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tion, fulfilled, in providing for them, and in
LAWGIVER, making them rich in faith.
Persons employed in transcribing and inter
preting the law of Moses, in later times, orators LEGAL SUPPORT FOR THE POOR.
or lawyers, employed in pleading before The gleanings of the harvest field, of the judges, instanced in Tertullus. vintage, the tithe of the third year, and the spontaneous productions of the seventh
In ancient times set at the gates of cities, as SUPPORT FROM BENEVOLENCE.
in Ruth ; in latter times in halls, as the Almsgiving enjoined -characterized, when judgment hall of Pilate, set for deciding in rightly performed, by being done freely, readily, controversies, involving accusation, defence, and unostentatiously.
stocks – Paul at Philippi; scourging, which,
however, might not be inflicted on a Roman Appointed by Moses; afterwards in all the citizen, and limited by Mosaic law to strokes cities of Israel – were set to hear the forly, save one, retaliation, fine, stoning, the causes of the people, to dispense righteous sword. judgment, neither respecting the persons of the rich nor favouring the poor, noted as fearing CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS OF FOREIGN NATIONS, God, hating covetousness.
Hanging, instanced in Haman,-burning alive,
the sentence pronounced upon Shadrach, WITNESSES.
Meshach and Abednego,-exposure to wild Required to be faithful, considerate, and beasts, instanced in Daniel,-cutting asunder, conscientious; in number at least two or three; threatened by Nebuchadrezzar to his wise sometimes false, instanced in the trial of men-decapitation, instanced in John the BapJesus
tist, and crucifixion inflicted upon the Saviour.
OTHER KINGS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE.
JUDGES OR OFFICERS.
Zachariah, Shallıım, Menahem, Pekahiah, Governing Israel between the time of Joshua Pekah, and Hoshea. and that of Samuel, the office not hereditary, but the men raised up, qualified, and appointed by God when the circumstances of Hanun and Nahash, kings of Ammon, Hathe nation called for them, usually invested zrel, Ben-hadad, and Aretas, kings of Syria, with extraordinary powers, and continued as Cyrus, king of Persia, Darius the Median, the supreme magistrates of Israel for the space Herod and Agrippa, kings of Judea, and of four hundred and thirty years.
Tiberias, emperor of Rome.
ANOINTING, CORONATION. formal approval of the people, as Saul and Conducted with great pomp, the pouring of David, wiih whom God covenanted that the oil on the person consecrated, sounding of throne should be his, descending in his family trumpets, the shouts of the people, God save the in the line of Solomon; also Solomon by im. King, the congratulations and good wishes mediate revelation and appointment. of officers, men of rank, and neighbouring
kings, accompanied with general festivity, KINGS OF JUDAH.
among the people, instanced in the coronation Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jeho of Solomon, etc. ram, Ahaziah, Athaliali
, Joash, or Jehoash, Amaziah, Uzziah 'or Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, ROYAL DRESS, DIGNITY, AND TIQUETTE. Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoa- Punctiliously attended to the throne was very haz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah.
magnificent in the case of Solomon, the crown was sometimes of massive gold and precious
stones, instanced in that of David, the sceptre Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zirnri, also of gold, instanced in the book of Esther, Omri, Ahab, Abaziah, Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoa- and the royal robes were of great magaii. baz, Jehoash, or Joash, Jeroboam the second, cence.
KINGS 07 THE TEN TRIBES.
POWER AND PREROGATIVE.
DUTIES, With little limitation, extending to the power Arising from the compact, real or implied, of life and death, the making of peace or the between the king and the subject-devolving declaration of war, the levying of armies, and upon both parties—he that ruleth over men must the collection of taxes, rulers often surrounded be just. Honour the king, by flatterers, as the young men who gave counsel to Rehoboam.
Were levied uron the people as by Pharaoh, CHARACTERS OF KINGS.
the kings of Israel and Judah, the Roman Emperor, etc.,-royal revenues and lands as in
days of Solomon-gathered by tax collectors as Their throne being established by righteousness, the publicans who collected the Roman tribute scattering wicked men, examples in David, from the Jews. Asa, Jehoshaphat, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham, Hezekiah, Josiah, Rehoboam (for a time), and
OFFICERS OF STATE. Uzziah.
Under the king, executed the offices of governBAD KINGS,
ment, described as being over the host-over the Causing the people to mourn—examples in Solo tribute-over the house, etc.
