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An idea is generally entertained, that the Alleghany the command of Capt. Worrell. A number of seamen mountain is the great back bone of the country, from attached to the navy, with blue jackets and white trow. which the streams flow on either side, and that it con- sers, walked in the procession, after these, several of stitutes the dividing ground between the eastern and the clergy, western waters. This opinion is in a great degree er- The relations of the deceased and a large number of roneous. It is true in Pennsylvania only, as to the citizens followedthe corpse, which was supported by country south of the Juniata and Conemaugh, compris- six naval and military officers, in full uniform. Next ing about one third of the width of the state-north of followed the officers of such military companies as were those streams the dividing ridge will be found far west not on duty, and an escort, the 128th regiment, under of the mountain known as the Alleghany. In Maryland the command of Col. Watmough, concluded the pro. and in the northern part of Virginia, the Alleghany di- cession, which moved to solemn music from a fine mi. vides the waters of the Ohio from those of the chesa litary band, with muffled drums. peake, the Kenhawa, however, not only breaks that The procession moved down Walnut to Fourth, up mountain, but all between it and the Blue ridge, and Fourth to Chesnut, up Chesnut to Fifth, and thence to takes its rise at the western base of the latter range. the place of interment, Christ Church burying-ground, The Holston river, also, which is one of the main corner of Fifth and Arch streets. The corpse was debranches of the Tennessee, has its origin east of the posited under a discharge of musketry. Minute guns Alleghany mountain.

were fired at the Navy Yard during the procession.In connexion with what we have said of the moun. U. S, Guzette. tains of Pennsylvania, & general view of its geological structure may prove interesting.

From the Salem (Mass.) Gazette. The south eastern border of the state is a primitive formation, composed principally of Gneiss rock, with

MEMOIR OF COM. BAINBRIDGE. some intermixture of granite. The western boundary Commodore Bainbridge was born at Princeton, New of this formation crosses the Delaware near New Hope, Jersey, on the 7th of May, 1774. At the age of 16, he and passes south westerly through Bucks, Montgomery, was placed as an apprentice to the sea service, in the and Chester, to near Kennett square, then about west employ of Messrs. Miller and Murray, merchants of Phil. to the centre of York county, where it again turns adelphia. In their employ he made many voyages, and south west, and passes into Maryland. The primitive rose to command. At 18 years of age, while mate of is succeeded on the west by the transition formation, the ship Hope, on her way to Holland, the crew rose which reaches to the Alleghany mountain. That por- upon the officers, seized the captain, and had nearly tion of it below the Blue ridge is what geologists call succeeded in throwing him overboard, when young the Old Red sandstone. The line between the transi- Bainbridge hearing the alarm, ran on deck with an olă tion and secondary formation follows the Alleghany pistol without a lock, and being assisted with an apmountain from south to north, until it approaches the prentice boy and an Irish sailor, rescued the captain, west branch Susquehanna, and crosses that stream near seized the ringleaders, and quelled the mutiny. At the Williamsport, in Lycoming county, about 40 miles be. age of 19 he received the command of a ship, and from low Dunnstown, where by the maps the Alleghany is the year 1793 till 1798, he commanded merchant ships represented to cross. It was this direction of the moun. in the trade trom Philadelphia to Europe. In the year tain as laid down from its general character as a boun. 1796, on his way from Bourdeaux to St. Thomas, in dary between the secondary and transition which in the ship Hope, with four small carriage guns and nine duced us to express our opinion in a former number, men, he had an engagement with a British schooner of that the map makers lave erred, by adopting the re. 8 guns and 35 men, commanded by a sailing master in ceived opinion of the country, instead of attending to the navy, and after a smart action, compelled her to more certain indications. The same boundary crosses strike her colors. As, however, the two countries were the north branch near Tunkhanock. North west of at peace, and he of course acting only on the defenthis line the remainder of Pennsylvania is a secondary sive, he could not take possession of her, but sent her region in which the rocks uniformly lie horizontal. One off contemptuously to make a report of her action. result of this arrangement is, that the streams in the In the month of July, 1798, he received, without any northern and western parts of the state, are much more application on his part, an offer of the command of the gentle and navigable in proportion to their size, than v. s. States schooner, Retaliation, of 14 guns, to be those which pass through the transition and primitive employed against France, between which power and regions.

