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scribed to be removed, and to prohibit their future erec- pital, and has conduced much to the prosperity of this tion within the limits of the city of Philadelphia. 3. Laws metropolis, and will enable the corporation of the city providing for the gradual widening, regulating, paving, at a comparately small expense to effect the real purand curbing Water street, as herein before described, pose of the testator, and to that branch of the subject and also for the repairing the middle alleys, and intro your memorialists will most respectfully call the altenducing the Schuylkill water and pumps as before speci. tion of Councils. fied-all which objects may, I persuade myself, be , ac Stephen Girard was a merchant and an owner of complished on principles at once just in relation to indi- wharf property, admirably acquainted with his own in. viduals, and highly beneficial to the public."

terests and those of his neighbours, and, as his will On the 24th March, 1832, at the request of the cor. proves, with those of the community at large. In statporation of the city of Philadelphia, and in conformity ing his plans, he says, "all which objects may, I persuade with a bill furnished by them, an act was passed by the myself,' be accomplished on principles at once just in Legislature of Pennsylvania, entitled " Anact to enable relation to individuals and highly beneficial to the pubthe Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Philadelphia, to lic,” and these principles are to be steadily kept in view carry into effect certain improvements, and execute in construing his testament. certain trusts."

The difficulties that existed on the Delaware, were This act provides, among other things, for the laying that in some squares there was not a continuous passage out, regulating, curbing, lighting, and paving. Dela. along the wharves, nor a sufficient width between some ware Avenue, by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the stores and the wharves or docks, and the heads of Philadelphia; and having laid it out, directs a record of some of the docks were entirely uncovered at low of the same to be made in the Court of Quarter Ses-water-all these difficulties were to be found to a great sions for the county of Philadelpbia, and makes it law extent in the square in which he resided and had passed ful for the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Phila- the largest portion of his life. Another evil was, that delphia, " to proceed from time to time to open, for there was no paved passage along the wharves, and the public use, any part or parts thereof, and the same to wharves themselves were in some instances not properly keep open as common and public highways for ever.

levelled nor covered with a hard material so as to let And also provides for the assessment and payment of the water run off. damages incurred by reason of such appropriations of

These evils Stephen Girard saw and practically felt, this property to the public use.

and in framing his will, his object was to get rid of The proposed ordinance is framed under this law, these inconveniences, and at the same time promote the and fixes the width of the Delaware Avenue at twenty: health of the city without doing any injury to comsix feet; and by the second section it is declared,

" That the Delaware Avenue, as laid out by the first section of this ordinance be, and the same is hereby opened as a curb, light, and pave a passage or street on the east part

He accordingly directs the city“ to lay oui, regulate, common and public highway, and that it shall be the duty of the city of Philadelpha fronting the river Delaware of the attorney and the solicitor for the corporation, to not less than twenty-one feet wide, to be called Delamake or cause to be made, a record of the same in the ware Avenue, extending from South or Cedar street all Court of Quarler Sessions of the County of Philadelphia along the east part of Water street squares and the west accordingly."

side of the logs which form the heads of the docks, or Your memorialists, firmly believing that this act of the thereabouts." Legislature, in declaring this passage when opened to He does not say it shall be a public highway, nor even be a common and public highway, and the ordinance a public passage, nor a public street, nor a public ave. now before Councils, enforcing this provision, are in nue, nor does he use any words which necessarily lead direct violation of the will of the testator, and will not to that conclusion. only defeat his plain intention, but vitally injure the “And to this intent to obtain such acts of Assembly commercial prosperity of Philadelphia, and most ma- and to make such purchases or agreements as will enaterially reduce, if not destroy the value of the wharf ble the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Philadelphia property on the Delaware front, and that the western to remove and pull down all the buildings, fences, and line of said avenue, as proposed, will unnecessarily take obstructions which may be in the way.” If he had indown several very valuable buildings, and amongst tended to make it a highway, all this was unnecessary, others, cut off the eastern front of the new stores of the but this clause becomes useful and necessary upon our testator; and also that the width of twenty-six feet was construction of his Will. never designed by Stephen Girard, and is not required “And to prohibit all buildings, fences, or erections of by public convenience-do most respectfully but earn- any kind to the eastward of said avenue; to fill up the estly remonstrate against the passage of this ordinance, heads of such docks as may not afford sufficient room and against all proceedings under the said act of As for the said street; to compel the owners of wharves to sembly, that will in any way appropriate the property keep them clean and covered completely with gravel or of your memorialists for the purposes of a public high- other hard materials, and to be so levelled that water way.