, as being recor ers, mon, in some things, Abijam, Nadab, Baasha, scribes, wise men, counsellors, companions of the Omri
, Ahab, Ahaziah,Jehu,Jehoahaz, Jehoash, king, etc. Zechariah, Ahaz, Jehoram, Jehoiachim, Man. asseb, Jeroboam, Pekah, and Pekebiah.
TREASONS AND REVOLUTIONS
Rebellion forbidden and Icyalty enjoined and KINGLY VICES,
enforced-repeated instances of rebelions, reLuxury, pride, flattery, falsehood, avarice, ty. volts, revolulions, regicide, and even the extiroa. ranny, and idoluiry as in Jeroboam.
tion of a royal family.
see through a glass darkly-earnest efforts to See under FAMILY-APPETITES AND ORGANS, ' obtain it-seek for her as silver. Wisdom per. see under BODY-FRAILTY AND MORTALITY, ses sonified in Book of Proverbs under DISEASE AND DEATH,
Its mischief-contrasted often in Proverbs His first estate holy, made in God's image and with Wisdom. his first abode in Eden--subsequent allusione to Eden's beauty by the sacred writers.
MEANS OF OBTAINING WISDOM.
Counsel-questioning, many instances of it in THE FALL.
Scripture. Adam's sin and exile from Eden; therefore
MAN'S MORAL NATURE. he drove out the man-labour and mortality The pursuit of happiness-vanity of vanities, in the curse-bread to be eaten in sweat oj etc. brow—by one man sin came-human depravity
SECULAR DUTIES. declared to be grca', universal, hereditary, early Industry, diligent in business, idleness and its violation of God's law, and in spite of 'all his baneful results
vineyard of sluggard-lion in warning-the Apostle's account of the inner way–wealth, God's gift
, but not to be coveted; combat-what I would, that I do not.
treasure in heaven, earthly riches often ill-acquired, of small value in many cases, and
very precarious-riches fly away as an' eagleDELIVERANCE FROM THIS FALLEN STATE, See under REDEMPTION,
dangers of wealth--ostentation-pride-one
thing thou lackest. MAN INTELLECTUAL.
EMOTIONS. The evil of ignorance great-blessing of wis- Sorrow, patience, pride and its ruin, humidom and its responsibility-a wise man is strong-instances in Solomon and Daniel--the lity, contentment, joy, hope, anxiety, mur. wisdom of the world crafty-of no avail before muring. God-wisdom God's gist as seen in Solomon's
RELATIVE EMOTIONS, drean--yet imperfectly possessed by man, we Anger, revenge and its sipfulness, envy, sin
cerity of dealing and speech, hypocrisy, strife, vision, deafness, want of heat-old and gray meekness-equity,, gratitude and ingrati, headed -(see under Bony) weariness of lie tude, love-first and great commandment-second and peculiar instances of it-suicide in Samson, like unto it-sympathy, forgiveness of injuries Saul, Zimri, Ahithophel, and Judas. until seventy times seven-duty of setting a good example--bad example to be avoided.
(See under Disease and Death). MAN SOCIAL Original equality-rich and poor rest together;
RESURRECTION. solitude in various forms, neighbourhood, A prominent doctrine of Scripture—the work friendship-David andJonathan-false friends cvil company to be shunned—influence of -Sadducean objection and its refutation by
of God-special proof in Christ's resurrection piety and of sin upon others.
THE JUDGMENT, Places of residence-farewell with a kiss, Solemn, certain, universal, and impartial--throne journeying singly and with flocks and herds set and books opened-allusion to its awful - means of travel-scrip and staff --meetings, phenomena-earth burnt up, and heaven pasrefreshments, hospitality, feet washed, and salu. sing away. tation of peace--provender for the asses-stay, abide with us—frequent injunctions that stran. A state of happiness and glory-fulness of joy gers be well treated.—God's tender care over of immortality-eternal life, enjoyment of the strangers and travellers, the return to home divine presence-its special occupation being and its joy, David returned to bless his house.
praise. MAN'S DESTINY.
DELL Old age-gray hairs—length of days a blessing Place of finally wicked-of intense anguish-instances of longevity before the flood and fire, pit, brimstone, darkness—its misery without among the patriarchs—the aged to be treated end-solemn lessons—the terror of the Lord with great respect-signs of age-dimness of lawful imagery and allusion.