the United States hostilities had recently commenced. The Alleghany, Monongahela, and Tioga, are almost Having accepted the appointment, he sailed in the Rewithout falls or rapids of any kind. So also is the north taliation, and accompanied the squadron under Com. branch above Tunkhannock, and the west branch until modore Murray, on a cruise in the West Indies. While it arrives at Muncy, where a ripple marks its introduc. cruising to the windward of Guadaloupe, the Retaliation into the transition formation. The main river Sus. tion was captured by two French frigates and a lugger, quehanna, passing in its whole course through the and taken into that' island, where she remained three transition and primitive, presents a succession of ripples months. He reached home in February, 1799, and bis and falls, never precipitous, but still producing serious exchange being soon effected, he received a commisobstructions to the navigation.

sion of master commandant, and sailed in the brig NorThe general remarks which we have thus made, folk, of 18 guns, on a second cruise to the West Indies. seemed necessary to complete our view of the moun- Here he remained, convoying the trade of the United tains of Pennsylvania, and to prepare the way for the States, for some months, during which time he captured task which we propose for our next, a description of a French privateer, ran ashore another of sixteen guns, the Great river of our state, the majestic Susquehanna. destroyed a number of barges, besides taking many of

the enemy's merchant vessels. FUNERAL OF COM. BAINBRIDGE.

When he returned to the United States, he received

a captain's commission, and was appointed to the com. The funeral of Commodore Bainbridge, was attended mand of the frigate George Washington, in which he on Monday, July 29th, 1833, with all the ceremony due shortly afterward sailed for Algiers, with the presents the worth and high public services of that distinguished which the United States were by treaty bound to make naval commander.

to that regency. He arrived in safety at Algiers, on The procession commenced moving from the late the 17th September, 1800, and was received with evedwelling of the deceased, about six o'clock, preceded ry demonstration of good feeling. In a few days, how. by the volunteer company of Washington Greys, under lever, these friendly appearances vanished, and the Dey 1833.1




inade a most unexpected and extraordinary demand, successful. The prisoners were often obstinate, uncom that the George Washington should carry his ambas- plying, and mischievous ; yet the Tripolitans who had sador with presents to the Grand Seignor at Constanti. charge of them were rarely provoked to punish them. nople.

They used often to say, that the Americans were the Captain Bainbridge resisted this unexampled demand most difficult to manage of any people they had ever vigorously for some time, till at length, exasperated by seen. opposition, the Dey sent for him and peremptorily de- A treaty of peace between the United States and Tri. manded that the frigate should go to Constantinople; poli was concluded in 1805, and on the third day of threatening. in case of refusal, to make slaves of all the June, the prisoners were liberated after a confinement Americans in Algiers, to detain the frigate, and send of thirteen months, and soon after sailed for America, out his cruisers against the defenceless trade of the Captain Bainbridge was received rather as a returning United States. Moved by the danger to which the conqueror than as a vanquished prisoner, and was acpersons and commerce of his countrymen were exposed quitted of all blame by a court of inquiry held at his by his refusal, Bainbridge at length consented to re- request

. ceive the Algerine Anibassador.

