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goddess ministered to licentiousness, under the patronage of religion. From such various causes Corinth had an influx of foreigners of all descriptions, who carried the riches and the vices of all nations into a city, in which the merchant, the warrior, and the seaman could enjoy them for his money. Devoted to traffic, and to the enjoyment of the wealth which that traffic secured, the Corinthians were exempt from the influence of that thirst for conquest and military glory by which their neighbours were actuated; hence they were seldom engaged in any war except for the defence of their country, or in behalf of the liberties of Greece: yet Corinth furnished many brave and experienced commanders to other Grecian states, among whom it was common to prefer a Corinthian general to one of their own or any other state. As might be expected, Corinth was not remarkably distinguished for philosophy or science; but its wealth attracted to it the arts, which assisted to enrich and aggrandise it, till it became one of the very finest cities in all Greece. The Corinthian order of architecture took its name from that rich and Howery style which prevailed in its sumptuous edifices-its temples, palaces, theatres, and porticoes.
The Corinthians having ill treated the Roman ambassadors, their city fell a prey to the Romans, with all its treasures and works of art, and was totally destroyed by Mummius. It lay a long while desolate, till it was rebuilt by Julius Cæsar, by whom it was peopled with a colony of Romans; and, favoured by its admirable situation, it was soon restored to a most flourishing condition. "The ancient manners," says Hug, "abundantly returned; Acro-Corinth was again the Isthmian Dione, and an intemperate life was commonly called the Corinthian mode of life. Among all the cities that ever existed this was accounted the most voluptuous; and the satirist could only jocularly seem to be at a loss whether, in this respect, he should give the preference to Corinth or to Athens."
Corinth still exists as an inhabited town, under the name of Corantho. It is a long straggling place, which is wellpaved, and can boast of some tolerably good buildings, with a castle of some strength, which is kept in a good state of defence. There are still some considerable ruins, to attest the ancient consequence of Corinth, and the taste and elegance of its public buildings. The extensive view from the summit of the high mountain which commands the town, and which was the Acropolis (Acro-Corinth) of the ancient city, is pronounced by travellers to be one of the finest in the world.
[ 11. “Which are of the house of Chloe."-Grotius supposes that Fortunatus and Achaicus, who, with Stephanas, formed the deputation to Paul from the Corinthian church, were the sons of this woman. This seems by no means improbable, although we have not adopted the suggestion in the introductory note.
12. "Apollos," &c.—Some commentators have found considerable difficulty in this verse. It is conceivable that they who had been converted by the ministry of Paul should, in the divided state of the Corinthian church, thus declare their adherence to him, in opposition to those Judaizing Christians who professed to uphold the views of Peter. But how Apollos, the attached friend of Paul, should be produced as the head of one of the divisions, has been deemed to offer a greater difficulty. But it will be observed that the blame was in the Corinthians, not in the teachers whose names they so unwarrantably used: and Apollos could not have been any more to blame in this matter than Cephas or Paul himself. Neither is it to be conceived that Apollos taught any different doctrine from St. Paul: but probably those who thus declared themselves of the party of the eloquent Apollos, were persons who had been converted by his ministry; or who, having received their first convictions through St. Paul, were more fully instructed by Apollos, who had watered where Paul had sown. In the midst of the divisions which reigned at Corinth it was not, perhaps, wonderful that such persons should say, that as they were imperfectly acquainted with the views of St. Paul on the matters in dispute, they hesitated to express that adhesion to them which others professed; but were willing to abide by the instructions they had received from Apollos, without undertaking to say whether his views agreed with or differed from those of the apostle. It is quite evident that Apollos was not voluntarily at the head of a party in the Corinthian church; for he was at this very time with Paul: and one might almost conjecture that he had left Corinth in disgust; for the apostle writes to the Corinthians: As touching our brother Apollos, I greatly desired him to come unto you, with the brethren: but he will not at all come at this time; but will come when he shall have convenient time "ch. xvi. 12.
