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19 Then he measured the breadth from court toward the east: and he measured the the forefront of the lower gate unto the gate according to these measures. forefront of the inner court ?without, an hun- 33 And the little chambers thereof, and dred cubits eastward and northward.
the posts thereof, and the arches thereof, 20 4 And the gate of the outward court were according to these measures: and there 8that looked toward the north, he measured were windows therein and in the arches therethe length thereof, and the breadth thereof. of round about: it was fifty cubits long, and
21 And the little chambers thereof were five and twenty cubits broad. three on this side and three on that side; 34 And the arches thereof were toward and the posts thereof and the 'arches thereof the outward court; and palm trees were were after the measure of the first gate : the upon the posts thereof, on this side, and on length thereof was fifty cubits, and the that side: and the going up to it had eight breadth five and twenty cubits.
steps. 22 And their windows, and their arches, 35 And he brought me to the north gate, and their palm trees, were after the measure and measured it according to these measures: of the gate that looketh toward the east; 36 The little chambers thereof, the posts and they went up unto it by seven steps; thereof, and the arches thereof, and the winand the arches thereof were before them. dows to it round about: the length was fifty
23 And the gate of the inner court was cubits, and the breadth five and twenty over against the gate toward the north, and cubits. toward the east; and he measured from gate 37 And the posts thereof were toward to gate an hundred cubits.
the utter court; and palm trees were upon 24 | After that he brought me toward the the posts thereof, on this side, and on that south, and behold a gate toward the south : side: and the going up to it had eight steps. and he measured the posts thereof and the 38 And the chambers and the entries arches thereof according to these measures. thereof were by the posts of the gates, where
25 And there were windows in it and in they washed the burnt offering. the arches thereof round about, like those · 39 ( And in the porch of the gate were windows: the length was fifty cubits, and two tables on this side, and two tables on the breadth five and twenty cubits.
that side, to slay thereon the burnt offering 26 And there were seven steps to go up and the sin offering and the trespass offering to it, and the arches thereof were before 40 And at the side without,"as one gothem: and it had palm trees, one on this eth up to the entry of the north gate, were side, and another on that side, upon the two tables; and on the other side, which was posts thereof.
at the porch of the gate, were two tables. 27 And there was a gate in the inner 41 Four tables were on this side, and four court toward the south: and he measured tables on that side, by the side of the gate; from gate to gate toward the south an hun eight tables, whereupon they slew their sudred cubits.
crifices. 28 And he brought me to the inner court 42 And the four tables were of hewr by the south gate: and he measured the stone for the burnt offering, of a cubit and south gate according to these measures ; an half long, and a cubit and an half broad
29 And the little chambers thereof, and and one cubit high: whereupon also they the posts thereof, and the arches thereof, laid the instruments wherewith they slev according to these measures : and there were the burnt offering and the sacrifice. windows in it and in the arches thereof 43 And within were "hooks, an hand round about: it was fifty cubits long, and broad, fastened round about: and upon the five and twenty cubits broad.
tables was the flesh of the offering. 30 And the arches round about were five 44 | And without the inner gate were the and twenty cubits long, and five cubits chambers of the singers in the inner court 10 broad.
which was at the side of the north gate; and 31 And the arches thereof were toward their prospect was toward the south: one a the utter court; and palm trees were upon the side of the east gate having the prospect the posts thereof: 'and the going up to it toward the north. had eight steps.
45 And he said unto me, This chamber 32 | And he brought me into the inner | whose prospect is toward the south, is for 7 Or, from without. . Or, galleries, or porches.
11 Or, at the step.
8 Heb. whose face was.
13 Or, endirons, or, the two hearth-stones.
10 Heb. breadth.
ne priests, the keepers of the 'charge of the 48 | And he brought me to the porch of ouse.
the house, and measured each post of the 46 And the chamber whose prospect is to porch, five cubits on this side, and five cubits ard the north is for the priests, the keepers on that side: and the breadth of the gate the charge of the altar: these are the sons was three cubits on this side, and three cu
Zadok among the sons of Levi, which bits on that side. me near to the LORD to minister unto him. 49 The length of the porch was twenty 47 So he measured the court, an hundred cubits, and the breadth eleven cubits; and hits long, and an hundred cubits broad, he brought me by the steps whereby they went irsquare; and the altar that was before up to it: and there were pillars by the posts, ; house.
one on this side, and another on that side.