From 1806 to 1812; he occupied himself part of the They sailed from Algiers on the 19th of October, and time in merchant service, and the remainder of the time the frigate anchored at Constantinople in 23 days from was employed in various naval duties. In 1812, he was her departure. The next day three officers were sent appointed to the command of the navy yard at Charleson board in succession to know what ship that was, and town; and on the arrival at Boston, of Captain Hul), what colors she had hoisted. They were told, that it after his victory over the British frigate Guerriere, he was an American frigate and an American flag. They having applied for a furlough, Commodore Bainbridge said they did not know any such country. Captain was permitted to take command of the Constitution. Bainbridge explained that America was the new world “In a few weeks he sailed, in company with the by which name they had some idea of the country. sloop of war Hornet, Captain Lawrence, on a cruise to After these inquiries the frigate came into the harbor, the East Indies. After parting company with Captain änd Captain Bainbridge was received with unusual ho. Lawrence, he was running down the coast of Brazil

, The mission of the Dey of Algiers, however, when on Thursday, the 29th of December, he discov. failed in its objects, and after a month's delay, the ered, about nine in the morning, two sail, one of which George Washington sailed from Constantinople, car- was standing off shore towards him. He immediately rying the Algerine ambassador's secretary back to Al. made sail to meet the strange ship, and finding, as he giers, with an account of the unfortunate result of his approached her, that she did not answer his private embassy.

signals, proceeded out to sea in order to seperate her Bainbridge sailed from Algiers about the last of Ja- from her companion, and draw her off the neutral coast. nuary, and arrived at Philadelphia in the month of About one o'clock, having reached what he considered April, 1801. Before his return, the cessation of hostil. a proper distance from the shore, he hoisted his ensign ities with France had caused a reduction of the navy, and pendant, which was answered by English colors, and there were retained only nine captains, of which he and perceiving that she was an English frigate, (the had the satisfaction of finding himself one. In the fol. Java, Captain Lambert,) he took in the royals, tacked, lowing June, he received the command of the frigate and stood for the enemy. The Java immediately bore Essex, which was built in this town and presented to down, intending to rake, which the Constitution avoidgovernment by the merchants of Salem. About this ed by wearing. The enemy being now within half a time, the regency of Tripoli, emboldened by the suc- mile to windward, and having hauled down his flag, the cess of the Algerines, commenced hostilities against the Constitution fired a gun a head to make him show his United States, to oppose which, a squadron of frigates, colors, and immediately poured in her whole broadside, among which was the Essex, was sent to the Mediter- on which English colors, were hosted, and the fire re

Here he continued for thirteen or fourteen turned. On this the action became general, within months, but did not fall in with any of the Tripolitan grape and cannister distance. In a few minutes the cruisers.

wheel of the Constitution was shot away; and in about He returned to New York in July, 1802, and in May, half an hour, Commodore Bainbridge, finding that his 1803, was appointed to the command of the Philadel. adversary still kept too far off, determined to close with phia. In July he sailed in her to join the Mediterranean him at the risk of being raked. He therefore luffed up squadron, then under Com. Preble, He was here em. so close to the Java, that in p. ssing her jib-boom got ployed in blockading the harbor of Tripoli, and, on foul of the Constitution's mizen rigging; and having ilie 31st October, gave chase to a strange ship that was now gained a nearer position, he poured in so well di. seen running for the harbor of Tripoli. The chase was rected a fire, that in ten minutes he shot away the Java's unsuccessful, and the Philadelphia was returning, when, jib-boom and part of the bowsprit ; in five minutes as she was going at the rate of six or seven knots, she more the foremast went by the board-her main topmast rán úpon rocks about four miles and a half from the followed then the gaft and spanker boom, and lastly, town. As soon as she had grounded, the ginboats the mizenmast went nearly by the board. came out to attack her; but while she continuued up. At five minutes past four, one hour and fifty-five minright, with the few guns that could be brought to bear, utes from the commencement of the action, the Java's she kept the enemy at a distance; but she soon lay over fire was completely silenced, and her colors being down 80 much on one side that she could not use her Commodore Bainbridge supposed that she had struck ; guns. At length, after sustaining the enemy's fire for he therefore shot ahead to repair his rigging ; five or six hours,' a council of war of all the officers but while hove to for that purpose, discovered that her unanimously advised a surrender. The magazine was colors were still flying, although her mainmast had just therefore drowned; the arms and every article of value gone by the board. He therefore bore down again upthrown overboard; the ship scuttled, the pump choked, on her, and having got close athwart her bows, was on and the colors were then hauled down.

