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6. The sea coast,” &c.—See the previous note on Ascalon, under Judges xiv. A more striking corroboration of the Divine prediction could not be given than is supplied in the account which Volney gives of the modern state of the coasts of Philistia. “ In the plain between Ramla and Gaza, we meet with a number of villages, badly built, of dried mud, and which, like their inhabitants, exhibit every mark of poverty and wretchedness. The houses, on a nearer view, are only so many huts, sometimes detached, and sometimes arranged in the form of cells around a court-yard enclosed by a mud wall
. In winter they and their cattle may be said to live together, the part of the dwelling allotted to them being only raised two feet above that in which they lodge their beasts. The peasants are by this means kept warm without burning wood; an economy indispensable in a country absolutely destitute of fuel. The fires needed for culinary purposes are made of dung, kneaded into cakes and dried in the sun. In summer their lodging is more airy ; but all their furniture consists of a single mat, and a pitcher for drinking. The environs of these villages are sown, at the proper season, with grain and water melons ; all the rest is a desert, and abandoned to the Bedouin Arabs, who feed their flocks on it.” “Travels,' ii. 281, 282.
13. “Will make Nineveh a desolation,” &c.—How Nineveh was made a desolation has been shown in the notes on Nahum. The desolation in which it still remains will sufficiently appear from a foregoing engraving.
We have already mentioned that the earliest of the Greek writers who mention Nineveh, wrote a good while after that city was destroyed; and from the manner in which they indicate its situation, and the discrepancies between them, it almost appears uncertain whether they were acquainted with its position. Indeed, Lucian, who lived in the second century after Christ, distinctly avows, that so utterly had Nineveh been destroyed, that no vestige of it remained, nor could it be easily ascertained where it had once stood. There is indeed no ground on which to feel positively certain as to the site of Nineveh; and this uncertainty is itself a most striking corroboration of Scripture prophecy.' But there is considerable probability in the now generally received opinion which finds the site of Nineveh on the eastern bank of the Tigris, opposite Mousul, where the site of an extensive ancient city may be traced by such earth-covered hills and ridges of ruin as now mark the place of Babylon and other ancient towns of Assyria and Chaldea. The longcontinued state of desolation in which Nineveh has remained for ages might be illustrated Irom the successive notices of various travellers and historians. Thus, we are told of an occasion (in A.D. 627) when the emperor Heraclius defeated the Persiaus in a great action fought on the convenient battle-field offered by the vacant site of Nineveh (Gibbon, ch. xlvi). Benjamin of Tudela says that Al-Mutsal (Mousul) was separated only by a bridge from the ancient Nineveh : but Nineveh was utterly destroyed, although there were some streets and many castles within the ancient circuit-meaning, of course, modern erections within the limits of the ancient city. Haitho, the Armenian, (about 1300 a.d.) also mentions Nineveh as lying in total ruin. Our own “ Master John Cartwright," who was there in the latter part of the sixteenth century, after giving the substance of the ancient accounts of the great Nineveh, adds, “ Now it is destroyed (as God foretold it should bee by the Chaldeans), being nothing else than a sepulchre of her selfe.” In a later age, Thevenot mentioned the great extent of its ruins; and Tavernier Jescribed the remains as “ a heap of rubbish only.” Such still is the site of Nineveh. Kinneir says, “ I examined these remains in November, 1810, and found them to consist of a rampart and fosse, forming an oblong square, not exceeding four miles in compass, if so much. I saw neither stones nor rubbish of any kind. The wall is, on an average, twenty feet high; and as it is covered with grass, the whole has a striking resemblance to some of the Roman entrenchments which are extant in England.” ("Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire,' p. 250.) More complete accounts have recently been furnished by Buckingham and Rich.
