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14 ?Whose mouth is full of cursing and 24 Being justified freely by his grace bitterness :

through the redemption that is in Christ 15 Their feet are swift to shed blood : Jesus:

16 Destruction and misery are in their 25 Whom God hath set forth to be a ways:

propitiation through faith in his blood, to 17 And the way of peace have they not declare his righteousness for the remission known:

of sins that are past, through the forbear18 "There is no fear of God before their ance of God; eyes.

26 To declare, I say, at this time his 19 Now we know that what things soever righteousness: that he might be just, and the law saith, it saith to them who are under the justifier of him which believeth in Jethe law: that every mouth may be stopped, sus. and all the world may become "guilty be- 27 Where is boasting then? It is exfore God.

cluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law by the law of faith. there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: 28 Therefore we conclude that a man is for by the law is the knowledge of sin. justified by faith without the deeds of the

21 But now the righteousness of God law. without the law is manifested, being wit- 29 Is he the God of the Jews only? is he nessed by the Law and the Prophets; not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gen

22 Even the righteousness of God which tiles also: is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and 30 Seeing it is one God, which shall jusupon all them that believe: for there is no tify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumdifference:

cision through faith. 23 For all have sinned, and come short 31 Do we then make void the law through of the glory of God;

faith? God forbid : yea, we establish the law. Isa 59. 7,8.

10 Or, subject to the judgment of God. Il Gal, 2. 16.

1% Or, foreorduined. 13 Or, passing over. Verse 5. I speak as a man.”—This, or rather, “ I speak according to the language of the children of men,” is a phrase which was much used by the Jewish doctors. It seems to be equivalent to the phrase of limitation, “humanly speaking," so frequently interjected in our own theological discourses.

9. “ Are we betler than they? No."-We have had more than one occasion to show that the Jews themselves had a very different opinion on this point-not merely as it respected their privileged condition as a nation, specially instructed by God, but as respected their natural claims, as men among other men. Add this, as cited by Gill:—" In mankind are many degrees, one higher than another; and the Israelites are above all mankind.” (“Tzeror Hammor,'

7 Psal. 10.7.

8 Prov. 1. 16.

! Psal. 36. 1.

103. 2.)

20. By the deeds of the luw,” &c.—The Jews held exactly the opposite opinion, that there was no justification whatever but by the law.

" By the law is the knowledge of sin.—So the Jews allowed: but they thought the operation a more gentle one than does the apostle.

“ He who rises in the night and studies the law, the law makes known to him his sin ;—not as in judgment, but even as a mother, in tender language, makes things known to her son.” (Zohar in Lev. fol. 10. 2.)




4 Now to him that worketh is the reward 1 Abraham's faith was imputed to him for righte

not reckoned of grace, but of debt. ousness, 10 before he was circumcised. 13 By

5 But to him that worketh not, but faith only he and his seed received the promise.

believeth on him that justifieth the un16 Abraham is the father of all that believe. 24 godly, his faith is counted for righteousOur faith also shall be imputed to us for righte

6 Even as David also describeth the What shall we then say that Abraham, our blessedness of the man, unto whom God imfather as pertaining to the flesh, hath puteth righteousness without works, found ?

7 Saying, "Blessed are they whose ini2 For if Abraham were justified by works, quities are forgiven, and whose sins are he hath whereof to glory; but not before covered. God.

8 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord 3 For what saith the Scripture? 'Abra- will not impute sin. ham believed God, and it was counted unto 9 Cometh this blessedness then upon the him for righteousness.

circumcision only, or upon the uncircumI Gen, 15. 6. Gal. 3. 6. James 2. 23. » Psal. 32. 1.

cision also ? for we say that faith was reck is of the faith of Abraham; who is the faoned to Abraham for righteousness.

ther of us all, 10 How was it then reckoned ? when he 17 (As it is written, I have made thee a was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? father of many nations,) 'before him whom Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. he believed, eren God, who quickeneth the

11 And he received the sign of circum- dead, and calleth those things which be not cision, a seal of the righteousness of the as though they were. faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: 18 Who against hope believed in hope, that he might be the father of all them that that he might become the father of many believe, though they be not circumcised; nations, according to that which was spoken, that righteousness might be imputed unto 'So shall thy seed be. them also :

19 And being not weak in faith, he con12 And the father of circumcision to them sidered not his own body now dead, when who are not of the circumcision only, but he was about an hundred years old, neither who also walk in the steps of that faith of yet the deadness of Sarah's womb: our father Abraham, which he had being 20 He staggered not at the promise of yet uncircumcised.

