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Horeb on Elijah's visit to it, -in. Uzziah's pents and scorpions, subject to scorching
reiga,--at our Lord's death, at Philippi,-be. winds, blasts and whirlwinds.
fore the destruction of Jerusalem; images of
civil commotions.


Arabian, or great desert, Bethaven, Beer. Characterized as being everlasting, perpetual, Judea, Jeruel, Kedemoth, Kadesh, Maon,

sheba, Damascus, Edom, En-gedi, Gibeon, ancient, as the pillars of heaven, etc.

Paran, Shur, Sin, Sinai, Ziph, Ziu, of the Red

Sea, and that near Gaza.
Scenes of retirement for prayer and medita-

ROADS, tion; instanced in Moses, when Israel fought Variously designated, highways, byways, ancient with Amalek; scenes of observation, and paths, old ways, etc.; used by travellers, frescenes of idolatrous worship as everywhere quented by robbers, and by beggars asking illustrated.



ISLANDS, ZION, On account of its being the place of God's Representing in Hebrew poetry distant places,

those mentioned in Scripture, Chittim, Clauda, presence, hence called God's holy hill.


Effected by the descendants of Noah, recorded Are, Abarim, Amalek, Amana, Ammah, in the tenth chapter of Genesis, and more Ararat, Bashan, Beth.el, Bether, Carmel, particularly on the dispersion at Babel. Ebal, Ephraim, Esau, Gaash, Gareb, Gerizzim, Gilboa, Gilead, Hachilah, Hermon, Hor, NATIONS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, Horeb, Lebanon, Mars' hill, Mizar, Moreh, Moriah, mount of the Amorites, Nebo, Olives, Are Amalek, descended from Esau, Ammon Paran, Perazim, Pisgah, Samaria, Seir, Shenir, descended from Lot, the Amorites one of the Sinai, Sion, Sirion, Tabor, Zalmon, Zion, seven nations of Canaan, Arabia noted for its mount of Beatitudes, mount of Transtigur-kings and merchandise, Assyria, chief city ation, Agar, mountain of Myrrh.

Nineveh, Asii a small district of Asia Minor,

Chaldea sometimes named Sinar, chief city VALLEYS,

Babylon, Bashan on the east of the Jor.

dan, sometimes named Idumea, Edom, deAchor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Bochim, scended from Esau, chief city Bozrah, Charashim, Elah, Eshcol, Gerar, Gibeon, Egypt named also șihon, Rahab, the land of Hebron,. Hinnom, Jehoshaphat, Jericho, Ham, the house of bondage, Elam or Persia, Jezreel, Jiphtha-el. Keziz, Lebanon, Megiddo, Ethipii a name given to several nations, Moab, Rephaim, Salt, Shaveb, Shittim, Sid. Galilee the northern province of Palestine in dim, Sorek, Succoth, Zured, Zeboim, Zepha the time of Christ, Gog and Magog subjects of thah, Valley of Vision, Fat Valleys, Valley of prophecy, Grecia, 'chiet cities in the days of Dry Bones, Valley of Haman-gog.

the Apostles, Athens and Corinth, Macedonia,

chief city, Philippi, Italy Rome, Judea thé PLAINS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, southern province of Palestine in the time of Breaches, Jericho, Jordan, Mamre, Moab, Christ, Medes and Media in the distant east, Shechem, Shinar, Tabor, Vineyards.' Wilder- Widian, Moab descended from Lot

, Ophir famed ness, Low Plain.

for its gold, Palan-aram or Mesopotamia;

Palestina or Philis'ia long the nearest and ROCKS, , .

bitterest enemy of Israel, Phenice on the

coast of Syria, Phrygia in Asia Minor, Samaria Used for writing on, as referred to by Job; of the middle province of Palestine in the time shelter and refuge.

of our Saviour, Syria, chief city Damascus,

-Tarshih noted for its shipping, -Tyre famed ROCKS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, as the mart of nations and Sidon on the north Adullam, Bozez, and Seneh, En-gedi, Etam, west border of Canaan. Horeb, in Kadesh, Oreb, Rimmon, Sela-ham. ma-lekoth, Ziz; for obvious reasons Rock is a

DESTINY OF THE EARTH, frequent name of God and Christ.