"Christ.”—This has been considered still more difficult; for how could that become the name of a party, which all parties would be equally willing to acknowledge? It seems to us, however, very possible that a class of persons. not seeing their way clearly through the differences, or being unwilling to commit themselves with any of the other parties, remained neutral under the general name of Christians, which could give no offence to any, unless—which perhaps they did—they claimed to be Christians, par excellence; and this they had a very good right to do, if they abstained From any part in this disgraceful squabble. Another solution of this difficulty, advocated by Whitby, Semler, Hug, and others, is, that those who assumed the splendid appellation of Christ's party affected to be followers of James the rother (or near relation) of our Lord, and thought thus to enter into a nearer discipleship with Jesus than the other parties. This conjecture is assumed to be strengthened by the fact that Paul appeals to Cephas and James in particular, as witnesses of the resurrection (ch. xv. 5, 7)—as if adducing the evidence of the very persons who had been nost unwarrantably brought forward as his opponents.
17. "The wisdom of words."-Scholastic divinity, involving the art of disputation, was called "the wisdom of words" y the Jews. So it was also among the learned Arabians of former times, one of whom has left a book with this ery title.
20. "The wise... the scribe... the disputer."-These words are a quotation from the Old Testament (Isa. xxxiii. 18), r at least form part of it. Although therefore they may, and probably do, comprehend an allusion to the correspondg professors among the Gentiles, it is right to interpret them primarily as explained by the Jewish writers, who escribe the term "wise-men" as a general name for men of learning and knowledge; the "scribes," as those who terpreted the Law, in the literal and grammatical sense; and the disputers," or "preachers," those who diligently earched into the hidden meaning of the Scriptures, and who sought for and delivered the mystic and hidden sense, oncerning which they disputed in their schools.
23. Unto the Jews a stumblingblock."-It was a stumblingblock to the Jews that Christ should die at all; for they nderstood their law to teach them that Christ should abide for ever: but it was far more so that he should die upon e eross. Thus in the dialogue between Justin Martyr and Trypho the Jew, the latter objects:-"We cannot enough onder that you should expect any good from God, who place all your hope on a man who was crucified." And gain :-"We doubt of your Christ, who was so ignominiously crucified: for our Law styles every one who is crucified cursed." Christ crucified, has indeed always been pre-eminently the stumblingblock of the Jews.
Unto the Greeks foolishness.”—So, in the abovementioned dialogue, Justin Martyr says, "They account us mad, that, ter the immutable and eternal God, we give the second place to a man who was crucified." Celsus calls it "wicked ad abominable." "The wise men of the world insult over us," says Augustin, "and ask, Where is your understand
ing, who worship him for a God who was crucified?" So M. Felix, p. 9; Arnob. 1. i. 20; Lact. 1. iv. c. 16; Euseb. 1. iii. de Vitâ Const. c. i. See Whitby in loc. Doddridge well paraphrases here:-"Though it be to the Jews a stumblingblock, (as contrary to their secular expectations,) and to the Greeks foolishness, as not resting mainly on the principles of reason."
1 Chap. 1. 17. 22 Pet. 1. 16. 3 Or, persuasille. 4 Gr. be. 9 Or, discerned. 10 Isa. 40. 13.
knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
9 But as it is written, 'Eye hath not seen. nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.
10 But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.
11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.
6 Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought:
7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:
8 Which none of the princes of this world have the mind of Christ.
12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.
13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.
14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually dis
2 Milk is fit for children. 3 Strife and division, arguments of a fleshly mind. 7 He that planteth, and he that watereth, is nothing. 9 The ministers are God's fellowworkmen. 11 Christ the only foundation. 16 Men the temples of God, which 17 must be kept holy. 19 The wisdom of this world is foolishness with God.
15 'But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man.