God through unbelief; but was strong in 13 For the promise, that he should be the faith, giving glory to God; heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or 21 And being fully persuaded that, what to his seed, through the law, but through he had promised, he was able also to perthe righteousness of faith.

form. 14 For if they which are of the law be 22 And therefore it was imputed to him heirs, faith is made void, and the promise for righteousness. made of none effect:

23 Now it was not written for his sake 15 Because the law worketh wrath: for alone, that it was imputed to him ; where no law is, there is no transgression. 24 But for us also, to whom it shall be

16 Therefore it is of faith, that it might imputed, if we believe on him that raised be by grace; to the end the promise might up Jesus our Lord from the dead; be sure to all the seed; not to that only 25 Who was delivered for our offences, which is of the law, but to that also which and was raised again for our justification.

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Verse 7. W'hose sins are covered.”—The verse occurs in Ps. xxxii, 1; and is quoted with some slight variation in Jer. 1. 20; with reference to which, the Jews, in their figurative way, observe, that God takes the sins of his people and hides them under his purple garment, so that when Satan comes he finds no iniquity. Whereupon he says, in the language of the prophet, “ Lord of the world, Thou hast taken away the iniquity of thy people, and hast covered their sin.'" (* Capthor,' 59. 1, 2.)

11. The father of all them that believe." --It would be a most interesting commentary upon this book to show the extent to which the apostle takes up the Jewish notions, and applies, refutes, contradicts, or reasons upon them. A fer instances have been pointed out: and another occurs here. Paul is evidently reasoning with the Jews here upon their own notions. Thus, upon the text, “A father of many nations have I made thee," we have this amplification from Maimonides: “ They said in times past, thou wast the father of the Syrians, but now thou art the father of the whole world: wherefore every stranger may say this, ' As thou hast sworn to our fathers:' for Abraham was the father of the whole world, seeing that he taught the true faith.The same writer takes another occasion to explain in reference to the same text, that Abraham was the father of many nations," inasmuch as he is the father of the whole world who enter under the wings of the Shechinah. The meaning of all which is, that Abraham was the father of all who believed, even though they were not of Hebrew origin. This is still more distinctly declared by Kimchi, who says “ Abraham is the father of all who follow him in faith.

13. The heir of the world.”—This also was alleged by the Jews, although certainly not in the sense which the apostle explains. They even went so far as to say that " Abraham was the foundation of the world; for the world was created for his sake."


peace with God through our Lord Jesus 1 Being justified by faith, we have peace with God, Christ:

2 and joy in our hope, 8 that sith we were recon- 2 'By whom also we have access by faith ciled by his blood, when we were enemies, 10 ue

into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice shall much more be saved being reconciled. 12 As sin and death came by Adam, 17 so much more

in hope of the glory of God. righteousness and life by Jesus Christ. 20 Where 3 And not only so, but we glory in trisin abounded, grace did superabound.

bulations also: 'knowing that tribulation THEREFORE being justified by faith, we have worketh patience;

1 Ephes. 2, 18. 2 James 1.3.

4 And patience, experience; and experi- Adam to Moses, even over them that had ence, hope:

not sinned after the similitude of Adam's 5 And hope maketh not ashamed; be- transgression, who is the figure of him that cause the love of God is shed abroad in our was to come. nearts by the Holy Ghost which is given 15 But not as the offence, so also is the into us.

free gift. For if through the offence of 6 For when we were yet without strength, one many be dead, much more the grace in due time Christ died for the un- of God, and the gift by grace, which is by godly.

one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto 7 For scarcely for a righteous man will many. ne die: yet peradventure for a good man 16 And not as it was by one that sinned, ome would even dare to die.

so is the gift: for the judgment was by one 8 But God commendeth his love toward to condemnation, but the free gift is of many s, in that,"while we were yet sinners, Christ offences unto justification. ied for us.

