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seems to have derived it from the ancient theology of his own countrymen, vestiges of which are to be found in Just phus and the Rabbinical writers, and also in the epistles of St. Peter, as well as in those of our apostle.”

24. The body of this death."— Doddridge thus paraphrases the latter half of this verse :- Who shall rescue me miserable captive as I am, from the body of this death? from this continual burden which I carry about with a and which is cumbersome and odious as a dead carcase tied to a living body, to be dragged along with it wherever it goes." He explains in a note, “ It is well known that some ancient writers mention this as a cruelty practised by sme tyrants upon miserable captives who fell into their hands; and a more forcible and expressive image of the sad case represented cannot surely enter into the mind of man.” Of this atrocious practice one of the most remarkable instances is that mentioned by Virgil, when describing the tyrannous conduct of Mezentius

** The living and the dead, at his command,

Were coupled, face to face, and hand to hand;
Till, choked with stench, in loath'd embraces tied,

The lingering wretches pined away and died.”—DRYDEN. Doddridge is not by any means singular in his opinion that the apostle derives an allusion from this horrid puust ment: although perhaps the text is sufficiently intelligible without the illustration it thus receives. Philo, in an ana, gous passage, more obviously alludes to it

, describing the body as a burden to the soul, carried about like a dai carcase, which may not till death be laid aside.

CHAPTER VIII.

Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that

raised up Christ from the dead shall also 1 They that are in Christ, and live according to quicken your mortal bodies 'by his Spint the Spirit, are free from condemnation. 5, 13

that dwelleth in you. What harm cometh of the flesh, 6, 14 and what good of the Spirit: 17 and uhut of being God's 12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, child, 19 whose glorious deliverance all things not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. long for, 29 uus beforehand decreed from God.

13 For if ye live after the flesh, ye sha? 38 What can sever us from his love ?

die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify There is therefore now no condemnation to the deeds of the body, ye shall live. them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk

14 For as many as are led by the Spin not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. of God, they are the sons of God.

2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ 15 For ye have not received the spirit of Jesus hath made me free from the law of bondage again to fear; but ye have received sin and death.

the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cri 3 For what the law could not do, in that Abba, Father. it was weak through the flesh, God sending 16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, our spirit, that we are the children of God: and 'for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: 17. And if children, then heirs ; heirs of

4 That the righteousness of the law might | God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the that we suffer with him, that we may be also flesh, but after the Spirit.

glorified together. 5 For they that are after the flesh do mind 18 For I reckon that the sufferings of the things of the flesh; but they that are this present time are not worthy to be cum after the Spirit the things of the Spirit. pared with the glory which shall be revealed

6 For 'to be carnally minded is death; in us. but Što be spiritually minded is life and 19 For the earnest expectation of the peace.

creature waiteth for the manifestation of 7 Because the carnal mind is enmity the sons of God against God: for it is not subject to the law 20 For the creature was made subject to of God, neither indeed can be.

vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him 8 So then they that are in the flesh can- who hath subjected the same in hope, not please God.

21 Because the creature itself also shal 9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the be delivered from the bondage of corruption Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell into the glorious liberty of the children of in you.

Now if any man have not the Spi- God. rit of Christ, he is none of his.

22 For we know that 'the whole creation ! 10 And if Christ be in you, the body is groaneth and travaileth in pain together dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life until now. because of righteousness.

23 And not only they, but ourselves also. 11 But if the Spirit of him that raised up which have the firstfruits of the Spirit

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, eren 10r, by a sacrifice for sin. 2 Gr. the minding of the flesh. 3 Gr. the minding of the Spirit. * Gr, the minding of the flesha 5 Or, because of his Spirit.

7 Or, every creature. 333

6 Gal. 4.6.

us ?

we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting 31 What shall we then say to these for the adoption, to wit, the ®redemption of things? If God be for us, who can be against our body.

24 For we are saved by hope: but hope 32 He that spared not his own Son, but that is seen is not hope: for what a man delivered him up for us all, how shall he not seeth, why doth he yet hope for?

with him also freely give us all things? 25 But if we hope for that we see not,

33 Who shall lay any thing to the charge then do we with patience wait for it. of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.

26 Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our 34 Who is he that condemneth? It is infirmities : for we know not what we should Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself again, who is even at the right hand of God, maketh intercession for us with groanings who also maketh intercession for us. which cannot be uttered.

35 Who shall separate us from the love 27 And he that searcheth the hearts of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, 'be- persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, cause he maketh intercession for the saints or sword ? according to the will of God.