If the prolonged mounds, mentioned by Kinneii, and disposed in the form of a square, were walls, as he supposes, it is clear that they could not have been the city walls ; but must have belonged to the citadel or the palace and its enclosures. The dimensions of the square as given by Kinneir appear to be much too small; however, these mounds do not by any means form the only indications of ancient ruin, for there are appearances of mounds and ruins extending for several miles to the southward, and still more distinctly seen to the northward of this, though both are less marked than the mounds of the centre. The alleged tomb of Jonah is on the southernmost of these central mounds, which extenis nearly east and west from the neighbourhood of the river. A Mohammedan village has been formed around the tumb. It appears that, where openings are made in the soil-covered mounds, sections of sun-dried brickwork are exposed ; and some important conclusions might perhaps be deduced from more extended researches. The space between and about the central mounds is a level plain, over every part of which broken pottery, and the other usual debris of ruined cities in this region, are seen scattered about. Buckingham thus speaks of the view over the site obtained from the most northern of the central mounds: “As far as I could perceive, from our elevated point of view, on the highest summit of Tel Nivoa, there were mounds of ruins similar to those near us, but less distinctly marked, as far as the eye could reach to the northward ; and the plain to the eastward of us, or between the river and the mouatains, had a mixture of large brown patches, like heaps of rubbish, seen at intervals, scattered over a cultivated soil." The low grounds near the river, where not cultivated, are covered to a considerable extent with tamarisk bushes. Mr. Rich holds that it is impossible to determine what part of the site was occupied by the ancient Nineveh, observing that, • In such a country it is not easy to say what are ruins and what are not; what is art, converted by the lapse of ages into a semblance of nature, and what is merely nature broken by the hand of time into ruins approaching in their appearance those of art.” One reinarkable circumstance is, that the remains obtained from the mounds are very similar to those afforded by the mounds of Babylou ; and this even to fragments of cuneiform inscriptions ou stone, resembling in every respect those which Babylon offers. Mr. Rich arrived at one important conclusion, which was, that all the remains belonged to the same age and character ; but, as he adds, " Whether they belonged to Nineveh or some other city is another question, and one not so easily determined.”
not 'correction; she trusted not in the LORD; 1 A sharp reproof of Jerusalem for divers sins. 8
she drew not near to her God. An exhortation to wait for the restoration of 3 *Her princes within her are roaring Israel, 14 and to rejoice for their salvation by lions; her judges are evening wolves; they God.
gnaw not the bones till the morrow. Woe to 'her that is filthy and polluted, to 4 Her 'prophets are light and treacherous the oppressing city!
persons: her priests have polluted the sanc2 She obeyed not the voice; she received tuary, the
tuary, they have done 'violence to the law. 1 Or, glultonuus. * Or, instruction.
6 Esek. 22. 26.
* Heb. craw.
Ezek. 22. 97
Micah 3.9, 10.
3 Jer. 23. 11. Hos. 9. 7.
The just LORD is in the midst thereof; an afflicted and poor people, and they shall rill not do iniquity: 'every morning doth trust in the name of the LORD. oring his judgment to light, he faileth 13 The remnant of Israel shall not do but the unjust knoweth no shame. iniquity, nor speak lies; neither shall a deI have cut off the nations: their ®towers ceitful tongue be found in their mouth : for desolate; I made their streets waste, they shall feed and lie down, and none shall none passeth by: their cities are de- make them afraid. yed, so that there is no man, that there 14 | Sing, o daughter of Zion; shout, one inhabitant.
O Israel; be glad and rejoice with all the : I said, Surely thou wilt fear me, thou heart, O daughter of Jerusalem.
receive instruction; so their dwelling 15 The Lord hath taken away thy judguld not be cut off, howsoever I punished ments, he hath cast out thine enemy: the 1: but they rose early, and corrupted king of Israel, even the Lord, is in the heir doings.
midst of thee: thou shalt not see evil any Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the more. D, until the day that I rise up to the 16 In that day it shall be said to Jeru*: for my determination is to gather salem, Fear thou not: and to Zion, Let not nations, that I may assemble the king-thine hands be "slack. 8, to pour upon them mine indignation, 17 The Lord thy God in the midst of
all my fierce anger: for all the earth thee is mighty; he will save, he will reI be devoured with the fire of my 'jea- joice over thee with joy; "she will rest in his y.
love, he will joy over thee with singing. For then will I turn to the people a 18 I will gather them that are sorrowful : "language, that they may all call upon for the solemn assembly, who are of thee, to name of the LORD, to serve him with whom the reproach of it was a burden. consent.