17 For if sby one man's offence death 9 Much more then, being now justified reigned by one;' much more they which y his blood, we shall be saved from wrath receive abundance of grace and of the gift hrough him.

of righteousness shall reign in life by one, 10 For if, when we were enemies, we were Jesus Christ.) econciled to God by the death of his Son, 18 Therefore as by the offence of one iuch more, being reconciled, we shall be judgment came upon all men to condemnauved by his life.

tion; even so 'by the righteousness of one 11 And not only so, but we also joy the free gift came upon all men unto justi1 God through our Lord Jesus Christ, fication of life. ✓ whom we have now received the atone- 19 For as by one man's disobedience ! ent.

many were made sinners, so by the obedi12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered ence of one shall many be made righteous. to the world, and death by sin; and so 20 Moreover the law entered, that the cath passed upon all men, 'for that all have offence might abound. But where sin aned:

abounded, grace did much more abound: 13 (For until the law sin was in the 21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, orld: but sin is not imputed when there even so might grace reign through righteno law.

ousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ 14 Nevertheless death reigned from

our Lord. 801, according to the time.

5 Or, by one offence. 8 Or, by one offence. Or, by one righteousness. erse 7. Righteous man...good man.”—By the righteous man, we understand a just and upright man, who strictly harges his legal duties, and does rothing that men can blame. Such an one, in common society, we would call a 4 man; but the good man” (for the article is definite) is here possessed of a higher degree of goodness than this. character includes the goodness of the other, and adds higher goodness. The goodness of the first is passive, but of the second is active ; the qualities of the first are in negation of evil, those of the second are in affirmation of 1; "the righteous man,” like Job, “ escheweth evil ;” but “ the good man” is more like Job, for he not only heweth evil,” but “ doeth good continually.. uch distinctions were common among the Jews, as may be shown by the following extracts :-“There is a righteous who is good, and there is a righteous man who is not good. He who is good towards God and towards men, is a teous good man; but he that is good towards God and evil towards men, is righteous but not good” (Maimonides Lisn. Pirke Aboth.' v. 10, 13). Schoettgen adduces an illustrative passage from • Pirke Aboth, which is thus lated by Bloomfield :-There are four kinds of men: there is one who says, " What is mine, is mine ; and what ine, is thine'

-he is a middling sort of man. Another says, “What is mine, is thine; and what is thine, is mine' is a worldly-minded man.

Now he who says, 'What is mine, is thine ; and what is thine, is thine;' he is a good But he who says, “What is thine, is mine; and what is mine, is my own ;' is a wicked man.” The -fold distinction used by the apostle-the good, the righteous, and the wicked—was by far the most common, as rated, though in connection with a frivolity, in the following Talmudical notice of nail-parings:-“ A righteous

a good man burns then; a wicked man throws them away.” (T. Bab. • Moed. Katon.' 18. 1.) for a good man some would even dare to die." - Jerome has the fine remark (cited here by Bulkley and Bloomfield), uch is the fear of death, that scarcely any one can be found who will shed his blood for a righteous and good man, ;h some may dare to die for a righteous and just cause.

• Or, in whom.

pious man.

puries them;

CHAPTER VI. may not live in sin, 2 for we are dead unto it, * * appeareth by our baptism.

12 Let not sin "Pin uny more, 18 because we have yielded our

selves to the service of righteousness, 23 and for

that death is the wages of sin. What shall we say then ? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?

2 God forbid. How shall we, that are alive from the dead, and your members ac dead to sin, live any longer therein ? instruments of righteousness unto God.

