navigable by steam boats, is only ing day, saying only at last, "We shall better know how 30 miles distant from the Susquehanna river at Owego. to deal with them another time;" and died in a few min. A knowledge of these facts has given rise to various utes after."

projects for connecting the Susquehanna with the New The Doctor mentions one anecdote of a favorable York canal. Of these the Chenango canal, commenccast:

ing at the village of Binghampton, at the confluence of “As to rewards from himself, I asked only one, which the Chenango and Susquehanna, and terminating at the was, that he would give orders to his officers not to en- Mohawk, and a rail road from Ithaca to Owego are per list any more of our bought servants, and that he would | fectly practicable and have already been undertaken discharge such as had been already enlisted. This he with spirit. Of the importance of these communications readily granted, and several were accordingly returned to Pennsylvania, especially as affording an outlet for to their masters, on my application.”

the coal of the Wyoming valley, and the bituminous coal In another circumstance, we are bound to recngnize of the Tioga and West Branch, we shall have occasion a just and elevated, though reserved tempor, on the I to speak hereafter.

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