36 As it is written, "For thy sake we are 28 And we know that all things work to killed all the day long; we are accounted as gether for good to them that love God, to sheep for the slaughter. them who are the called according to his

is | .37 Nay, in all these things we are more purpose.

than conquerors through him that loved us. 29 For whom he did foreknow, he also 39 For I am persuaded, that neither did predestinate to be conformed to the death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, image of his Son, that he might be the first- nor powers, nor things present, nor things born among many brethren.

to come, 30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, 39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other them he also called : and whom he called, creature, shall be able to separate us from them he also justified: and whom he justi- the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our fied, them he also glorified.

Lord.

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Verse 11. " Shall also quicken your mortal bodies."-Some commentators are of opinion that this refers to a moral and spiritual resurrection—a quickening to newness of life; but it is more generally agreed that it rather relates to that by which the bodies of the just shall be raised to eternal life. Some of the old Jewish writers have a manner of speaking on this point which may throw some light on the use of the word, if not upon the idea involved. quickening of the dead,” they sometimes distinguished from the “resurrection,” holding that the former was the peculiar privilege of the righteous, whereas the latter was common to them and to the wicked.

15. " Abba."—We have already explained that Abba means “My father.” It is here very observable that the Jewish writers repeatedly inform us that this style of address was not allowed to be, on any account, used by servants or slaves.

17. And if children, then heirs.”—That is, being adopted as children (verse 15), we become, as such heirs, jointly with Christ, the natural heir. Many of the allusions in these verses are obviously derived from the laws of adoption and inheritance among the Romans, and indeed among the Jews; for they did not differ considerably in the points to which reference is made. The adopted son became an heir, and was not precluded from any privilege whatever to which a natural heir was entitled.

23. “Waiting for the adoption."—Doddridge, following a suggestion of Howe, thinks that there is here an allusion to the two-fold adoption among the Romans, the one private and the other public. The first was only the act of the person who was desirous of receiving a stranger into his family, with respect to the object of his choice, and was a transaction between the parties: the latter was an acknowledgment of it in the forum, when the adopted person was solemnly avowed and declared to be the son of the adopter. The force of the allusion here supposed, may perhaps be strengthened by the recollection of a circumstance overlooked by Howe, which is, that unless the adopted person were already the slave of the adopter, the principal part of the private transaction consisted in the purchase of the person to be adopted from his parents, for so much money, formally given and taken.

CHAPTER IX.

were foretold. 32 The cause why so few Jews 1 Paul is sorry for the Jews. 7 All the seed of

embraced the righteousness of faith. Abraham were not the children of the promise. I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my con18 God hath mercy upon whom he will. 21 The potter may do with his clay what he list. 25 The

science also bearing me witness in the Holy calling of the Gentiles and rejecting of the Jews

Ghost,

2 That I have great heaviness and conti- 19 Thou wilt say then unto me, Why nual sorrow in my heart.

doth he yet find fault? For who hath re3 For I could wish that myself were 'ac- sisted his will ? cursed from Christ for my brethren, my kins- 20 Nay but, О man, who art thou that men according to the flesh:

' repliest against God? "Shall the thing 4 Who are Israelites; to whom pertain- formed say to him that formed it, Why hast eth the adoption, and the glory, and the thou made me thus? 'covenants, and the giving of the law, and 21 Hath not the "potter power over the service of God, and the promises; the clay, of the same lump to make one

5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as vessel unto honour, and another unto disconcerning the flesh Christ came, who is over honour? all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

22 What if God, willing to shew his 6 Not as though the word of God hath wrath, and to make his power known, entaken none effect. For they are not all dured with much longsuffering the vessels Israel, which are of Israel:

of wrath "fitted to destruction : 7 Neither, because they are the seed of 23 And that he might make known the Abraham, are they all children: but, In riches of his glory on the vessels of merey

, Isaac shall thy seed be called.

which he had afore prepared unto glory, 8 That is, They which are the children of 24 Even is, whom he hath called, not of the flesh, these are not the children of God: the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? but the children of the promise are counted 25 As he saith also in Osee, I will call for the seed.

them my people, which were not my people; 9 For this is the word of promise, 'At this and her beloved, which was not beloved. time will I come, and Sarah shall have a son. 26 And it shall come to pass, that in

10 And not only this; but when Rebecca the place where it was said unto them, Te also had conceived by one, eren by our fa- are not my people; there shall they be ther Isaac;

called the children of the living God. 11 (For the children being not yet born, 27 Esaias also crieth concerning Israel neither having done any good or evil, that Though the number of the children of the purpose of God according to election Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant might stand, not of works, but of him that shall be saved : calleth ;)

28 For he will finish the work, and cut 12 It was said unto her, The ® elder shall it short in righteousness: because a short serve the @younger.

work will the Lord make upon the earth. 15 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, 29 And as Esaias said before, *Except but Esau have I hated.

the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we 14 What shall we say then? Is there had been as Sodoma, and been made like unrighteousness with God? God forbid. unto Gomorrha.