the point of raking her with a broadside, when she The frigate was plundered of every thing that could hauled down her colors, being a completely ummanabe got at, when the Tripolitans got on board. They geable wreck, entirely dismasted, without a spar of any took from Captain Bainbridge his watch and epaulets, kind standing. On boarding her, it was found that and the cravat from his neck; but with much struggling Captain Lambert had been mortally wounded, and that and difficulty he saved the miniature of his wife. The the Java was so much injured, that it would be impossiofficers and crew, however, were pretty well treated, sible to bring her to the United States. All the prison. as prisoners of war, after they were landed in Tripoli. ers and the baggage were therefore brought on board Several attempts were made to escape, but all were un- the Constitution, a service which it required two days VOL. XII.



to perform, there being but a single boat left between formation as you are pleased to tell me will be interest. the two frigates. On the 31st, she was blown up, and ing. the Constitution put into St. Salvador. The Java car. It is most singular that this extensive undertaking, cosried forty-nine guns, and upwards of four hundred men: stituting as it does, a most important link in the great she was bound to the East Indies, and hac!, in addition chain of intercommunication, connecting the waters of to her own crew, upwards of one hundred supernume- the Delaware with those of the Ohio at Pittsburg, and rary officers and seamen, for different ships on the East so near the successful accomplishment of its object, India station.

should have created so little interest in our city; and “ Her loss was sixty killed ; and among these was you may possibly be uninformed of the fact, that upon Captain Lambert. Of the wounded, the accounts varied the completion of the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail from one hundred and one (which were ascertained po. Way and the Portage across the Alleghany mountains, sitively) to one hundred and seventy.

expected to occur almost simultaneously and by the en. “On board the Constitution, nine were killed, and suing summer, there will be an entire, continuous and twenty-five wounded ; among whom was the Commo uninterrupted communication between the cities of dore himself.

Pittsburg and Philadelphia, comprising, however, but a “ This victory was scarcely less honorable to Commo- portion of the stupendous system of Internal Improve. dore Bainbridge, than the generosity with which he ex. ments undertaken by this enterprising commonwealth, ercised the right of a conqueror. While on board, the at an expense of millions of dollars drawn from her prisoners were treated with the most respectful atten- yeomanry and her people, who will, however, eventu. tion. Immediately on their landing at St. Salvador, ally find themselves abundantly remunerated for the they were set at liberty on parole, and received every pressure and inconvenience of augmented laxes, by the article of their baggage ; and particularly, a service of augmentation, security and certainty given to her complate belonging to General Ilislop, was carefully pre merce, her agriculture, and her manufactures, the preserved and restored to himn. These proofs of honorable servation and diffusion of her wealth and resources, courtesy were not lost on the prisoners, who expressed and the consequent secure establishment given to the their gratitude in a manner creditable to themselves as foundation of their happiness and prosperity. to the victors.

This rail rrad, as originally designed, extends from The decayed state of the Constitution, and other cir. Philadelphia to the town of Columbia, on the Susquecumstances, combined to interfere with the original lianna river, and terminates at a point about thirteen plan of the cruise, Commodore Bainbridge now left the miles below York Haven, of which we have been acHornet to blockade a superior British force at St. Sal. customed to hear so much in connexion with our Susvador, and returned to the United States.