will not remain thereon after a shower of rain; to comYour memorialists beg leave, however, to be distinct. pletely clean and keep clean all the docks within the lily understood as approving entirely what they con- mits of the city fronting on the Delaware, and to pull ceive to be the intention of that wise man in relation to down all platforms carried out from the east part of the the Delaware Front, and also to state that they will city over the river Delaware on piles or pillars.' cheerfully lend their aid to the constituted authorities of In these words there is certainly nothing contradicting the city in carrying the same into full and complete ef- the idea that he meant this for a mere passage, and not fect.

for a public or common highway. From the small rise of the tide at Philadelphia, an The Will not necessarily leading to the opposite conextension of the wharves below the low water mark clusion, there are circumstances and reasons appearing was absolutely necessary for the purposes of commerce, in this and other parts of the Will itself, which, in conand as it was entirely out of the power of the proprie- nexion with extrinsic matters, in the opinion of your tary or the commonwealth, or of the city, to build memorialists conclusively establish, that it was not his wharves along the whole city front themselves, even had intention to make it a public highway. they possessed the right so to do, we find that every en The situation of the square between Market and couragement was held out to the private owners of pro- Arch streets, and of the testator's dwelling and stores perty on the Delaware to extend their wharves into the on the wharf and on Water street, are important in conriver, and to build them in a substantial manner.nexion with the Will itself. The stores on the west This bas occasioned a great expenditure of private ca. 1 side of Water street were built about the beginning of

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the last war, and the new block on the wharf was built entirely the idea of a public highway. All the objects in 1827. The repairs to the old store back of his dwell- of the testator will be answered by a continuous pas. ing house were commenced in the fall of 1830 and were sage. Can his intentions be fulfilled if it is to be a pube finished in 1831. His Will is dated 16th February 1830. lic highway? A public middle or centre alley runs between his older The damages to be paid in such case to the owners stores and those purchased since the date of his Will. of wharf property alone, without calculating the cost

These are his land marks. In the directions relative of curbing, lighting, and paving, nd filling up the to Water street he says, “that Water street be widen heads of docks, will be at the very least one million of ed east and west from Vine street all the way to South dollars, and until the city is ready to pay the whole of street in like manner as it is from the front of my dwell. this sum, the whole of this avenue cannot be opened as ing to the front of my stores on the west side of Water a public highway nor even for public use. If the whole street, and the regulation of the curb stones continued income of the five hundred thousand dollars were apat the same distance from one another as they are at plied to this object alone, it will be perceived that such present opposite to the said dwelling and stores, so that a project cannot be affected for fifty years to come. the regulation of the said street be not less than thirty But this fund has two other objects, the removal of nine feet wide, and afford a large and convenient fool. wooden buildings, and the widening of Water street, way clear of obstructions and incumbrance of every and supplying it with Schuylkill water, laying iron nature, and the cellar doors on which, if any shall be pipes, establishing pumps and fire plugs, and repairing permitted, not to extend from the buildings on to the the middle alleys. If all these objects are to go on tofootway more than four feet; the said width to be in- gether, then it will be perceived that a still longer decreased gradually as the funds shall permit, and as the lay must take place in the opening of Delaware Ave. capacity to remove impediments shall increase, until nue--and if the whole income is to be applied in the there shall be a correct and permanent regulation of first place to that object alone, then it inevitably follou s Water street on the principles above stated, so that it may that a main intention of Mr. Girard will be entirely de. run north and south as straight as possible.'

feated, that of renovating and improving Water street His buildings on Water street therefore formed the within any reasonable period of time. guide, for the regulation and width of Water street, These facts show also that Mr. Girard never did conand the city have placed that construction of this clause template a public highway along the Delaware front of his Will, by declaring that by “not less than thirty- east of Water street. Another fact is deserving of nonine feet wide,” in connesion with the monuments on tice. There is no city in the United States so well prothe street, he meant thirty-nine feet and no more, and vided as Philadelphia with the means to immediate they have accordingly established that as the permanent egress and regress from the whaves into a public street width of new Water street.