13 Or, ward, or, ordinarce. and so erse 46. HAP. XL-XLVIII. We have mentioned, in the introductory note, the great and acknowledged difficulty sired in the obscure vision contained in these chapters. For this reason the Hebrews forbade this portion of Scrip1 to be read by persons under thirty years of age; and many Christian expositors have abstained altogether froin ment. We do not approve of this, being persuaded that “all Scripture is profitable: ” as, however, we should der of giving a satisfactory explanation of all the details, and as the attempt would occupy more room than a regard ar limits would allow us to spare for the subject, we shall confine our attention to a few detached passages which * occasion for such remarks as we have been accustomed to give. ne of the great difficulties in this description is to understand its design. Perhaps none of the numerous conires which have been offered are entirely satisfactory, and we are not disposed to add to the number. A very mon explanation is, that, as the Temple and city were overthrown, and the ecclesiastical and civil polity of the rews destroyed, these chapters were written to instruct them in what they were to do on their return from captivity, in particular to give them such a detailed description as might enable them to build another temple, similar in and dimensions to that of Solomon. It is under this explanation that the writers who have attempted to give us ccount of Solomon's Temple, have freely availed themselves of the present chapters to complete their descriptions. would however be difficult to show that the temple of Zerubbabel answered to this description, or that which, as astructed and enriched by Herod, existed in the time of our Saviour, and is described by Josephus and the Rab: and even allowing that the later temple did, in essential matters, correspond to this representation, it is certain the division of the land was not the same after the return from captivity, as is here prescribed, nor the governors civil polity those which are here directed. On these grounds the Jews themselves allow that the directions given in ? chapters have not hitherto been followed. They believe that many things which they contain cannot be under1 till Elias (whom they still expect) shall come and explain them; and that the temple here described, will not be -- Dor the regulations take effect, until the Messiah comes, to whose advent they still look forward. Some Christian rs have been disposed to apply the whole to the condition of the Jews under a future restoration to their own land privileges; while others interpret the whole with a mystical application to the church of Christ. We cannot into these explanations ; but the reader will be glad to see the observations of Professor Dathe, as applying to we have stated as the more common explanation, and as meeting the objections to which that explanation is
His opinion, which he submits with diffidence to the consideration of others, is, that the passage “ does not in a prophecy, nor does it predict any future event; but it describes what ought to have been done, if the whole ih people, consisting of all the tribes, had returned from captivity to their own country. Liberty was granted to ad all had it in their power to return. God now orders, by the mouth of his prophet, what should be the nature : :haracter of his worship, and what division of the country should take place between the different tribes. There thing in the whole description which might not have been carried into effect, provided that all of them had red, and taken possession of the land, which God granted to them. In this new possession of the Promised Land, a God offered to his people, the same thing happened as on a former occasion, when they entered into the land, 2 they had so long desired, under their leader, Joshua. The division which then took place was very different that which ought to have been made, according to the will of God; for the sloth and cowardice of the people, ing a protracted war, was the reason why a great part of the country was allowed to remain in possession of the nhabitants; and the same baseness of disposition, or love of present advantage, now detained them where they so that they chose rather to live as exiles among the nations, than to return to their own country, which was now I laid waste or occupied by others.” rse 16. “ Arches.”—The marginal reading, “ galleries, or porches,” as understood of a covered walk with pillars, is which most interpreters seem to prefer. We are not, upon the whole, disposed to contest this preference; but is one reason adduced in support of it, from which we are obliged to withhold our assent: this is, that the arch is aparatively late invention and could not have been known to the Hebrews. Now as this reason involves the conon that no arches appeared in the public or private constructions of the Hebrews, though they abound in mo-lern ital architecture, a question of some interest suggested by the occurrence of the word here, which we may be sted to notice briefly, without its being necessary to show that the word is in the present instance properly used. le of the arguments that was employed against the early antiquity of the arch, was its alleged absence from the ancient architecture of the Egyptians. If therefore we can show that this impression is incorrect, and that the ancient Egyptians were acquainted with the principle of the arch and did employ it in their constructions, we ose it will no longer be contended that it was unknown to the Jews, who had so much intercourse with Egypt. pai was decidedly of opinion that he had found Egyptian arches of very remote antiquity, and gives the specimens h we have copied: but his evidence on the subject is less conclusive than that which has since been sup, lied by Wilkinson, in a work printed by him a few years since at Malta, and containing much curious information not seded by that contained in his more recent publication, The Topography of Thebes.' He notices a curious imitaof an arch which he found in a fine edifice with an avenue of sphinxes, under the mountain of Qoorneh, on the an side of Thebes. “It is formed of large blocks of stone placed horizontally over each other, the upper one proig over that immediately below it, till the two upper ones meet in the centre, the inner angles being afterwards iff so as to form a vault. Though this is not constructed on the principle of the arch, there is every reason to ose that the Egyptians were well acquainted with that mode of building, as they appear to have adopted it from
time immemorial in their tombs and crude brick houses, as I shall have occasion to remark presently.”—The protuised remark is as follows:-“ An opinion, admitted by the generality of the learned world, gains force by want of contradiction, till at length it passes into fact. Such has been the case with the antiquity of the arch, which, to the surprise of every one who has attentively considered ancient remains, has been confined to the era of Augustus. Without stopping to mention one of the time of Psamaticus II., or the probability of its being employed in the houses of the Egyptians from the earliest times, owing to the small quantity of wood growing in this country, and in roofing the chambers of crude brick pyramids, I proceed to facts, which require neither argument to support por allow prejudice to refute them. I had long felt persuaded that the greater part of the crude brick vaults in the western tombs of Thebes, were at least coeval with the 18th dynasty, but had never been fortunate enough to find proofs to support my conjecture, till chance threw in my way a tomb, vaulted in the usual manner, with an arched doorway of the same materials, stuccoed, and bearing in every part the fresco paintings and name of Amunoph I. Innumerable vaults and arches exist in Thebes, of early date, but unfortunately none with the names of kings remaining on them. The style of the paintings in the crude brick pyramids evince at once that they belong either to the end of the last mentioned or the beginning of the 17th dynasty."