Predicted by the apostle Peter to consist

in its destruction by fire at the second com. DESERT,

ing of Christ, and is urged as a reason for Characterized as arid, desolate, barren, solitary, a diligent preparation for the coming of that as scenes of danger, pathless, infested by ser- I day.







the streets, piping and dancing in the market God's blessing promised to it; on behalf of it place, imitating the pursuits of manhood. prayers were offered-exemplified in Abraham,

Jacob, David, etc.

The sons of Eli

, the son of the Shunamite, the The gift of God; sometimes asked of Him, as children of Job etc.; cause grief to parentsby Leah, Hannah, etc; often promised as a sion of Job.

exemplified in David for Absalom-submisblessing, as to Abraham, Sarah, the Shuna

FILIAL PIETY, mite, etc.; and in other cases.

Exemplified in Jacob, Judah, specially in JoBIRTH,

seph, etc.; enjoined throughout the Old and

New Testaments; the violation of it severely A season of sorrow and anguish; also one of threatened by God. joy; sometimes attended by the death of the mother, as Rachel and the wife of Phinehas;

PARENTAL AFFECTION, accompanied by ceremonial observances in Israel; and an image of spiritual conversion.

Expressed in various acts of endearment, as

by Hagar, Isaac, etc.-Illustrative of the pity BARRENNESS,

of God to his children. Regarded as a reproach; sometimes healed by

PARENTAL AUTHORITY, prayer, as in Sarah, Rebekah, Haunah, etc.

Accompanied by God's favour; neglect fol. BIRTHDAY,

lowed by God's displeasure-Exemplified in

Eli; instruction of children in the law of God, A high festivity—instanced in Pharaob, Herod, and in the fear of God. etc.,-birth place, regarded with the warmest attachment-proverbially noted in its inba.

ADOPTION, bitants for slighting those who had become Natural, receiving the children of others into prophets, instanced in Jesus.

the family-Spiritual, admission into God's CHILDREN NAMED,

family, with a right to the children's food, in

struction, chastisement, and inheritance, and At birth, instanced, etc., and at the time of likeness to Father in heaven. circumcision, the name especially in early times being significant of circumstances con

FAMILY CIRCLES, nected with birth or in childhood -- Moses, Distinguished by frequent and friendly interIchabod.

course; exposed to anxieties and cares, arising NURSING,

out of relative profligacy; grief of mind to Isaac Requiring much tenderness and watchfulness; and Rebekah, etc.;- Wantot narmony, arising descriptive of God's care of his people, the from selfishness, from pride, or from bigotrychurch's care of her members.- Weaning in Exemplified in the brethren of Joseph; the ancient times deferred till an advanced period son shall rise up against the father. in childhood, was celebrated by a family festival-Weaning of Isaac.


A sore judgment upon a land, as threatened

by Moses, as often predicted by the prophets, Characters early developed-Ishmael, Esau, and as realized in the successive wars of Israel, Samson, etc.;-tenderly cared for by the Sa- the captivity to Babylon, and the final overviour—following their pastimes, playing in throw of the nation by the Romans.


ABRAHAM'S POSTERITY, Recorded in Genesis and Chronicles and In Genesis and Chronicles-his children in genealogy of his family.

the line of Ismael,-his song by Keturan,

and his children in the line of Isaac and Esan


CENSUS OF THE NATION OF ISRAEL, At his first settlement in Egypt, named in First taken at the commencement of their Genesis, comprising threescore and six persons. journeying in the wilderness, secondly on their

entrance into Canaan, and thirdly by David,

having reference to military objects forbidden GENEALOGIES OF THE TRIBES,

by God, Satan tempting the king.
The posterity of Jacob by Leah, Reuben, Simeon,
Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun,-by
Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali,—by Zilpah, Gad

CATALOGUES, and Asher,-by Rachel, Joseph, (Manasseh of the spies, in Numbers, of David's heroes, and Ephraim) and Benjamin.

