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strength are not of themselves the guaranty of grace. The Protestant movement may prove morally unequal to its own problem. Still this cannot change the significance of the fact as now stated. It belongs to the reigning power of the world's civilization. It has its seat in the spirit of the nations that go with it, and their spirit now rules the course of humanity, as something plainly in advance of the spirit that meets us in nations still bound to the authority of Rome. In this view, if we belive in Christ, we are bound to acknowledge in it, if nothing more, yet surely the necessary medium of transition at least for the Church of God into a higher and better state. Not to do so, turns the past into a riddle and shrouds the future in despair. Protestantism, as the world now stands at all events, has the floor of history, carries the word of the age; and the last sense of Christianity, the grand scope of Christ's Mediatorial reign, is to be reached through it, by its help and intervention in some way, and not by its being hurled aside as an impertinent accident, or mere nullity, in the course of this all conquering dispensation.

It is high time for us, however, to bring this long article to a conclusion It will be perceived that our object has been, to convict the general Roman principle of falsehood, by showing it to run into untenable consequences and to be at war with the true conception of our life. This is not with us, of

course, an argument for the mere negation or denial of the same principle, as the true meaning and force of Protestantism. We have before tried to expose the rock on that side; and our object now in setting forth the dangers of the whirlpool, is not certainly to reccommend the first, as on the whole less false and terrible than the second. Rationalism, the resolution of faith into the mere mind and will of man, (with the Bible or without it,) under all its forms and shapes, we religiously abhor and hate. With the reigning slang on that side, we have no sympathy whatever. Here then the ques. tion comes, How are these extremes to be at once both avoided? And no question can well be more great and solemn. We pretend not now, however, to answer it. Enough so far, if we have been able to show that it needs and demands an answer; that the truth is not, in this case, in either of the alternatives, separately taken, which for the common understanding seem to cover the whole ground; that Christianity, in one word, must find its true sense between them, in a form of life which shall be the union of both. It is much to be sure of what is false and wrong here, even if at a loss still to master the full meaning of what is right. The best preparation for solving the problem of the age, is to be well satisfied that the problem really exists, and so to feel earnestly that it calls for a solution.

J. W. N.


As the subject of congregational worship is awakening new interest in our Church, it must be desirable for us to become more familiar with our Liturgical history than we have hitherto been. By some, indeed, vastly higher importance may be attached to results reached by an abstract consideration of the merits of the question itself, than to any suggestions of past history. Still it must, on many accounts, be interesting to know definitely, what views our Reformed Fathers held upon the subject. We may, perhaps, not be willing to build our creed exactly on their coffins, nor to pin our faith to their shrouds. And yet we may believe that they were about as wise as their children are to know the right, and as pious'y disposed to choose it when known! In paying deference, therefore, to their opinions and practices, it is not so much them that we honor, as the truth and grace by which, with one accord, we believe them to have been guided. Mistrusting ourselves, and fearful lest selfcomplacency or a deceived heart might lead us to mistake the twinkling rays of our reason or fancy for celestial light, we would test the supposed agreement of our views with the divine Word, by comparing them with the opinions of others equally capable of interpreting its voice, and quite as willing as we to make it the man of their counsel. And assuredly there is wisdom in being as jealous of the influence of erring individual judgment, as of the authority of such tradition.

The most satisfactory method, undoubtedly, of ascertaining the carlier views of our Church upon the Liturgical question, is to consult its known usage, and see what it actually did. If we should turn to our Reformed Fathers for counsel upon the solemn subject, 80 earnestly discussed at the late Synod in Norristown, they could certainly in no way gratify us so completely, (though we should thereby be involved in merited reproach for our forgetfulness of their pious labors and legacy,) as by handing us the Liturgy which they themselves had framed. Had it been permitted to good old Ursinus, or Olevianus, or Frederick III. of “Christlobfeligen Gerächtniß," to sit with that ecclesiastical assembly, and in solemn form mingle with its discussions, and announce their views, with what intense interest and profound respect would not their words have been heard VOL. II.-NO. I.

and received. The spectre tradition would have vanished before such spirits, like Banquo's ghost before the peeping day. But imposing and impressive as such a scene would have been, the effect it would have produced can be more intelligently and satisfactorily reached in another way. Though we may not conjure up their beatified spirits from the happy abode of the pious dead, we may summon the book containing their sentiments in the most substantial form, forth from the dust, which through long years of neglect has been permitted to bury it. And if we succeed in this, we can scarcely start an inquiry touching our earlier Liturgical history, which may not find a candid answer. If we ask what did our Fathers think of written or printed prayers for public use, the book will tell us.