19 Behold, at that time I will undo all 9 From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia that afflict thee: and I will save her that suppliants, even the daughter of my dischalteth, and gather her that was driven "ed, shall bring mine offering.
out; and I will get them praise and fame In that day shalt thou not be ashamed in every land where they have been put to ll thy doings, wherein thou hast trans- shame. :
20 At that time will I bring you again, out of the midst of thee them that re- even in the time that I gather you : for I in thy pride, and thou shalt no more will make you a name and a praise among naughty because of my holy moun- all people of the earth, when I turn back
your captivity before your eyes, saith the ! I will also leave in the midst of thee | LORD.
? Heb. morning by mourning. 8 Or, corner
Chap. 1. 18. 13 Isa. 19. 6, ard 54. 1. li Or, faint.
15 Heb. he will be silent, '18 Heb, I will set them for a praise.
10 Hab. lip.
11 Heb. shoulder. 18 Heb. in my holy. 16 Heb. the burden upon it was reproach. 17 Micah 4.7.
19 Heb. of their shame.
7 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; Con.
sider your ways. 1 Haggai reproveth the people for neglecting the building of the house. 7. He inciteth them to the
8 Go up to the mountain, and bring building. 12 He promiseth God's assistance to wood, and build the house; and I will take them being forward.
pleasure in it, and I will be glorified, saith
the LORD. N the second 9 Ye looked for much, and, lo, it came to year of Dari- little; and when ye brought it home, I did us the king, blow upon it. Why? saith the Lord of in the sixth hosts. Because of mine house that is waste, month, in the and ye run every man unto his own house. first day of the 10 Therefore the heaven over you is month, came stayed from dew, and the earth is stayed the word of from her fruit. the Lord 'by
11 And I called for a drought upon the Haggai the land, and upon the mountains, and upon prophet unto the corn, and upon the new wine, and upon
Zerubbabel the oil, and upon that which the ground the son of bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon Shealtiel, 'go- cattle, and upon all the labour of the hands. vernor of Ju- 12 , Then Zerubbabel the son of Sheal
dah, and to tiel, and Joshua the son of Josedech, the Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, high priest, with all the remnant of the saying,
people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their 2 Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, say- God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, ing, This people say, The time is not come, as the LORD their God had sent him, and the time that the Lord's house should be the people did fear before the LORD. built.
13 Then spake Haggai the Lord's mes3 Then came the word of the LORD by senger in the Lord's message unto the peoHaggai the prophet, saying,
ple, saying, I am with you, saith the LORD. 4 Is it time for you, o ye, to dwell in 14 Ånd the LORD stirred up the spirit of your cieled houses, and this house lie waste? Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor
5 Now therefore thus saith the Lord of of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son hosts ; Consider your ways.
of Josedech, the high priest, and the spirit 6 Ye have ‘sown much, and bring in of all the remnant of the people; and they little; ye eat, but ye have not enough; ye
came and did work in the house of the LORD drink, but ye are not filled with drink; ye of hosts, their God, clothe
but there is none warm; and he 15 In the four and twentieth day of the that earneth wages carneth wages to put it sixth month, in the second year of Darius into a bag 'with holes.
• Deut. 28. 38. Mic. 6. 14, 15. 3 Heb. pierced through. Haggar:— There is no doubt concerning the date of this prophecy, which is given with much precision in the first verse ; and from which, as well as from the book of Ezra (iv. 24), we learn that it was delivered after the Jews had returned to Jerusalem from their captivity, to stimulate and encourage them in the rebuilding of the temple. Bishop Lowth considers the style of Haggai's prophecy to be altogether prosaic ; but Archbishop Newcome's translation proceeds on the idea that the greater part of it admits of a metrical division.
Haggai was probably born at Babylon, or in one of the towns in which the Hebrew captives were placed by the Babylonians. We know not when or where he died: the pseudo-Epiphanius says at Jerusalem, which is probable ; and he adds, that he was buried among the priests: but the Cippi Hebraici place his sepulchre in a cave on the de clivity of the mount of Olives. But whatever, in this and other instances, we state on these authorities, we regard as very uncertain.