It will be observed that this discovery carries the ascertained antiquity of the arch up to 1540 B.C., that is, to the time of the earlier Hebrew judges, and 460 years prior to the commencement of Solomon's Temple. The unascertained antiquity may have been, and probably was, much higher. Not long before the ascertained date, the Hebrews were bondsmen in Egypt, and are supposed by many to have been employed in the construction of those very pyramids of crude brick to which Mr. Wilkinson alludes. As we consider that the above facts suffice to substantiate the more than probability that the arch was known to the Hebrews, we resist the inducements which the subject offers to a more extended investigation.
43. “ Hooks.”—It is probable that these hooks were attached to posts, and that the victims were suspended from them to be skinned and dressed for sacrifice. Thus we are informed by the Rabbinical writers, that in the slaughterplace of the second temple, to the north of the altar, there were eight pillars of stone boarded with cedar, in each of which were fixed three rows of iron hooks, one above another, and that from the higher hooks were suspended the bullocks, from the next the rams, and from the lowest the lambs, when dressed for sacrifice. A large variety of instruments were employed in the ancient sacrifices. Of knives alone there were several kinds, and some of these have a hooked shape in ancient paintings; and something of this sort might be intended here, unless the above explanation should seem preferable.
place that was left was five cubits round
about. The measures, parts, chambers, and ornaments of
12 Now the building that was before the the temple.
separate place at the end toward the west AFTERWARD he brought me to the temple, was seventy cubits broad; and the wall of and measured the posts, six cubits broad on the building was five cubits thick round the one side, and six cubits broad on the about, and the length thereof ninety cuother side, which was the breadth of the ta- bits. bernacle.
13 So he measured the house, an hun2 And the breadth of the 'door was ten dred cubits long; and the separate place, cubits; and the sides of the door were five and the building, with the walls thereof, an cubits on the one side, and five cubits on hundred cubits long; the other side: and he measured the length 14 Also the breadth of the face of the thereof, forty cubits; and the breadth, twenty house, and of the separate place toward the cubits.
east, an hundred cubits. 3 Then went he inward, and measured 15 And he measured the length of the the post of the door, two cubits; and the
two cubits; and the building over against the separate place door, six cubits; and the breadth of the door, which was behind it, and the galleries seven cubits.
thereof on the one side and on the other side, 4 So he measured the length thereof, an hundred cubits, with the inner temple, twenty cubits; and the breadth, twenty cu- and the porches of the court; bits, before the temple: and he said unto 16 The door posts, and the narrow winme, This is the most holy place.
dows, and the galleries round about on their 5 After he measured the wall of the house, three stories, over against the door, 'cieled six cubits; and the breadth of every side with wood round about, 'and from the ground chamber, four cubits, round about the house up to the windows, and the windows were on every side.
covered ; 6 And the side chambers were three, 'one 17 To that above the door, even unto the over another, and 'thirty in order; and they inner house, and without, and by all the wall entered into the wall which was of the house round about within and without, by 'meafor the side chambers round about, that they sure. might have hold, but they had not hold in 18 And it was made with cherubims and the wall of the house.
palm trees, so that a palm tree was between 7 And there was an enlarging, and a à cherub and a cherub; and every cherub winding about still upward to the side cham- had two faces; bers: for the winding about of the house 19 So that the face of a man was toward went still upward round about the house: the palm tree on the one side, and the face therefore the breadth of the house was still of a young lion toward the palm tree on the upward, and so increased from the lowest other side: it was made through all the chamber to the highest by the midst. house round about.