16 10 For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he "may instruct him? But we
5 Isa. 64. 4. • 2 Pet. 1. 16. 7 Prov. 27. 19. 8 Or, discerneth. Wisd. 9. 13. Rom. 11. 34. 11 Gr. shall.
Verse 7. "The hidden wisdom.”—Both the Greeks and Jews were great seekers after that wisdom which consisted in the knowledge of hidden and secret things: hidden things being generally accounted the most precious, and the knowledge of them being more a distinction than of things with which all may become acquainted.
3 For ye are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and 'divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk 3as men?
4 For while one saith, I am of Paul; and another, I am of Apollos; are ye not carnal?
5 Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord gave to every man?
6 I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.
7 So then neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase.
8 Now he that planteth and he that wa
3 Gr, according to man,
AND I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ.
2 I have fed you with 'milk, and not with meat for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able.
1 Heb. 5. 12.
8 Or, factions.
tereth are one: and every man shall receive | shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be his own reward according to his own labour. saved; yet so as by fire. 9 For we are labourers together with God: ye are God's 'husbandry, ye are God's building.
16 'Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?
10 According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.
11 For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
14 If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
15 If any man's work shall be burned, he • Psal. 62. 12. Gal. 6. 5. • Or, tillage.
Gr. is revealed.
8 Or, destroy.
Verse 2. "I have fed you with milk."-This metaphor, in which the simpler elementary doctrines of Christianity are compared to the light food with which babes are nourished, is usual also among the Jewish writers as applied to their law. Thus Kimchi, on Isa. lv. 1, "As milk strengthens and nourishes an infant, so the law strengthens and nourishes the soul." Wetstein and Blackwall adduce similar metaphors from the classical writers.
17 If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.
18 Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be
7 Chap. 6. 19. 2 Cor. 6. 16. 10 Psal. 94. 11.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, 'He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.
1 In what account the ministers ought to be had. 7 We have nothing which we have not received. 9 The apostles spectacles to the world, angels, and men, 13 the filth and offscouring of the world: 15 yet our fathers in Christ, 16 whom we ought to follow.
20 And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.
21 Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are your's;
22 Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are your's; 23 And ye are Christ's; and Christ is God's.
10. “A wise masterbuilder.”—The style of copos, "wise,” is applied by the classical writers not only to men intellectually wise, but to such as were skilled in manual arts. The Jewish writers often use this metaphor, calling their learned men "builders," that is, builders of the law.
LET a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.
12. "Upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble."-This appears a passage of some difficulty. It becomes a question whether the apostle speaks of one superstructure, of such incongruous materials, raised upon a good foundation, the foundation of sound doctrine which he had laid; or suggests the possibility that fabrics very different in their character might be reared on a good foundation: on the one hand, a magnificent temple or palace formed of precious marble, and enriched with silver and gold; or, on the other, a mean cabin of wood, hay, and stubble. Perhaps the latter alternative, that he speaks of different structures, stately or mean, which might be erected on a good foundation, renders the comparison more clear and impressive. Yet, in favour of even the former alternative, which is the most generally received, it may be suggested that layers of stubble or straw were placed between the courses of brick in the most stupendous structures of Babylonia and Egypt; so that the metaphor, even if applied to a single building, does not describe an impossible or unexampled structure.
The Rabbinical writers compare the written law to gold, and their oral traditions to precious stones.
2 Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.
1 Gr. day.
16. "Ye are the temple of God."-Elsner, Wetstein, Calmet, and others, adduce here many instances in which the ancient classical writers describe the virtuous mind as a temple of God; and speak of the obligation men are under to keep his temple inviolate and undefiled.
9 Job 5. 13.
3 But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of man's 'judgment: yea, I judge not mine own self.
4 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but he that judgeth me is the Lord.
5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise
Matt. 7. 1. Rom 2. 1.
6 And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another.
7 For who maketh thee to differ from another? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?
hands: being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we suffer it:
13 'Being defamed, we intreat: we are made as the filth of the earth, and are the offscouring of all things unto this day.