15 For he saith to Moses, I will have 30 What shall we say then? That the mercy on whom ''I will have mercy, and i Gentiles, which followed not after rightewill have compassion on whom I will have ousness, have attained to righteousness, compassion.

even the righteousness which is of faith. 16 So then it is not of him that willeth, 31 But Israel, which followed after the nor of him that runneth, but of God that law of righteousness, hath not attained to

the law of righteousness. 17 For the Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, 32 Wherefore? Because they sought it "Even for this same purpose have I raised not by faith, but as it were by the works of thee up, that I might shew my power in the law. For they stumbled at that stumthee, and that my name might be declared blingstone; throughout all the earth.

33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in 18 Therefore hath he mercy on whom he Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: will have mercy, and whom he will he hard- and whosoever believeth on him shall not eneth.

sheweth mercy

be ashamed.

& Or, lesser.

1 Or, separated.
? Or, testaments. 3 Gen, 21. 12. 4 Gal. 4. 28. 5 Gen. 18. 10. & Gen. 25. 23.

7 Or, greater.
9 Mal. 1. 2, 3.

13 Isa. 45.9. 10 Exod. 33. 19. 11 Exod. 9. 16. 12 Or, answerest again, or, disputest with God. 14 Jer, 18. 6. Wisd. 15. 7. 15 Or, made up. 16 Hos. 2. 23. 1 Pet. 2. 10. 17 Hos. 1. 10. 18 Jsa. 10. 22, 23.

20 lsa, 1.9. 21 ]sa. 8. 14, and 28. 16. 1 Pet. 2, 6. ** Or, confounded.

19 Or, the accent

Verse 5. " The fathers.”—This, according to the Jewish use of the term, means Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; for they called none but these “the fathers:" nor any “the mothers," besides Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel.

6. Hath taken none effect."-Or, more literally, "hath missed of its effect;" in which some (as Dr. Bloomfield) suppose there is a metaphor, taken from archery.

20. Shall the thing formed,&c.—The Talmud has a neat anecdote which may be taken to illustrate this. “A certain man who was very much deformed saluted a Rabbi, saying, 'Peace be unto thee! The Rabbi did not return the salutation ; but said, Raca: how ugly this man is! Perhaps all thy townsmen are as deformed as thou art.' The other replied unto him, “I do not know. But go and say to the Workman who made me, How ugly is this vessel which thou hast made! Upon this the Rabbi knew that he had sinned ; and he dismounted from his ass, and fell down before the man, and said unto him, I beseech thee to forgive me.' But he answered, 'I cannot forgive thee till thou goest to the workman who made me, and sayest unto him, How ugly is this vessel which thou hast made !"" (T. Bab. Tannith, fol. 20. 2.)

21. Hath not the potter power over the clay;" &c.-The comparison of man to a vessel of clay, and of his Maker to the potter, occurs several times in the Scriptures, as shown by the marginal references. These metaphorical allusions were also exceedingly common among the Jews in their talk, an instance of which occurs in the preceding note. Such comparisons have doubtless their origin in the Mosaic account of the creation of Adam. The author of the Apocryphal book of Wisdom, without any metaphor, gives an account of the potter's work, which supplies some remarkable analogies to the present passage. “The potter, tempering soft earth, fashioneth every vessel with much labour for our service; yea, of the same clay he maketh both the vessels that serve for clean uses, and likewise also all such as serve the contrary: but what is the use of either sort, the potter himself is judge” (ch. xv. 7). The classical writers also use similar metaphors, deriving them, apparently, from the mythos which describes Prometheus as forming the first man and woman of clay, which must have been borrowed from the Mosaic account of man's creation. Plutarch uses the very same similitude; and Aristophanes (Av. 587), among other contemptuous expressions applied to men, calls therm πλασματα πηλου, “vessels of clay.”

CHAPTER X.

thine heart that God hath raised him from

the dead, thou shalt be saved. 5 the difference righteousness or the law, and this of faith, the. 10 For with the heart man believeth unto and that all, both Jew and Gentile, ihat believe, righteousness; and with the mouth confesshall not be confounded, 18 and that the Gentiles sion is made unto salvation. shall receive the word and believe. 19 Israel was

11 For the Scripture saith, "Whosoever not ignorant of these things.

believeth on him shall not be ashamed. BRETHREN, my heart's desire and prayer to 12 For there is no difference between the God for Israel is, that they might be saved. Jew and the Greek : for the same Lord over 2 For I bear them record that they have all is rich unto all that call

upon

him. a zeal of God, but not according to know- 13 'For whosoever shall call upon the ledge.

name of the Lord shall be saved. 3 For they being ignorant of God's 14 How then shall they call on him in righteousness, and going about to establish whom they have not believed ? and how their own righteousness, have not submitted shall they believe in him of whom they have themselves unto the righteousness of God. not heard ? and how shall they hear without