quehanna Rail Road. The distance between these two This was the only action in which Commodore Bain. places by the Rail Road is 81miles. Following the bridge was engaged during the war. After the peace line of the road from the intersection of Vine and Broad of 1815, having superintended the building of the Inde street in Philadelphia for rather more than 2 miles, pendence 74, he had the honor of waving his flag on you arrive at the foot of the Schuylkill inclined plane, board the first line of battle ship belonging to the Unit. which is about 50 feet above mean tide, on which level ed States that ever floated. He was ordered to form a the road runs to this point. This plane is about 2700 junction with Commodore Decatur to cruise against feet in length, and its elevation from base to summit is the Barbary Powers, who had shown a disposition to about 180 feet. There is at the western extremity of plunder our commerce. In company with his own the road another inclined plane at Columbia. This is squadron, he arrived before the harbor of Carthagena, near 2000 feet in length, and has an elevation from foot where he learned that Commodore Decatur had con to head of 90 feet. Stationary steam power will of cluded a peace with the regency of Algiers. He now, course be resorted to, to overcome these acclivities. The according to his instructions, presented himself before distance from the head of the plane at Philadelphia to Tripoli, where also he learned that Commodore Deca- the head of that at Columbia, exceeds 77 miles, and tur had anticipated him by a previous visit. He return in the whole of this distance the elevation will not exed to the United States on the 15th November, 1815 ; ceed 30 feet to the mile, a degree of ascent overcome was afterwards appointed one of the Navy Commission with the utmost facility by the aid of horse power alone, ers; and resumed the command at the Navy Yard, in and for the purposes of rail road transportation almost Charlestown. His health had been declining some time equivalent to a level. The average ascent, however, before his removal to Philadelphia, last autumn, and lit. does much exceed 25 feet to the mile. tle or no hope of his recovery was entertained at that The road is entirely graded, the cuttings and emtime.

bankments generally slight. The highest point on the

line is at “The Gap,” about 30 miles from Columbia. PHILADELPHIA AND COLUMBIA RAIL-WAY. The excavation through a ledge at this gap, may be To the Editor of the Bultimore Guzette.

said to be the only one of any consequence on the whole

line of the work, and even this sinks into comparative Sd Division Philad. Fa Colao BailWay} unimportance in extent, though not in embarrassments

and difficulties, when contrasted with the stupendous Sir, I have already acknowledged the receipt of your rocks thorough cuts of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail kind favour and it would have afforded me much gratifica- Road, the dizzy height of its embankments, and the im. tion, to have been enabled, on the instant, to furnish you posing appearance of its celebrated"

deep cut.” Dif. the information you requested, as regards the condition ficulties of a most disheartening nature have been interand progress of this work.

posed at this point, and the necessity of an abandonment I have for some time had it in contemplation to give of the cut, and a resort to the inconvenience of the inyou a minnte and detailed account of the past opera- clined plane to effect its passage, have been constantly tions, present situation, and prospective advancement threatened. of this Rail-Way, and on the very day 1 bad selected These difficulties, however, have been vigorously for the performance of this agreeable task, instructions encountered and very nearly subdued by an excellent were received from the Chief Engineer to have the and efficient Chief Engineer, Edward F. Gay,, Esq. line of my Division immediately prepared for the re. to whose science, skill and energy the state is already ception of the rails, hourly expected from England. much indebted for many valuable improvements and The performance of this duiy has so entirely occupied practical benefits in the line of his profession. The my time, that I have hitherto been deprived of this plea- soil through which this cut makes its way is an alluvial sure, and avail myself of the present season of compa- formation, amorphous in the character of its masses, rative leisure, for the purpose of giving you such in- I though consisting principally of sand and loam. Innu1833.]