like Water street, which is to be improved for this very He has said that this passage shall be “not less than purpose. twenty-one feet wide,” and by examining his old store Between Cedar and Pine streets there are eight alleys. that he repaired and new faced towards the river in 1830 Between Pine and Spruce streets there are five alleys. and 1831, there will be found just feet Between Spruce and Walnut streets there are eight alwithout any foot pavement between the eastern front leys, beside the Drawbridge. Between Walnut and and the dock in front of it. This shows that his own Chesnut streets there are two ihorough cuts, besides buildings on the wharf and his wharves and docks other alleys leading into them. Between Chesnut and formed monuments by which this passage was to be Market there are three thorough cuts besides alleys laid out.

leading into them. Between Market and Arch streets His new store was built in 1827, and is one of the there are six alleys. Between Arch and Race streets finest buildings of its kind, and was intended by him to there are five alleys. Between Race and fine street form a permanent monument of his skill and know. there are six alleys. These alleys are only from one ledge. By the plan proposed by the committee of hundred and eight feet to one hundred and six feet in Councils, a considerable part of its eastern front must length, and lead directly from the wharves at very conbe cut away, and the building itself seriously injured, venient distances into a public street. an effect certainly never contemplated or intended by The wharves are intended simply for commercial purhim when he made his Will.

poses, and no interference whatever with them can be Assuming then these two stores, and the dock and permitted without a sacrifice of the commerce of the wharf as land marks used by him, then it follows that city. All that is wanted is a convenient method of getthe avenue should be only twenty-one feet wide without ting from the wharves when paved, cleaned, and con. a foot pavement in front of his old store, and of course nected, and this is afforded by those numerous avenues of the same width throughout, and that he did not think already provided by the wisdom and foresight of our it necessary to take even one straight line from street to citizens. At present a variety of charges on trade are street, because you must take another line to avoid cut avoided, and the commerce of the city increased, by ting down his new store. This is supported by his the conveniences afforded of landing four, whiskey, words. “All along the east part of Water street linseed oil, mackerel, cotton, sugar, coffee, molasses, squares and the west side of the logs which form the grain, salt, and western produce generally, besides a head of the docks or thereabouts," and he also omits large amount of foreign and other articles landed at entirely the language used by him in relation to Water wharves fronting the stores where they are warestreet, which directs that it may run north and south housed. These advantages bave also increased the vaas straight as possible." All this it will be perceived is lue of wharf property, and have induced many persons, in strict consonance with our construction of its being in various branches of business, to locate themselves in a passage merely, but is entirely opposed to the other stores immediately adjacent to the wharves. A public construction that he intended it to be a public highway. highway like the one proposed, would cut off all direct

There is also another consideration worthy of notice. communication between the vessels and the stores, and If this was a public highway, nothing could be conve- at once render the employment of additional hands neniently landed at the head of his dock, nor could goods cessary to discharge or load a vessel, and thus increase be allowed to remain at all on the wharf, but must be the cost, and of course diminish the commercial advanportered at once from the vessel to the store at a consid- tages of our port. Philadelphia maintains her present erable additional charge.

commerce only by her superior economy, and if that is It may be that the testator, who had long been a taken away, business must naturally flow to New York Warden of the Port of Philadelphia, simply intended and other ports more favourably situated than this city to carry into effect the Act of the 29th March 1830,which for commercial business. we have already noticed, and which would repudiate Your memorialists, for these and other reasons which





they do not deem it necessary to press at this time, do between these streets as the west line, except in the not besitate to say, that such a measure as that now be. cases of Paul Beck's stores next to Pine street, and fore your honourable bodies, would reduce at once the Richard Willing's above Spruce street, the projections value of all wharf property, and strike a fatal blow at of which are to be cut off, and of the stores at the souththe commerce of our flourishing city.