8 I saw also the height of the house round 20 From the ground unto above the door about : the foundations of the side chambers were cherubims and palm trees made, and were a full reed of six great cubits.
on the wall of the temple. 9 The thickness of the wall, which was 21 The posts of the temple were squared, for the side chamber without, was five and the face of the sanctuary; the appearcubits: and that which was left was the ance of the one as the appearance of the place of the side chambers that were other.
22 The altar of wood was three cubits 10 And between the chambers was the high, and the length thereof two cubits; and wideness of twenty cubits round about the the corners thereof, and the length thereof,
and the walls thereof, were of wood : and he 11 And the doors of the side chambers said unto me, This is the table that is before were toward the place that was left, one
the LORD. door toward the north, and another door 23 And the temple and the sanctuary had toward the south: and the breadth of the two doors.
house on every side
? Heb. side chamber over side chamber. 8 Or, three and thirty times, or, foot. * Heb. it was made broader, and went round.
7 Heb. cieling of wood. * Or, and the ground unto the windous.
1 Or, entrance.
4 Heb be holden.
6 Or, several walks, or, walks with pillars.
9 Heb. measures.
10 Heb post.
24 And the doors had two leaves apiece, there were thick planks upon the face of the two turning leaves; two leaves for the one porch without. door, and two leaves for the other door.
26 And there were narrow windows and 25 And there were made on them, on the palm trees on the one side and on the other doors of the temple, cherubims and palm side, on the sides of the porch, and upon the trees, like as were made upon the walls; and side chambers of the house, and thick planks.
Verse 8. “ A full reed of six great cubits.”—This reed of six great cubits was that with which all the measurements were taken. Compare verse 5 of the preceding chapter, where this reed is called “ a measuring reed of six cubits long, by the cubit, and a hand's breadth.” It has there been disputed whether the whole reed exceeded six cubits by a hand's breadth, or that each of the six cubits was a hand's breadth more than the common cubit. To us it seems that the present text decides for the latter alternative, which is that also chosen by the Targum, followed by many Jewish and Christian interpreters. The distinction of measures (and also weights, as in our own troy and avoirdupois), great and small, has existed among different nations, ancient and modern, and probably existed also among the Hebrews. That there was such a distinction among the Babylonians, among whom the prophet was a captive, is attested by Herodotus, who so gives the measurement of the walls of Babylon in such a manner as to supply a parallel illustration of some interest.
“The width of the wall is fifty royal cubits, and its height two hundred cubits: the royal cubit exceeds the common cubit by three fingers' breadth.“ (Clio, 178.) It may not be impossible that this "royal cubit” was the very measure called the “great cubit” by the prophet.
'the entry on the east side, 'as one goeth
into them from the utter court. 1 The chambers for the priests. 13 The use thereof.
10 The chambers were in the thickness 19 The measures of the outward court.
of the wall of the court toward the east, over Then he brought me forth into the utter against the separate place, and over against court, the way toward the north : and he the building. brought me into the chamber that was over 11 And the way before them was like the against the separate place, and which was appearance of the chambers which were before the building toward the north. toward the north, as long as they, and as
2 Before the length of an hundred cubits broad as they: and all their goings.out were was the north door, and the breadth was both according to their fashions, and ac
cording to their doors. 3 Over against the twenty cubits which 12 And according to the doors of the were for the inner court, and over against chambers that were toward the south was a the pavement which was for the utter door in the head of the way, even the way court, was gallery against gallery in three directly before the wall toward the east, as stories.
one entereth into them. 4 And before the chambers was a walk of 13 Then said he unto me, The north ten cubits breadth inward, a way of one chambers and the south chambers, which cubit; and their doors toward the north. are before the separate place, they be holy
5 Now the upper chambers were shorter : chambers, where the priests that approach for the galleries 'were higher than these, unto the LORD shall eat the most holy things: 'than the lower, and than the middlemost of there shall they lay the most holy things, the building.
and the meat offering, and the sin offering, 6 For they were in three stories, but had and the trespass offering; for the place is not pillars as the pillars of the courts : there- holy. fore the building was straitened more than 14 When the priests enter therein, then the lowest and the middlemost from the shall they not go out of the holy place into ground.
the utter court, but there they shall lay their 7 And the wall that was without over garments wherein they minister; for they against the chambers, toward the utter court are holy; and shall put on other garments, on the forepart of the chambers, the length and shall approach to those things which are thereof was fifty cubits.
for the people. 8 For the length of the chambers that 15 Now when he had made an end of were in the utter court was fifty cubits: and, measuring the inner house, he brought me lo, before the temple were an hundred cu- forth toward the gate whose prospect is bits.
toward the east, and measured it round 9 And from under these chambers was about. Or, did eat of these. * Or, and the building consisted of the lower and the middlemost. 8 Or, from the place. * Or, he that bromyled me.
5 Or, as he came.