in Chronicles, — of Solomon's officers, in Kings,- of Jews married to Gentiles, in Ezra,

-of Ezra's fellow-travellers from Babylon, in SPECIAL GENEALOGIES,

Ezra,—of the Jews who returned from BabyLevi and the line of the priesthood—Judah lon with Zerubbabel, in Ezra and Nehemiah, and the line of the kings-King Saul-various of priests who returned from Babylon, 'in families in Chronicles-the sacred orchestra, Nehemiah,-of those who dwelt in rebuilt and of Ezra

Jerusalem, in Nehemiah.



belongs to man-of human organs, as the face, Proved by the beauty, harmony, and wisdom hand, arm, back, eyes, nostrils, mouth, and of the works of creation, denied only by fools! feet. 2. Human feelings, as repentance,

sorrow, characterized by majesty, immortality, felicity, etc. 3. Human appearance and motion, instanced unity, incomparability, and glory.

in the lives of Abraham, Moses, Solomon. 4.

Human voice instanced in the communications HIS NATURAL ATTRIBUTES,

made to Elijah and the prophets. Tokens of

divine appearance-Fire, light, and sometimes Spirituality, God is a Spirit, invisibility, for- by darkness conjoined, as when Jehovah apbidding all image worship, eternity, infinitude, peared to Israel on Mount Sinai. and comprehensibility, omnipresence, power, omniscience, possessing a perfect knowledge of

WORKS OF GOD, everything present and future, -instanced in the revelations He has made_human 1. Creation—the heavens and the earth with thoughts, characters, actions, and circum- its furniture, population, and man. 2. Pro. stances, immutability, I change not.

vidence based on proprietorship, preservation,

and protection. And, 3. Redemption, HIS MORAL ATTRIBUTES, Holiness,—holiness predicated, 1. of persons,

(See under REDEMPTION.) His Spirit, Son, angels, priests, prophets, people--2, of places, His throne, heaven, dwel ling-place, bill, mountain ;-3, things, His oracle, promise, covenant, law, Scriptures, The divine Being existing in perfect unity of calling, Sabbath, name,-justice, truth, goodness, essence, yet subsisting in three persons, having and mercy according to which He deals with the same natural and moral perfections and ainful creatures, manifested in the form of the same majesty and glory—instanced in the pity, compassion, kindness, and longsuffering— apostolical benediction, in the formula of bapoften the theme of divine promise, the ground tism, etc. of His people's confidence, and the frequent subject of their prayer and praise.

(For Divinity of Christ see under JESUS CHRIST.) ANTHROPOMORPHISM,

(For Divinity and Personality of the Holy Ghost, Ascription to God figure of what properly

sec under REDEMPTION.) xxxix




SEASONS, Or the region of the wind, clouds, rain, dew, Seed-time and harvest, cold and beat, summer thunder, lightning, hail, snow-agency of God. and winter,each with its own special character

istics-the seed-time marked by refreshing WIND,

rain, the winter by dreariness, the harvest by

joy, the summer by drought. East wind the strongest—the rough wind, the wind of the Lord, spoken of as an instrument of divine power, as in the drying up of the

PROGNOSTICS OF WEATHER, water of the deluge, the dividing of the Red Clouds rising in the west portending rainSea, bringing locusts upon Egypt, emblem of instanced in the prophet

ou Carmel; the north affliction; also of the unseen operations of the wind bringing fair weather, the sonth wind Holy Ghost; four winds, a proverbial expression heat-the red, evening sky, the red, lowering for the four quarters of the heavens.

morning sky.