west corner of Walnut and the wharf, which are a few It will be recollected, that the whole Delaware wharf fect west of this line. This gives twenty-one feet front within the limits of the city, including the public throughout, except in one or two instances where an as well as private wharres, is about 5,400 feet, and that additional wharf log wil be required, and at the Drawit cannot be increased. Destroy its present accommo- bridge, which the city authorities are now filling up. dations, created at the expense of private individuals, From Walnut to Chesnut take the east line of Thoand with private capital, and not by public liberality, mas P. Cope's stores, and the adjoining stores, to Chesand you injure this noble city, but you do not fulfil the nut street, as proposed by the Committee of Councils. will of Stephen Girard, who was too able a merchant Then beginning on the north side of Chesnut street, not to have foreseen the consequences of such a mea- in a line with Paul Beck's stores between Chesnut and

Market,and continue that line to the division line between In his emphatic language, he says—“But if the said Paul Beck and George Blight, then curve so as to recity shall knowingly and wilfully violate any of the con move the five feet of wall projecting from Geo. Blight's ditions hereinbefore and hereinafter mentioned, then I southern building, and so as to leave untouched all his give and bequeath the said remainder and accumula- other buildings, until you bring it in a line with his tions to the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, for the tavern, and continue that as the west line to Market purposes of internal navigation. But your memorialists street. feel confident that this will never be done by your ho. This fills up the Crooked Billet dock, and saves a nourable bodies.

very valuable and expensive building on Market street. Your memorialists, having thus stated their objections Take the line of the present buildings on the north to the plan before Councils, beg leave (reserving all side of Market street until you reach the property late their rights to a full compensation for all damages which Bickley's now the City's. This will leave the whole may be sustained by any of them) respectfully to sug- front of Market street and the Fish Market as they now gest one which they believe will entirely fulfil the inten. stand, forming a projecting centre in the line of the tion of the testator.

wharf front. Take down so much of Bickley's stores 1 To make the west line of the Delaware Avenue as will bring them on a line with S Girard's new store, agreeably to a dotted line marked on the draft accompa. then curve at the corner of said store, and take the cast nying this memorial. This will save the front of the front of S. Girard's old store as the west line, and conFish market, S. Girard's new store, and several other tinue that line to Arch street. valuable buildings.

This leaves S. Girard's stores and wharves untouch. 2. Make the width only twenty-one feet, without any cd, and fills up the heads of the two docks to the north foot pavement.

of them. 3. Lay it out as a passage merely, agreeably to said

From Arch to Race street take the line proposed by plan, but not as a public or common highway, reserv

the Committee of Councils, which leaves all the stores ing all the rights of the owners of wharves, together and buildings untouched, and fills up the head of one with the undisturbed use of them, for all commercial dock, and will add only a wharf log or two in some purposes as heretofore.

other places to get the twenty-one feet. 4. Let all the other directions of the testator relative From Race to Vine street take a line beginning at to it be strictly fulfilled.

the southeast corner of Sarchet's store, and running If this plan is adopted, the expense will be compara. Flintham's, and from thence in a straight line to Vine

to the southeast corner of Jacob Ridgway's store, late tively small. The passage could be laid out without

street. delay throughout the whole extent, and within a very short period could be made, curbed, lighted, and paved. leave the foot pavements as they now stand, between

Wherever the width of the wharves will permit to Your memorialists, therefore, most respectfully re- the west line and the stores, and where the width pernew their remonstrance against the passage of the pre mits and there are no foot pavements, to leave from sent ordinance, and pray your honourable bodies to ask three to five feet between the west line and the stores, of the Legislature such amendments to the Act of the which the owners may use for that purpose if they deem 24th March, 1832, as will make it conform to the Will it expedient. of our deceased fellow citizen.