3 Know ye not, that 'so many of us as 14 For sin shall not have dominion over 'were baptized into Jesus Christ were bap- you : for ye are not under the law, but under tized into his death?

grace. 4 Therefore we are buried with him bylo 15 What then? shall we sin, because te baptism into death: that like as Christ was are not under the law, but under grace? God raised up from the dead by the glory of the forbid. Father, even so we also should walk in new- 16 Know ye not, that 'to whom ye viel ness of life.

yourselves servants to obey, his servants te 5 For if we have been planted together are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unte in the likeness of his death, we shall be also death, or of obedience unto righteousness? in the likeness of his resurrection :

17 But God be thanked, that ye were the 6 Knowing this, that our old man is cru- servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the cified with him, that the body of sin might heart that form of doctrine 'which was del be destroyed, that henceforth we should not vered you. serve sin.

18 Being then made free from sin, ye be7 For lie that is dead is 'freed from came the servants of righteousness. sin.

19 I speak after the manner of men be8 Now if we be dead with Christ, we because of the infirmity of your flesh: for a licve that we shall also live with him : ye have yielded your members servants to a?

9 Knowing that Christ being raised from uncleanness and to iniquity unto iniquits the dead dieth no more; death hath no more even so now yield your members servants dominion over him.

to righteousness unto holiness. 10 For in that he died, he died unto sin 20 For when ye were the servants of sin. once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto ye were free ®from righteousness. God.

21 What fruit had ye then in those things 11 Likewise reckon ye also yourselves whereof ye are now ashamed ? for the end of to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto those things is death. God through Jesus Christ our Lord.

22 But now being made free from sisa12 Let not sin therefore reign in your and become servants to God, ye hare your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting

lu lusts thereof.

life. 13. Neither yield ye your members as 'in- 23 For the wages of sin is death ; but the struments of unrighteousness unto sin : but gift of God is eternal life through Jesus yield yourselves unto God, as those that are Christ our Lord.

* Gr. justified.

John 8. 34. 9 Pet. 2. 19.

8 Gr. I righteousness. Verse 2. Dead 10 sin."-It was also usual among the classical writers to describe one as dead to that persco a thing, all connection with which he had broken off, and with which he had nothing further to do. Thus they speaks of wise and good men as dead to sensualities and animal pleasures.

13. " Instruments.”—“The word óric properly signifies weapons, and in this sense it has a beautiful propriety-Doddridge. It also appears that the weapons of soldiers were anciently regarded in some sort as their members. Has many interpreters suppose there is here a military allusion ; and this might be very appropriate, as the Roman et verts (whom the apostle is now addressing) may be supposed to have been well acquainted with military affairs, if som of them were not even themselves soldiers.

23. The wages of sin is death.—It is evident from the context that “the wages of sin," as opposed to the gifta God,” is not the wages paid for sinning, but the wages which sin pays. Again, the word (otwria) rendered - wagas denotes primarily the pay of soldiers. Thus then we collect the sense: Sin, personified, is represented as a king, abs pays his soldiers the wages of their service ; and that wages is declared to be DEATH.

1 Gal. 3. 27.

? Or, are.

Gr, arms, or, weapons.

3 Coloss. 2. 12.

7 Gr. whereto ye were delirered.


that know the law,) how that the law hath I No law hath power crer a man longer than he

dominion over a man as long as he liveth? liveth. 4. But we are dead to the lau. 7 Yet is

2 For 'the woman which hath an husband not the law sin, 12 but holy, just, good, 16 us I is bound by the law to her husband so long acknowledge, who am grieved because I cannot as he liveth; but if the husband be dead, kecp it

she is loosed from the law of her husband. Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them 3 So then if, while her husband liveth,

Il Cor. 39. 336

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she be married to another man, she shall be 13 Was then that which is good made alled an adulteress: but if her husband be death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that lead, she is free from that law; so that she it might appear sin, working death in me s no adulteress, though she be married to by that which is good ; that sin by the cominother man.

mandment might become exceeding sinful. 4 Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are 14 For we know that the law is spiritual : become dead to the law by the body of but I am carnal, sold under sin. Christ; that ye should be married to an- 15 For that which I do I allow not: for other, even to him who is raised from the what I would, that do I not; but what I lead, that we should bring forth fruit unto hate, that do I. God.