Merab promised, but Michal given to David; Man and woman--a male and female-personal dowry given for the bride by her husbandbeauty often referred to, and furnishing imagery the kind proposed to our Lord-peculiarities
law abont marrying a brother's widow-case of in the book of Canticles—thou art fair my love.
and restrictions of various kinds in Jewish VIRGINITY,
marriage law. Damsels employed in carrying water, and in
MARRIED STATE. watering the flock.
Duties of husbands, fidelity and love; of wife, LOVES,
affection and obedience-Sarah, etc. ; good Various in Scripture-sick of love; courtship bad wives - Jezebel-contentious and brawling
wives—one of them described in Proverbs; in various forms-Rebecca, Dinah, Samson,
DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE.
By death_widows often desolate-special obOf divine origin in Eden-its continuance an jects of sympathy, at least such as are widows ordinance; marriage is honourable, conditions indeed; God himself being the judge of the as to selecting a partner for such a union, refused as office-bearere in the church,
widow --second marriages -- younger widows both in Old and New Testament-image of the union of Christ and his church: parental
BY DIVORCE. authority of old over children in forming ma. trimonial matches — apostolic law – the Hebrew law permitting divorce, allowed for nuptial feast-scene of great rejoicing and hardness of heart-bill to be formally written lasting many days—procession with lamps to out-the judgment of Jesus on this subject, meet the wedded pair-marriages of policy-T and his conclusion, that fornication only war:
[MINISTERS OF RELIGION. rants divorce_instances of putting wives law prohibiting the sexes from exchanging away in the book of Ezra—divorce the symbol garments-cautions against lewdness-a coof God's separation from Israel; other kinds venant with the eyes; uncleanness not to be referred to both in Old and New Testamento named; Fornication-associated often with
idolatrous worship — such whoredom with VIOLATION OF MARRIAGE LAW. daughters of Moab, spiritual allusion, the Polygamy-Lamech-a common occurrence
symbol of idolatry-gone a whoring from Godamong the patriarchs and Jews, wherefore one? Babylon, mother of harlo's; Hebrew statute that he might seek a godly seed-a violation of against it, and frequent condemnation of it, the original law of marriage, which united punished often in providence by poverty, loss only one man and one woman-concubines, of health and character and final ruin-brought or secondary wives, common in Jewish and to a piece of breat-her steps take hold on hell;proparticularly in royal households.
stitution forbidden—she forgetteth the covenant of
her Guda VIOLATIONS OF THE LAW OF CHASTITY.
BASTARDS. Incest—its punishment to be death-adultery a heinous crime-seventh commandment-image Bastards not adı tted to the congregation of of the national infidelities of Israel;--an ordeal the Lord, and not subjected to discipline and of jealousy prescribed in drinking of water of training-bastards and not sons—sins against the curse--chastity and modesty solemnly en. nature-sin of Sodom—its terrific punishjoined-flee youthful lusts-lewiness condemn- ment—tire and brimstone rained down from ed, and all practices leading to it, the Hebrew heaven.
METALS AND MINERALS.
IRON. Found in Tavilah-gold of Parvaim-plentiful 'Smelted out of stones-formed into tools-nor. in days of Solomon, tried by fire - gold of thern iron and steel specially hard—the emblem Ophir, very fine-wedges und shekels of it. of hardness-brass and iron often connected
as useful metals. SILVER, Made into vessels—found in veins, tried in a
OTHER METALS. furnace, and the dross taken away—a com- Copper or bronze-lead and tin. mon medium of exchange. Gold and silver often connected together as a general expres
MINERALS, ETO. sion for money-silver and gold have I none.
Salt-jewels-precious stones-precious stones mentioned in connection with Aaron's breast
plate, and the gates of the New JerusalemDug out of mines - employed in making Agate and Carbuncle-Beryl-Coral—Diavessels, doors, and gates-the emblem of mond-Emerald and Sardine-Jacinth-Jasstrength.
MINISTERS OF RELIGION.
MINISTERS OF RELIGION,
ing the pontificate,-faithful priests blessed of Under the old dispensation-priests–Melchi- God,-law of truth in their mouth, zedec king and priest,-- Jewish priests,-holy to God,—their various duties, to teach the people,
SINS OF PRIESTHOOD, -take charge of the sacred things, offer sacri- Rebellion as of Korah, and dissipation as in fice and form a board of health, as inspection sons of Eli,--profanity,-polluted from want of lepers,—their services in rotation,-courses in of register,-practising idolatry as pictured by roation,—their services, etc.