It will be perceived that this is the cheapest and most DESCRIPTION

commodious location for Delaware Avenue that can be

adopted. of the western line for Delaware Avenue, proposed by the owners and occupiers of wharf property on the

The subjoined communication was received and read, river Delaware.

but was not acted on. Beginning on the north side of Cedar street, at the To the Honorable the Select and Common Councils of distance of about feet from the southeast

the city of Philadelphia. corner of the building at the corner of Cedar street and Gentlemen--The subscriber having taken a part in the wharf, and continuing in a straight line so as to strike the deliberations of the holders of property on the Dethe northeast corner of the most projecting store be- laware Front, whose memorial will be before you this tween Cedar and Lombard streets, and from thence in evening, has reason for dissenting from the committee a continued straight line to Lombard street wbarf. This in the line they have proposed for Delaware Avenue in gives twenty-one feet clear throughout.

two places; but approves of the proposed line every Beginning on the north side of Lombard street, in a where else. The first objection is to the line proposed line with the building at the south-west corner of Pine in the square between South and Pine street, the second street and the wharf, and continuing that line to Pine to the line between Chesnut and High street. I offer street. This gives twenty-one feet in the clear, except at present no reasons why I dissent from the line proat the part of the head of the first dock above Lombard posed by the committee for those two squares, and only street, which will only require a wharf-log or two to say that I have full confidence that Councils will progive the width of feet.

tect the rights of individuals and show no partiality. From Pine to Walnut take the line understood to be I am with great respect, proposed by the plan of the Committee of Councils,

Your humble servant, which takes the fronts of the stores as they now stand




matters referred to them, and make report at the next The President submitted a certified statement of the meeting of Councils. accounts of the Executors of the last will and testament

On motion of Dr. Huston, of Stephen Girard, from December 20, 1831, to May cil, in reference to changing the name of South Alley to

The consideration of the resolution from Select Coun. 15, 1833, by which appears that the money and property by them received was $4,664,619 80; amount ex

Commerce street, was, afier some debate, in which Dr. pended $4, 194, 168 40—leaving a balance in the hands Huston, and Messrs. Chandler, Haines, Smith, Aken, of the Executors of $470,451 40. Appended, was the and Maitland, took part, postponed for the present. following

On motion of Mr. Lapsley,

The Select Council was informed that the Common SCHEDULE

Council was in waiting to receive the members of Se. Showing the cost of the Real Estate of the late Stephen lect Council, for the purpose of proceeding to the elec.

Girard, purchased between the years 1785, and tion of a Trustee of the Girard College, in the place of 18.32, viz:

John C. Stocker, Esq. deceased. Cost of the real estate in the city and Li

The Select Council being introduced, the President, berties, including banking house and

Joseph R. Ingersoll, Esq. took the chair.

Alessis. J. bank estate

$1,291,198 53 P. Wetherill of the Select Council, and Joseph Smith, Cost of the real estate in Passyunk and

of the Common Council, were appointed tellers, and an Moyamensing townships

230,944 45 election for Trustees of the Girard College was entered

upon by ballot.

1,522,142 98 Cost of 200,370 arpens or acres of land in Ouachita county, Louisiana,

42,680 91 Cost of 29,4943 acres of coal land in Schuylkill county

175,246 32 Cost of 6,000 acres of land in Erie county

1,764 25

The result of the first balloting was reported by Mr.
Wetherill, as follows-
Alexander Bache,

9 votes. Josiah Randall,

5 do. Nathan Bunker,

3 do. R. E. Griffith,

1 do. James S. Smith,

1 do

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10 votes..

Amount of the personal property which

Neither of the candidates having received a majority has passed through the hands of S. Gi.

of the whole number of votes, the President deciared rard's Executors, up to this date, as per

there was no election. A second ballot was entered account filed with the Register 4,577,330 02 upon, which resulted in the choice of Alexander Bache, Cost of the real estate as above

1,741,834 46 Esq. to wit

Alexander Bache,
6,319,164 48
Josiah Randall,

4 do. Nathan Bunker,

2 do. Assessed value of the real estate in the city and county R. E. Griffith,

1 do. of Philadelphia, for the purposes of ascertaining the James S. Smith,

1 do. collateral inheritance tax thereon.