14 I write not these things to shame you, but as my beloved sons I warn you.
15 For though ye have ten thousand instructers in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the Gospel.
16 Wherefore I beseech you, be lowers of me.
17 For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church.
18 Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you.
19 'But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the power.
20 For the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.
21 What will ye? shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, and in the spirit of meekness?
8 Now ye are full, now ye are rich, have ye reigned as kings without us: and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you.
9 For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a 'spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.
10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but ye are wise in Christ; we are weak, but ye are strong; ye are honourable, but we are despised.
11 Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwellingplace;
12 And labour, working with our own
3 Gr. distinguisheth thee. • Gr. theatre. 5 Acts 20. 34. 1 Thess. 2. 9. 2 Thess. 3. 8. • Matt. 5. 34. 7 Acts 19.21. $ James 4. 15.
Verse 9. "I think that God," &c-Michaelis imagines that in these verses (to verse 14) the apostle is adverting ta one of the insinuations by which the parties adverse to him at Corinth had endeavoured to lower his character, and even to contest his apostolical authority; that is, that even the sufferings which he had endured in the cause of Christ, were complained of as having been incurred by his impetuosity and rashness. An extraordinary objection, certainly and one which, if rightly conjectured, may appear to have been founded on the Jewish maxim, "That the spirit of prophecy rests only upon eminent, happy, and cheerful men."
Set forth...last...appointed to death:...made a spectacle unto the world," &c.—Tertullian appears to have been the first to suggest that this verse alludes to the customs of the Roman amphitheatre, in the combats of the bestiarii and the gladiators. The men who, in the early part of the day, combated with wild beasts, or with one another, were allowed some chances of escape from their assailants, being furnished with defensive armour, besides the weapons which they used in fight. But those who were brought forward later in the day were not thus favoured: without any kind of armour they fought even to the death, and even he who became victor by the slaughter of his opponent, only preserved himself for future slaughter. They might therefore well be called men appointed unto death; and this being the last appearance on the theatre for the day, they are said to be set forth, or exhibited last, as a theatrical spectacle (argo) to the world. Seneca speaks thus appositely of these exhibitions: "In the morning men are exposed to lions and bears; but at mid-day to their spectators. Those that kill are exposed to one another; the victor is detained for another slaughter; and the conclusion of the fight is death. The previous combat, compared to this, was mercy; but in this there is only butchery; for the combatants have nothing to cover them, and their bodies are exposed to every stroke." (De Pudic. c. 14.) Such combats were so common in all the provinces, and particularly at the luxurious Corinth, that it is no wonder we should find an allusion to them here.
13. "The filth of the earth... the offscouring of all things.”—According to the interpretation of many commentators. the word here rendered "filth" has a force in the original which no single word in our language can adequately convey. It was applied to those poor wretches who, being of the very dregs of the people and refuse of society, were offered up as expiatory sacrifices to the infernal deities, in times of plague or other public calamity. They were brought to the place of sacrifice, bearing in their hands cheese, dried figs, and a cake; and, after being beaten with rods, they were burnt, together with the rods, in a ditch. After their bodies were consumed in the fire, their ashes were collected and cast into the sea, with the following words: Be thou an expiation-be thou an offscouring for us." And here it will be observed that the word gafaguara, rendered "expiation" in this sentence, is the very same word which is translated "filth" in the verse before us. The illustration thus stated is interesting, and is possibly applicable. The only consideration, and that is rather a strong one, which militates against it, is that such persons are called zafar, reference to their being expiatory victims (a consideration which does not apply in the present text), rather than to their vile and miserable condition-which is the point to which the word, as applied in the text, has reference.
18. “ As though I would not come."-From this, with the context, it would seem as if the apostle had been apprized that an opinion was entertained at Corinth that he would not dare to appear again in that city, and face the formidable opposition which had risen against him.