merable springs have made their appearance since the possessed on this work in the facility of turning its excavation, in the bottom of the cut, sometimes pouring curves and tire freedom of action a locomotive woulderin streams through the pass. The banks, though in. ert in its progress over them. To counteract the centri. dulged with a most liberal slope, are constantiy settling fugal force the outer rail of the curves is to be elevated and filling in, and you but remove one mass of fallen in the same manner as on the Baltimore Road ; this elebank to give place to another, awaiting its removal. In' vation, of course, dependant upon the radius of curvamany places its depth cannot be fathomed; extensive ture. quick sands project over the surface of the water col. The country through which the road winds its way is lected from countless streams fowing in its bed, and unsurpassed in interest and beauty. The whole line of present a deceitful appearance of security and solidi- the rail road, and the Lancaster turnpike pursuing the ty. Description can convey no adequate idea of the ap- same course, and alternately crossing each other, is for palling difficulties here presented. By heavy piling and many miles richly s'udded with magnificent and imposflooring of massive timbers, and a slight increase in the ing rnansions, delightful villas, substantial farm houses angle of ascent, they have so far succeeded in their and capacious barns and granaries, and for twenty conflict with these formidable impediments as to leave miles presents to the enraptured gaze the appearance but little doubt that they will be completely removed of one extensive and continuous village, the abode of by the period of the completion of the rest of the diviti healtti, industry and content, the home of the happy the and that nothing here will interfere 10 procrastinate an virtuous and the frugal. But few towns of any conseuninterrupted communication between the Schuylkill quence are passed in its route. Many streams, creeks and the Susquehanna, when the other portions of the and rivulets are traversed by it, but you meet with no road shall have been brought to their termination. This such splendid specimens of Masonry as on the Balticut is about 32 feet deep, The bed of the road here is more road. Their passage is generally effected by 560 feet above mean tide, 300 feet above the lead of means of wooden structures, of the most substantial the plane at Schuylkill, and 200 above that at Colum. description, designed tastefully, placed judiciously bia.

in their mechanical execution, remarkable for their Much judgment has been evinced in the location of neatness, and well calculated for durability and security. the road, and its facilities for keeping within the limits i The Schuylkill, howerer, is crossed by a splendid via. of the angle of ascent, which experience has prescrib. duct of stone 980 feet long. Of this I cannot speak ed as a maximum for effective operations, without a re. from personal observation, but understand that it will sort to extensive excavations and embankments, are not constitute a lasting specimen of architectural beauty, to be met with on any similar work of the same extent and magnificent effect. yet projected. The grading is unsurpassed in excel- The most remarkable s'ructures of timber are over ience. The excavations have generally been faithfully the great and little Conestoga, near Lancaster. The executed, and the embankments present an unusual ap- one is 1400 feet in length, and 34 in breadth, resting on pearance of compactness and solidity. Nearly four ten piers—the other is about 1000 feet long. They are years have passed away since the grading commenced, entirely completed. The road passes directly through and that lapse has effected much in the consolida. the city of Lancaster, and from thence to its point of tion of the banks, and contributed greatly to their pre destination, Columbia, on the Susquehanna. Columsent peculiar adaptation to the support of the stone bia is a thriving and flourishing town, with about 2,500 blocks, without fear of settling and derangement. inhabitants. An immense business is here transacted Thick matted blue grass of vigorous and exuberant in flour, grain, sumber, coal, and other produce, and the growth has in many places extensively covered the approaching completion of this great work has given an slopes, preserving and protecting them from the ruinous enlivening and gratifying impetus to their commercial effects of heavy rains and washes, of such frequent oc- transactions. All is life, and animation, bustle and excurrence upon new formed embankments, and so high- citement; property is on the rise, comfortable and conly prejudicial to their stability and permanence. The venient tenements of brick and wood are springing up herd grass has also been sown upon the embankments, in all directions, giving to its townsmen a gratifying fore. and their slopes, to attain this desirable end. This, taste of the countless advantages which will accrue to however, has but partially succeeded, as the rains have them in the completion of the work which is designed generally washed the seed to the bottom of the road, as the great thoroughfare of the vast commerce of the and the result has been by no means satisfactory west, and which will make their thriving borough the There is, however, one peculiarity incident to Lime depot of transhipments from the Ohio and Lake Erie. stone regions, which has on some sections of the road The whole line from Philadelphia to Columbia has been greatly interrupted the regularity of its formation. placed in the hands of skillful and energetic contracThey are the “sinks” occasioned by the settling of the tors, bound by the terms of their cngagements, to com. internal arches sustaining the bed of the road, and the plete the first track by the first of December, and the draining of water through their fissures, leaving a pas- second by the first of July next. The line has been sage for the loose earth of the bed to find its way to the subdivided, and laid out for contract in sections of two caverns and hollows below. There is no formation so miles each, so as to ensure, by a division of labour and faithless and insecure as the Limestone, and in some responsibility, the completion of the whole within the parts of the Union Canal extensive flooring of timber time specified in the contracts, should no unforeseen defor miles has been resorted to, to retain the water, the lays occur in the delivery of the rails, an abundant supfissures in the limestone bed affording innumer: ble and ply of which is constantly expected. abundant channels to the unexplored and insatiable ca. From Philadelphia westward, 22 miles of the road are vities beneath, exhausting the most copious supplies that completed and in constant use. At about this distance can be obtained for the purposes of its navigation. the Pennsylvania Rail Road, as this is frequently called,