4 For Christ is the end of the law for a preacher ? righteousness to every one that believeth. 15 And how shall they preach, except

5 For Moses describeth the righteous- they be sent ? as it is written, *How beauness which is of the law, 'That the man tiful are the feet of them that preach the which doeth those things shall live by Gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of them.

good things! 6 But the righteousness which is of faith 16 But they have not all obeyed the Gosspeaketh on this wise, "Say not in thine pel. For Esaias saith, 'Lord, who hath beheart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that lieved our øreport? is, to bring Christ down from above :)

17 So then faith cometh by hearing, and 7 Or, Who shall descend into the deep? | hearing by the word of God. (that is, to bring up Christ again from the 18 But I say, Have they not heard ? Yes dead.)

verily, their sound went into all the earth, 8 But what saith it? The word is nigh and their words unto the ends of the world. thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: 19 But I say, Did not Israel know? First that is, the word of faith, which we preach; Moses saith, "I will provoke you to jealousy

9 That if thou shalt confess with thy by them that are no people, and by a foolish mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in nation I will anger you.

Levit. 18. 5. Ezek. 20.11. Gal. 3. 12. Isa. 52.7. Nahum 1. 15,

8 Gr. the hearing of us. 9 Or, preaching. "' Peyt. 32. 21.

3 Deul 30, 14.

4 Isa. 28. 16.

Deut. 30. 12. 7 Isa. 53. 1. John 12. 38.

5 Joel 2. 32. Acts 2. 21.

20 Psal. 19. 4.

20 But Esaias is very bold, and saith, "I 21 But to Israel he saith, 18All day long was found of them that sought me not; I I have stretched forth my hands unto a diswas made manifest unto them that asked obedient and gainsaying people. not after me.

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CHAPTER XI.

of the world, and the 'diminishing of them

the riches of the Gentiles; how much more 1 God hath not cast off all Israel. 7 Some were elected, though the rest were hardened. 16 There

their fulness? is hope of their conversion. 18 The Gentiles may 13 For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch not insult upon them : 26 for there is a promise as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I mag. of their salvation. 33 God's judgments are un- nify mine office: searchable.

14 If by any means I may provoke to I say then, Hath God cast away his peo- emulation them which are my flesh, and ple? God forbid. For I also am an Israel. might save some of them. ite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of 15 For if the casting away of them be the Benjamin.

reconciling of the world, what shall the re2°God hath not cast away his people ceiving of them be, but life from the dead? which he foreknew. Wot ye not what the 16 For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump Scripture saith of Elias ? how he maketh in- is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are

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O Lord, they have killed thy prophets, the Prand if some of the branches be broken

of grace.

and digged down thine altars, and I am off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert left alone, and they seek my life.

graffed in among them, and with them 4 But what saith the answer of God unto partakest of the root and fatness of the olive him? 'I have reserved to myself seven thou- tree; sand men, who have not bowed the knee to 18 Boast not against the branches. But the image of Baal.

if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but 5 Even so then at this present time also the root thee. there is a remnant according to the election 19 Thou wilt say then, The branches

were broken off, that I might be graffed in. 6 And if by grace, then is it no more of 20 Well; because of unbelief they were works : otherwise grace is no more grace. broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be But if it be of works, then is it no more not highminded, but fear: grace: otherwise work is no more work. 21 For if God spared not the natural

7 What then? Israel hath not obtained branches, take heed lest he also spare not that which he seeketh for; but the election thee. hath obtained it, and the rest were 'blinded. 22 Behold therefore the goodness and

8 (According as it is written, "God hath severity of God: on them which fell, segiven them the spirit of 'slumber, 'eyes that verity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou they should not see, and ears that they continue in his goodness: otherwise thou should not hear;) unto this day.

also shalt be cut off. 9 And David saith, 'Let their table be 23 And they also, if they abide not in made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling. unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able block, and a recompence unto them:

to graff them in again. 10 "Let their eyes be darkened, that they 24 For if thou wert cut out of the olive may not see, and bow down their back tree which is wild by nature, and wert alway.

graffed contrary to nature into a good olive 1ľ I say then, Have they stumbled that tree: how much more shall these, which be they should fall? God forbid: but rather the natural branches, be graffed into their through their fall salvation is come unto own olive tree? the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jea- 25 For I would not, brethren, that ye lousy.

should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ve 12 Now if the fall of them be the riches should be wise in your own conceits ; that

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* Psal. 69. 9.

11 Kings 19, 14.

% 1 Kings 19. 18. 8 Or, hardened. 4 Isa, 99. 10.

8 Psal. 69. 23, Or, decay, or, loss.

* Isa. 6. 9.

5 Or, remorse. 10 Or, for them.

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