2 And ye are puffed up, and have not ather mourned, that he that hath done this. eed might be taken away from among
The incestuous person 6 is cause rather of shame unto them, than of rejoicing. 7 The old leaven is to be purged out. 10 Heinous offenders are to be shamed and avoided.
3 For I verily, as absent in body, but resent in spirit, have judged already, as hough I were present, concerning him that ath so done this deed,
4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, hen ye are gathered together, and my pirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus hrist,
Verse 1. "That one should have his father's wife."-Not, of course, his own mother, but his step-mother. Nothing re instructive can be offered than what Michaelis observes on this case:-" According to the laws of the city of inth, this marriage would not have been permitted by the heathen magistrates: for, although the Athenian laws nitted marriage with very near relatives, yet, as soon as Greece became a Roman province, the Roman laws were oduced, and by these a marriage with a step-mother was strictly prohibited. For want of authority, I cannot strictly ermine what punishment was annexed to a marriage of this kind, under the reign of Nero, when St. Paul wrote this stle. But in the time of Alexander Severus, the punishment was deportatio, or banishment to some desolate island, n a man debauched a widow who was too nearly related to him to admit of a marriage with her... Hence we may ze how severe the laws would have been against a man who married his own step-mother. But how was it possible ta, under these circumstances, to contract such a marriage at Corinth? It could have been done only under the alleged etion of the Jewish law. The Jews pretend that a proselyte by baptism becomes a descendant of Abraham, and in trict a sense that all former relations immediately close. Hence they drew this conclusion, that a heathen was at ty to marry his mother, or his own sister, as soon as she was regenerate by baptism.' Now the Jews were at this time aitted to live according to their own laws; and the Christians were then considered as a Jewish sect. In particular, privilege of marrying according to their own customs, and without any regard to the Roman civil law, they a ned till the time of Theodosius, who deprived them of it, in the statute entitled De Judæis et Cœlicolis.' The stuous marriage, therefore, of which St. Paul complains, might be solemnized, to the great offence of the heathens, er the sanction of Judaism or Christianity."
not that 'a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?
7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover 'is sacrificed for us:
5 To deliver such an one unto Satan for e destruction of the flesh, that the spirit ay be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. 6 Your glorying is not good. Know ye
1 Col. 2, 5. 2 Or, determined.
31 Tim. 1. 20.
8 Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
9 I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators:
10 Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world.
11 But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat.
12 For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?
13 But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person.
4 Gal. 5. 9. 5 Or, is slain. • Or, holy-day.
; this enorm thus appears to have been the result of Jewish casuistry, we may safely conclude that it was comed by a heathen convert, who had been received into the Judaizing section of the Corinthian church. It is the only ked transaction of this party to which the Epistle alludes, as it is chiefly occupied with correcting the mistakes and ces of the opposite or Gentile party, which still acknowledged the authority of the apostle, and had sent him a I soliciting his counsels. The peculiar character of the transaction, and the mischievous consequences it was cal sed to produce, would not allow him to pass it by, although resulting from another class of mistaken principles those which chiefly engage his attention.
"Purge out therefore the old leaven."-In this and the following verse there are manifest allusions to the feast of Passover and the days of unleavened bread, during which no leavened bread was to be eaten, or even be allowed to in in the house of a Jew; in consequence of which every particle of leaven was carefully sought for and disposed fore the Passover commenced. On this subject very full directions are given in Exod. xii. 15-20; and in the there, we have briefly mentioned the scrupulous care with which the modern Jews clear out from their houses, on occasions, every crumb of leavened bread. As a suitable illustration of the subject, we introduce (p. 358), from t, a representation of a Jewish family assiduously engaged in purging out the old leaven, as described in the note
ich we refer.
"I wrote unto you in an epistle."-This has led the majority of commentators to conclude that the Apostle had writprevious epistle which has not been preserved. But we are rather inclined to agree with a very respectable minority ... asidering that the text itself affords no satisfactory evidence for an earlier epistle, while all external evidence is