This road has been located with a peculiar view to par excellence," receives in the South Valley Hill, its adaptation to steam power for the purposes of trans- two miles west of Paoli, the West Chester Rail Road. portation, and the shortest radius of curvature occur. This road commences at the Aourishing borough of ring any where on the lines is about 650 feet, being 6 West Chester, containing about 2,000 inhabitants. The deg. of curvature in a chord of 66 feet, and this most distance from that place to its intersection with the desirable end has been attained, as I have already men. Pennsylvania Road is about ten miles. This road is the tioned, with but slight cuttings and fillings. When you result of individual enterprise, having been constructed reflect that the minimum of admissible radius of curva. by a company at an expense of $100,000, and the pub ture on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road is fixed at lic spirited projectors have as yet seen no reason to re 395 feet, or 14 deg. 30 sec. of curvature in a chord of gret'this appropriation of their funds, and the entire 100 feet, you will at once porceive the great advantage completion of this great work will give an animating

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impetus to its transactions. It consists as yef of a sin. From Columbia the Pennsylvania Canal up the Sus gle track, built after the manner of a portion of the quehanna to its point of junctiou with the Juniata, a road on which I last assisted, being laid on sleepers of distance of 42 miles, is completed, in fine order and white oak or chesnut, with pine string pieces secured daily use. Here commences the Juniata division of the in them with wedges and protected at the upper surface Pennsylvania Canal. You must remember I arn follow with the fat rail of wrought iron.

ing the line of communication between Philadelphia On the portion of the Pennsylvania or Philadelphia and Pittsburg. From the junction of the Susquehanna and Columbia Rail Way, now in operation, different and Juniata rivers, the Pennsylvania Canal pursues its methods of construction have been adopted. Part of course westwardly for 128 miles, following the valley it is constructed after the manner of that portion of the of the Juniata to Hollidaysburg, where it joins the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, between Ellicott's and Alleghany Portage Rail Road. "This rail road, whicis Sykesville, consisting of continuous stone sills placed is nearly completed, extends from Hollidaysburg across longitudinally in trenches escavated for their reception, the Alleghany mountains to Johnstown-ils length is embedded, backed up and levelled in broken stone, 36 miles. The summit of the mountain is about 1400 compactly and firmly mauled. The inner edge of feet above the Canal basin at the eastern base, and these sills is dressed for the reception of the rail, which about 1200 feet above that at the western extremity, is the flat rail, fastened after the manner of the Dahimura whore it again joins the Pennsylvania Cana), and 2,338 and Ohio Road, and champered off to suit the flange feet above the tide water of the verware, of the wheels. Another portion is constructed princi- Following then this western division of the Canal for pally after the method of the wood work of the Balti- 107 miles, you arrive at Pittsburg, making the entire more and Ohio Road, and in one or two instances by distance between Philadelphia and that place, by Canal the same contractors and workmen. These methods and Rail Road, about 394 miles. This rail way I have are both to be abandoned in the continuation of the already mentioned is under contract to be completed by work, and that which is to be hereafter uniformly the first of July next, and the Rail Road across the Aladopted, and has already been extensively so for miles leghany will be completed much before that time. The of the part in use, consists of malleable iron edge rails rest of the line, consisting of Canal and some little slack laid upon stone blocks, and at intervals on locust sills, water navigation, is fully completed, and in fine navigasecured to them with cast iron chars, wedges and ble order, awaiting but the opening of these two works spikes.