If we ask what were their practical views of the holy sacraments, the book will tell us. If we ask what they thought of public confession, sacerdotal absolution, Church festival days, and saints' days, again the book will answer. And thus 'might we proceed, until almost every important question that could be put, were satisfactorily solved.

This privilege now may be enjoyed. The desired book is at hand. It comes to us with the following comprehensive title-page: “The Palatinate Liturgy, directing how the Christian doctrine, the holy sacraments and ceremonies, are to be administered in all the Churches of the Palatinate: as the same was originally published; now revised and reprinted after the edition of 1684." And with the hope that I may thereby do an acceptable service to many Brethern, I will attempt a translation of at least so much of this excellent old Liturgy, as seems of most importance, and as may afford those interested a fair opportunity of judging its merits as a whole. The copy before us is that now in the possession of the Rev. Father Pomp, of the history and general contents of which notice is taken by Dr. Nevin in his valuable tract upon the Heidelberg Catechism.'

The book is introduced and authorized by the following imprimatur:

There is one deficiency about this edition of the Liturgy, which is to be regretted, viz: it leaves us without a smugle hint either of the place where, or the authority by which it was published. At the bottom of the title-page we find the words—“Für die Kirche zu”—followed by a blank, which in tbe case of the copy before me, is filled up with “ America."

“We, Charles, by the grace of God Count of the Palatinate, on the Rhine, chief Treasurer and Elector of the Imperial kingdom, Prince of Bavaria, &c., present to all and each of the general Iospectors, Clergymen, and others employed in the churches and schools of our Electorate and Principality, our greeting, above all grace, and every good, and direct you herewith to know:

That whereas—The Right Honorable Prince, our kind and beloved relative, Frederick III Elector Palatine, of blessed ancestral christian memory, did, in the year 1563, order the preparation and publication of a Liturgy, together with a summary of christian instruction, faithfully drawn from the pure word of God, which was afterwards, anno, 85, republished by our kind and worthy uncle, Count Palatine John Casimir, and was thus used in our Electorate and Principality until 1601, when again our worthy predecessor, Count Palatine Frederick IV, at the instance of His Counsellors, and principal Theologians, after that it was improved in a few places, and explained, ordered it to be republished, of which however now, upon our assuming the Government, but very few copies can be had, and therefore pressing necessity requires that it should be printed anew, we therefore have resolved to order the same to be here with done:

We therefore enjoin it upon all our subjects and people, by virtue hereof, that ye aid and promote, to the best of your ability, this necessary and christian undertaking. Especially are the abovenamed Inspectors, Clergymen, and others employed in the service of the churches and schools, commanded to use this our Formulary in the preaching of the word of God, the Administration of the Holy Sacraments, and such other services as belong to their office, in all the churches and schools belonging to our Electorate, that they may with becoming propriety, faithfully and decently discharge their office. Thus will the spread of God's saving word be promoted, and the edification of His Holy Church; and thus will our confident desire and intention be complied with.”

Dated-Heidleberg, Jan. 29, anno 1684.
Next to this interesting, old-fashioned introduction we have-
"A Register, or page in which each title may be found.

I. Of Doctrine.

1–Regulation for sermons, whence they are to be derived, and to what end they are to be directed.

-A general introduction to sermons, and exhortation, to prayer. 3-Sermons for the Sabbath day, when and how they are to be held.

4, 5, and 6-Sermons on Week, Fast, Festival, and Holy-days.

7-Morning and Evening lesson of a Chapter, and a brief exposition thereof.

9 and 10—Catechisation and the Catechism.

11-A summary of the Catechism, together with the texts of the principal parts of the christian religion.

124Several passages of the Holy Scriptures, in which every one may see, in any station, age and condition, what his calling requires him to do.

II. Of Public Prayer. 1-A prayer before the sermon. 2-A prayer for the Sabbath, after the morning sermon. 3-A prayer after the sermon on the Catechism.

4 and 13–Prayers for, a fast-day, Christmas, Newyears-day, Good-friday, Easter, Ascension, Whitsuntide, and a morning and evening prayer.

III. Of the Administration of the Holy Sacraments. 1-An admonition concerning Holy Baptism. 2-Formula of Baptism. 2--Preparation for the Lord's Supper. 4-Formula for the administration of the Lord's Supper. 5-Of thc power of the keys, and christian discipline.

IV. Of other Church Customs and Services. 1-of festival and Holy-days. %Of Church-psalmody and robes.

Formula for the annunciation and administration of Marriage.

Of the visitation of the sick. 5 and 6-A prayer for the sick, and dying. 7-Of administering the Lord's supper to the sick. 8–or the visitation of Prisoners.

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