16 If then I do that which I would not, I 5 For when we were in the flesh, the consent unto the law that it is good. motions of sins, which were by the law, did 17 Now then it is no more I that do it, rork in our members to bring forth fruit but sin that dwelleth in me. nto death.

18 For I know that in me (that is, in my 6 But now we are delivered from the law, flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will chat being dead wherein we were held; is present with me; but how to perform that hat we should serve in newness of spirit, which is good I find not. nd not in the oldness of the letter.

19 For the good that I would I do not: 7 What shall we say then? Is the law but the evil which I would not, that I do. n? God forbid. Nay, I had not known 20 Now if I do that I would not, it is no in, but by the law: for I had not known more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in ust, except the law had said, Thou shalt

me. ot covet.

21 I find then a law, that, when I would 8 But sin, taking occasion by the com- do good, evil is present with me. landment, wrought in me all manner of 22 For I delight in the law of God after oncupiscence. For without the law sin was the inward man : ead.

23 But I see another law in my members, 9 For I was alive without the law once: warring against the law of my mind, and ut when the commandment came, sin re- bringing me into captivity to the law of sin (ved, and I died.

which is in my members. 10 And the commandment, which was 24 O wretched man that I am! who shall dained to life, I found to be unto death. deliver me from the body of this death?

11 For sin, taking occasion by the com- 25 I thank God through Jesus Christ our andment, deceived me, and by it slew me. Lord. So then with the mind I myself

12 Wherefore the law is holy, and the serve the law of God; but with the flesh the immandment holy, and just, and good. law of sin. Gr. passions. 3 Or, being dead to that. * Or, concupiscence. 5 Exod. 20. 17. Deut. 5. 21.

7 Or, this body of death. Verse 14. “ Sold under sin.”—The allusion is derived from the Old Testament, as where applied to Ahab, who is said have “sold himself to work wickedness.” (1 Kings xxi. 20.) The phrase is evidently derived from one who is sold a slave to a master: and, in the present instance, the full intensity of the original would denote one who has sold nself to the slavery of sin. The consequence of this bondage is next described. 15. That which I do 1 allow not,&c.—Hammond and others have collected a number of striking passages from e heathen writers, to show that even they were not insensible to the bondage of the better will to the tyranny of sin. e can only give room to the well-known and very apposite lines of Horace:

“My reason this, my passion that persuades ;

I see the right, and I approve it too,

Condemn the wrong, and yet the wrong pursue.” 17. “ No more 1...but sin that dwelleth in me."-See also below, where the apostle speaks of the inner man delighting the law of God, while another law is found in the members, warring against the law of the mind. The whole passage ds a strong parallel in what Xenophon reports Araspes, the Mede, to have said in his discourse with Cyrus. (Cyrop. 328.) “ A single soul cannot be a good and a bad one at the same time; it cannot, at the same time, prefer noble d vile actions ; nor can it, at the same time, be inclined towards and averse to the same things. It is therefore clear at we have two souls: and that, when the good one prevails, it does noble things; but when the bad one is the onger, it attempts things that are evil.” This idea about the two conflicting souls or minds-or rather of body and 11, the body conflicting with the soul-was familiar to the Platonic philosophy, and had before been known in the thagorean Whitby says here, " The apostle seems to speak according to the philosophy of the heathens, with rich the Jews began to be acquainted, that man was not to be denominated from his body, or his sensual, carnal part, t from his mind, which in Philo's phrase is the man within us.'—'The true man."" He cites more from Philo, 10 was a Jew, to the same purpose. But we are disposed to agree with Dr. Bloomfield, that it may very well be ubted whether Philo and other Jews took their notion on this subject from the heathen philosophy. He rather

6 Gr, know.

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