to form one entire and uninterrupted communication The blocks are so arranged as to have at each 15 feet between the waters of the Ohio and the Delaware, lineal or transverse locust sill or tie, to secure the line I must now conclude; I feel that I trave beeu tedious, in proper position, and prevent spreading or derange- but you will remember you have asked for a detailed ment.' Trenches are excavated under the line of the description, and you must take the consequences. I rails. Stone broken in such a manner that no particle could not do less than comply with the request of one shall exceed a cube of two inches is compactly rammed from whom I have received so many acts of kindness, therein with a heavy maul. The stone blocks are then and If I have trespassed too far upon your patience, i placed in them; these are of sandstone, granite, or find my justification in my anxiety to place you in posgranular limestone, 22 inches in length, 16 wide and session of all the minute information I possess on the one foot deep: The upper surface of these blocks is subject, and my inability to condense it in a short and dressed smooth for the reception of the chair ; and comprehensive epistle. holes are drilled therein for the reception of pins of lo

I am, very respectfully, cust or cedar, into which iron bolts are driven to secure

Your ob't serv't. the chair to the block. The blocks are arranged and

BENJAMIN F. WEST. adjusted at intervals of three feet The trenches are then filled around these blocks and compactly rammed as before. Under the transverse sills or ties above men

THE DAM ABOVE GREAT ISLAND. tioned trenches are cut and filled with broken stone.

The location of this Dam has occasioned considerable
The edge rail, such as is used on the Liverpool and excitement.. Some entertained an opinion that the ca-
Manchester Rail Road, is then adjusted and keyed to nal commissioners were acting without authority in di-
the chairs secured as mentioned, with substantial iron recting the construction of a feeder dam higher than six
bolts, to the blocks, and the road is then in readiness to feet above low water mark. Application was made to
receive the locomotive and cars, and in order for the the Governor. He having no control over the subject,
operations for which it was designed and executed. On required a suspension until the matter was re-consider
new formed embankments, the old being nearly as solid ed. Proceedings were suspended, and subsequently
as the cuttings, the stone blocks and broken stone are re-considered, and the former decision confirmed, with
dispensed with, and white oak or chesnut cross-sills are some alteration securing the navigation. The work
substituted, which, together with the locust ties, rest being placed under contract, the superintendent's ac-
upon longitudinal timbers, placed in the trenches under counts were presented to the Auditor General. That
each line of rail. These timbers are notched in the officer, with a view of deciding upon the legal right of
upper surface to receive the cross-sills at intervals of the commissioners to erect a dam of the length propos-
three feet, which are to be secured to them at each ed, referred the subject to the Attorney General, whose
point of contact by locust pins, one inch in diameter and able and interesting opinion will be found below.
one foot long

The whole line is under the direction of Edward F.
Gay, Esq, he is a gentleman of much experience in

HARRISBURG, } his profession and untiring industry in the prosecution

August 5th., 1833, of it. His name and reputation are identified with Daniel STURGEON, Esq., Auditor General. some of Pennsylvania's noblest improvements, and be Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of is taking a high stand in an honorable and useful pro- your communication of Saturday, relative to the erecfession. The original estimated cost of this work was tion of the Dam in the West Branch of the Susquehan$2,297,120 being about $28,173 per mile. From some na, near Bald Eagle creek, and to transmit the followdeparture, however, from the designed method of con- ing, as the best judgment I have been able to form upon struction, the amount expended will, upon its comple- the questions therein contained. Entertaining but little tion, much exceed this amount, and it would not be confidence in the expediency of erecting high dams in hazarding much to say that the final cost of the 831 the Susquehanna, where they can be dispensed with, miles between Philadelphia and Columbia, will reach and having deeply sympathized, during the last session $3,000,000.

of the Legislature, with a large portion of constituents

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