John H. Dullis,

1 da Walnut ward

167,000 00 Pine ward 119,300 00

19 Middle ward

285,776 CO Whereupon Councils adjourned. Chesnut ward

69,500 00 Iligh street ward

293,480 00


94,410 00 Unincorporated part of Penn township 30,000 00 The opinion that the sulphur, disengaged by the conFirst ward, Spring Garden

16,500 00 sumption of stone coal, serves a valuable purpose in Third ward, Spring Garden

2,400 00 checking the progress of disease among us, is by no Sixth ward, Northern Liberties

88,300 00 means a new one, got up to prepare our citizens to meet Moyamensing township

16,935 00 with confidence, the advance of the Asiatic Cholera. South Mulberry ward

6,000 00 In 1826, Mr. Samuel Jones prepared a Directory of this

city, and Dr. W. H. Denny, furnished him a communi$1,189,631 00 cation upon the salubrity of this place, from which we

make the following extracts, which will probably be Philadelphia, May, 1833.

interesting to many. What was then theory, or at least

founded on a more limited experience, las, we think, Mr. Smith presented a communication from Paul been recently strongly substantiated. We believe if Beck, Jr. expressing his dissent, in part, from the pro- the Doctor had said "" there is no ague and ferer," inceedings of property-owners and others, on the river stead of " scarcely any,” he would have more precisefront, in relation to Delaware Avenue, which was refer. ly expressed the truth. It does seem, to us, that a case red to the committee having that subject in charge. of ague and fever has not occurred here within the range

Mr. Maitland presented a long memorial from citizens of our recollection, which is by no means short.— Pitts. owning property on the river front, praying that Dela burg Gazette. ware Avenue may not be opened as a public highway. . Of all the great western towns, Pittsburg is the Referred to the committee on Delaware Avenue. farthest removed from the baneful exhalations of the On motion of Mr. Lapsley,

swampy margin of the Mississippi, and accordingly Resolved, That the committee on Washington and enjoys a greater exemption from those diseases, which, Rittenhouse Squares be directed to make report on all during the summer and autumn, prevail even as high up matters referred to them, at the next meeting of Coun

as Cincinnati. Surrounded, too, by hills and cultivated cils.

lands, and free from stagnant water, there are no local

sources of disease. The smoke of bituminous coal is On motion of Mr. Aken,

antimiasmatic. It is sulphurous and antiseptic, and Resolved, that the committee on the State House hence it is, perhaps, that no putrid disease has ever and Independence Square, be directed to act on all been known to spread in the place. Strangers, with




weak lungs, for a while find their coughs aggravated by a great noise, and the Archbishop of Belloi excommu. the smoke, but nevertheless, asthmatic patients have nicated the young ecclesiastic, who had dared to speak found relief in breathing it. The prevailing complaints his mind on such a delicate subject. In a few days the are those which characterize the liealthiest situations of Reverend Prelate was obliged to fly his country. The the same latitude elsewhere in America-in winter, subject of this sketch now determined to make medipneumonia and sore throat, and in summer, billious af- cine i profession, and on becoming acquainted with a fections. The goitre, or swelled neck, has disappear. surgeon of the army, he went with him to Port au ed; the few cases which formerly excited the appre

Prince. hensions of the stranger, no longer exist to gratify his

In this place he became known, and was engaged by curiosity. In comparison with the eastern cities, there Boyer ani Chanlatte as a commissioner to repair to is much less pulmonary consumption; less scrofula and France to solicit aid for the whites and mulatioes against less disease of the skin. There is scarcely any ague the insurgent slaves. The commissioners arrived at and fever, and no yellow fever. In comparison with Paris just two months before the arrest of the King. western cities, including Cincinnati, there is less bilious They were introduced to the Assembly, but soon the fever, less ague and fever, and less cholera infantum, or food of Jacobinism overwhelmed every thing, and the summer complaint of children. We are the inter. Pascalis thoug it himself fortunate in effecting his es. mediate link of disease, as well as of commerce. We cape to London, and from thence he sailed to Jamaica; have less hepatic disease than the west, and less puimo-i-here he was suspected and underwent a rigid examinic disease than the east.

nation which resulted in his release and honour. The “The abundance, cheapness, and consequent general governor, understandir his whole course, found him a and even profuse use of the best fuel, is certainly one passige to the United States in an English brig. The great cause of our superior healthfulness. The low war was raging between England and France. On his fevers so prevalent in the large cities, among the poor, voyage, as he came near the American shores, the brig during a liard winter, an:l the ague so cominon in wet was chased by a French Republican frigate, and believe seasons, in the eastern counties of the state, where wood ing it impossible to escape from her, he and several is scarce, are here in a great degree avoided by the passengers stepped into an open boat, with a few artiuniversal practice of keeping good coal fires late in the cles of clothing and food, and left the brig. spring and early in the autumn, and indeed at all seasons She was taken, but the next day the adventurers in when the weather is damp or inclement.