DRESS OF PRIESTIIOOD, marry a widow or a divorced woman,--Aaron Turban and Mitre,—that of high-priest with and his sons in hereditary succession possess the inscription on it of Holiness TO THE
MINISTERS OF RELIGION.]
LORD,--the coat or tunic of fine linen or woven , increase of thy seed, other perquisites belong. work, the robe of the Ephod of blue,—the linen ing to them, as first-fruits and firstlings, the breeches of fine twined lined, -the girdle, - hides of the victims, and portions of some of bells and pomegranates on hem of garments, the sacrifices,—with fines, redemption-money, the Ephod joined at shoulder by epaulettes poll-tax, share of booty, and voluntary gift of onyx stone, - Ephod, the characteristic the treasury-royal gifts during the period of portion of sacerdotal dress,—the breastplate the temple. with its gems,-Urim and Thummim.
UNDER THE NEW ECONOMY, LEVITES, Dedicated in room of the first born, to be Twelve Apostles Chosen by Jesus, Matthias and
Paul added,--having special prerogatives to without corporeal blemish, - to serve from thirty to fifty years of age,-divided into three their special claim
on the people to hear
bind and loose, -witnesses of the resurrection, classes, Gershon, Kohath and Merari,-in. them,-the seventy,—bishops-elders,—deacons, ferior to the priests and paying tithes to them, itinerant labourers. their general duty,—as a help to the priests, assisting in the national worship, and taking charge of the sacred edifice, -waudering Lev. His sudden conversion, — his travels and
THE APOSTLE PAUL, ites, -Micah, etc.
labours,-his exemplary conduct, his preachNETHINIMS.
ing,-his character in several aspects, Descendants of the Gibeonites--doing the
him devolving the care of all the churches. menial work of the sanctuary. OTHER SACRED PERSONS,
A divine institute,-duties enjoined, faithfulThe seventy elders,-elders of cities–Naza- teach.-preach the word,-sins ascribed to it in
nees, - studiousness, – consis'ency, - aptness to rites with their vow of abstinence and pe- the old Testament,-idleness, the prophet is a culiar restraints.
fool, (see under ANIMALS, FLOCKS,) its punish.
ment severe—under New Testament,-sins SUPPORT OF SACRED MINISTERS, referred to,-jealousy, contention, pide, heresy, Levites having no inheritance, but only some selfishness: duty of people, obedience and land round their forty-eight cities, Tithes esteem. affection support, they which preach paid to them,-thou shalt surely tithe all the I should live of the Gospelo
capture of Jericho, sun and moon arrested Their purpose to produce conviction of a as told in Jasher, -in conection with Samdivine interposition,- sometimes failing to son, men killed, Philistines slaughtered, effect this, both in days of Moses, Christ and efforts of personal strength;--in connection his Apostles, a divine work, and beyond the with Samuel, thunderstorm in harvest, power of man, and often causing a great disease, death of Uzziah, men of Beth-shemesh; sensation of marvel and year.
descent of fire upon the altar in days of David
aud Solomon,-Jeroboam's hand withered. MIRACLES IN OLD TESTAMENT,
IN CONNECTION WITII ELIJAH. Those in connection with Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Hagar, Er; Moses, ten plagues of Miracles of Elijah, drought, widow's meal, proEgypt, water turned'into blood, Frogs, Lice, pbet fed, dead child restored, tire upon altar Flies, Murrain, Boils and Blains, Hail, Lo- in contest with priests of Baal, captain and custs , Darkness, Death of First-born, --- Red fifty destroyed—Jordan
divided by his mantle. Sea, - the Shechinab, - Transfiguration of Moses, Water sweetened, Manna, Quails, Water from Rock, Aaron's rod blossoming, Leprosy of Water healed, young men destroyed, in the Miriam, destruction of Korah, death of Nadab dearth, child restored, Naaman healed, Gehazi and Abibu,--waters in Kadesh, healing punished, iron swimming, Syrians smitten brazen serpent-plague, fire from God, those with blindness, restored to sight, Syrians miracles often referred to, and forming themes defeated, man revived by touching his corpse. of subsequent meditation and praise.
MIRACLES OF CHRIST.
1. UPON EXTERNAL NATURE. In connection with Joshua, Jordan divided, ) Water turned into wine,-draught of fishes,