& Or, blow it away.
7 Deut. 28. 23
meat, shall it be holy? And the priests anCHAPTER II.
swered and said. No. 1 He encourageth the people to the work, by promise 13 Then said Haggai, If one that is unof greater glory to the second temple than was in clean by a dead body touch any of these, the first. 10 In the type of holy things and un- shall it be unclean?' And the priests anclean he sheveth their sins hindered the work.
swered and said, It shall be unclean. 20 God's promise to Zerubbabel.
14 Then answered Haggai, and said, So In the seventh month, in the one and twen is this people, and so is this nation before tieth day of the month, came the word of me, saith the LORD; and so is every work the Lord 'by the prophet Haggai, saying, of their hands; and that which they offer
2 Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of there is unclean. Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua 15 And now, I pray you, consider from
the son of Josedech, the high priest, and to this day and upward, from before a stone was pis the residue of the people, saying,
laid upon a stone in the temple of the LORD: 3 Who is left among you that saw this 16 Since those days were, when one came house in her first glory? and how do ye see to an heap of twenty measures, there were
it now? is it not in your eyes in comparison but ten: when one came to the pressfat for 1 of it as nothing?
to draw out fifty vessels out of the press, 4 Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith there were but twenty. the LORD; and be strong, O Joshua, son of 17 I smote you with blasting and with Josedech, the high priest; and be strong, mildew and with hail in all the labours of all ye people of the land, saith the LORD, your hands; yet ye turned not to me, saith and work: for I am with you, saith the LORD the LORD. of hosts :
18 Consider now from this day and up5 According to the word that I covenanted ward, from the four and twentieth day of with you when ye came out of Egypt, so my the ninth month, even from the day that the spirit remaineth among you: fear ye not.
foundation of the Lord's temple was laid, 6 For thus saith the Lord of hosts ; ‘Yet consider it. once, it is a little while, and I will shake the 19 Is the seed yet in the barn? heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the yet the vine, and the fig tree, and the pomedry land;
granate, and the olive tree, hath not brought 7 And I will shake all nations, and the forth: from this day will I bless you. desire of all nations shall come: and I will 20 | And again the word of the Lord fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of came unto Haggai in the four and twentieth hosts.
day of the month, saying, 8 The silver is mine, and the gold is 21 Speak to Zerubbabel, governor of Jumine, saith the LORD of hosts.
dah, saying, I will shake the heavens and 9 The glory of this latter house shall be the earth; greater than of the former, saith the LORD 22 And I will overthrow the throne of of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, kingdoins, and I will destroy the strength saith the Lord of hosts.
of the kingdoms of the heathen; and I will 10 1 In the four and twentieth day of the overthrow the chariots, and those that ride ninth month, in the second year of Darius, in them; and the horses and their riders came the word of the LORD by Haggai the shall come down, every one by the sword of prophet, saying,
his brother. 11 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ask 23 In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, now the priests concerning the law, saying, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servart,
12 If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of the son of Shealtiel, saith the LORD, and his garment, and with his skirt do touch will make thee as a signet: for I have chosen bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any thee, saith the Lord of hosts.
1 Heb. by the hand of. Verse 7. “ The desire of all nations shall come : and I will fill this house with glory.”—Many Jewish and some Christian interpreters understand the clause, rendered the desire of all nations," to mean not a person, but things-the desirable things of all nations-their wealth, their treasure, and productions, which should be brought to adorn and glorify the second house. It does indeed appear, from the account of the valuable things taken away by Antiochus (1 Macc. i. 21, 22), that this temple did becoine very rich: and still more so, when, in a later age. Herod expended immense sums un rebuilding, improving, and ornamenting the sacred structure-producing the temple which stood in the time of our Saviour, and which was destroyed by Titus ; and of which Josephus says that with respect to magnitude, building, and VOL. III. 2 s
! Heb. 12. 26.
8 Amos 4.9.