the boat arrived at Philaclelphia, or its vicinity. When “Our cxemption from the ague, and epidemic dysen- he left the English brig he destroyed his papers and teries, in comparison with the settlements in the lower charged his paternal to his maternal name which he has counties, and the eastern vallies, may be accounted for ever since retained. This was in the year 1793. He also, in part, by the scarcity of mill dams and stagnant had letters of recommendation to President Washington water, in a country where in the summer, milling for the from several French gentlemen of distinction, and soon most part, is done by steam, and where the m ll streams becaine acquainted with the medical faculty of that ci. generally dry up at the season most likely to produce ty, who have long been distinguished for their learning. disease.

In about two months after the Doctor's arrival, the yel. • In the whole, with regard to the health of Pittsburg, low fever broke out in Philadelphia and spread death and indeed, of the whole western section of Pennsylva- and terror through the land. Pascalis had become ac. nia, it may be said, that no part of the United States is quainted with Dr. Deveze, who had fed from St. 1o. more healthy,and that the greater part will bear no com- mingo, and who had the reputation of being skiltul in parison with it in point of salubrity.”

cases of the yellow fever, having practised many years

at Cape Francaise. The hospital was put under his From the New York Commercial Advertiser.

care and Dr. Pascalis was made an associate, for he was

deeply read in the history and nature of the disease, as BIOGRAPHY

it had appeared in different ages and countries. He Felix Alexunder Ouviere Pascalis, M. D., &c., whose had satisfied himself that the yellow fever was not condeath was recently mentioned in this paper, was born at tagious, and he wrote several essays upon the subject the town of Aix, in Ancient Provence, in 1762, and was which did much towards allaying the fears of the peo. educated in the excellent schools of that place until he ple; and such was the effect of the writings of Pascalis was prepared to enter the University of that city, and others, that the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in When he graduated, he took the first prize of honour, 1802, altered their quarantine law, a majority of that which distinction introduced him to the celebrated body having become non-contagionists. Professor Darluc, a botanist and professor of Natural In 1805, Doctor Pascalis was sent by Mr, Jefferson, History, who lost lois life in a tour to the Alps in making in the United States' ship John Adams, to Spain, to get some experiments on electricity. Although at this time further light upon the yellow fever. How much inforinclined to the study of medicine, Mr. Pascalis accepted mation he derived from this medical voyage, the writer a clerical benefice which was then in the gift of his is unable to say, but on such a mind as his, nothing could family. After this he stirdied divinity three years, on a be lost. foundation established by the Archbishop of that de. On his return in 1806, Doctor Pascalis took up his repartment;—still his partiality for medicine and natural sidence in New York. The next year he was made philosophy was so strong, that his mind was occupied physician to the public charities. In 1812, he became with the thoughts of this science while he was on a tour one of the three editors of the Medical Repository, and through France and Italy. He was now licenced to continued his labours for five years. This work is too preach, and delivered several eulogiums and charity well known to the public to require any observations discourses; but he was drawn, however, from his cleri- on its merits in this place. Doctor Pascalis received cal pursuits, by attending his older brother's lectures the two prizes from medical institutions, in this country, on physical science.

offered for the best essays on given subjects; one from He was indulging in the pursuits of general know- Yale College, and the other from the University of ledge, and making himself a physician, when the revo- Pennsylvania, which, in both instances, were followed lution of 1789 broke out in the South of France. His by honorary degrees from those highly respectable insti. brother was decidedly attached to the royal party—but tutions. the subject of this sketch was an advocate of liberal For several years past, Dr. Pascalis has been indefa. principles, and with youthful ardour joined the demo- tigable in introducing into this country the Chinese cracy of the country. His active mind could never be mulberry tree, and in giving the public the most exten. quiet, and he dashed out into the literary world, in a sive information on the proper methods of feeding the work, on the celibacy of the clergy. The essay made silk-worm, and winding the silk.

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