II.—THE SECOND OR STARRY HEAVENS. Characterised as dark, thick, dropping, spread. ing, light, etc., pillar of the cloud-emblematical of fleeting objects ; also of multitudes, as

THE HEAVENLY BODIES. applied to sins, thick clouds, cloud of witnesses, Sun and moon, marking days, months, and etc.

years, emblem of perpetuity, the stars, noted

for their number, their height, their beauty, RAIN,

their diversified brilliancy, awakening won

der, and prompting the question — What is Refreshing the earth, satisfying the deso-man? late ground, filling the pools; former rain in seed-time, latter rain on the approach of

THE SUN, harvest, the subject of promise and of prayer, At its rise clear, an emblem of prosperity; at as hy Samuel, Solomon, Elijah, emblematical noon, marking the perfect day-the heat of the of God's word, divine doctrine, righteousness, day, emblem of the glory of Christ; sunset in etc.,-showers of blessings.

west, metaphorically the season of old age or

death. DROUGHT, A heavy calamity, causing the ground to be

LIGHT AND DARKNESS, chapt, the plowmen to be ashamed, the pas- The former put for knowledge, harpiness, and tures to be devoured, the heavens to be as purity; the latter, for ignorance, affliction, and brass, and the earth to be as iron, etc., a prin- pollution,-emblem of the power and characcipal cause of famine, and often threatened in ter of Satan. judgment on account of national sins,


Divided, the former into twelve divisions, Refreshing to the grass and herbs, emblem of setting of the sun, emblem of human life;

called hours, counting from the rising to the divine grace, of blessings descending upon latter divided into four watches, named, the Israel, and of the influences of the Holy Spirit. evening, midnight, cock crowing, and morning,

emblein of death, and life's labour finished. HAIL AND SNOW, Dreadful effects of hail upon the fields and NAMES OP SOME OF THE MONTHS, vineyards, discomfiting armics, etc.; Snow, Nisan or Abib, Zif, Sivan, Thammuz, Elul, emblem of purity.

Tizri, Ethanim, Bul, Chisleu, Thebet, Sebat,


III. -THE THIRD HEAVENS, From divine agency-the former said to be the Called the heaven of heavens, paradise, etc., utterance of God's voice, and the latter to be the scene of God's glory, and the abode of the fire of God, described as shot, cast forth, Christ, angels and saints; Paul caught up sent out, etc.; the twenty-ninth psalm.

to it.



I_OBJECTS OF FALSE WORSHIP. Anammelech, Nibhaz, Tartak, Ashima, Ner. 1st. The host of heaven, the sun at its rising, and gal, Succoth-benoth, Ashtaroth, Baal, 'Baalthe moon as the queen of heaven; 2nd: images or Berith, Chemosh, Chiun, Dagon, Diana, God

berith, Baalim, Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Bel, wood, mollen and graven: 3rd, men and spiri's ; of forces, Jupiter, Mercurius. Milcom, Molech, 4th, inferior animals, birds, four.footed" beasts Merodach, Nebo, Nisroch, Queen of Heaven, and creeping things—the golden calf, calves Remphan, Rimmon, Tammuz, and the Un. of Dan and Bethel



The law prohibited the making of any image,
required groves to be cut down, altars to be

broken and overthrown, forbade the worship Groves of trees,—tops of hills,-roofs of houses, of images on any pretext. temples, instanced in the house of Baal-temple of Dagon--the temple profa ned by heathen altars, images, and idolatrous worship, intro.

PENALTY OF IDOLATRY. duced into Israel by Ahaz and Manasseh. Death by stoning-spiritual judgments, as God's

curse, the hiding of his face, the destruction IDOLATROUS PRIESTS,

of the temple, with the discontinuince of its Taken by Jeroboam from the lowest of the services, etc., and national punishments, as, war, people in Israel, imitating the true priesthood, famine, captivity, civil discord. wearing ephod, robes, and broidered garments.

NUMAN PUNISHMENT OF IDOLATRY. RELIGIOUS WORSHIP PAID TO IDOLS, Praying, burning incense, presenting sacrifice, Inflicted by pious kings and others, with a swearing by them, etc.; indulgence in intoxi. view to extirpate it, instanced in Jacob, cation, lewdness, pretended inspiration, cut Gideon, David, Jehu, Asa, Hezekiah, Manas? themselves with lancets-Baal's priests.


V-INCONSISTENCY OF IDOLATRY, Sacrifices of slain beasts; also human sacrifices The idols made by ordinary craftsmen, out of -sons and daughters made to pass through ordinary materials, being without consciousthe fire to Molech, drink-offering and meatness or sense, or power of motion; early preofferings, flour, oil, honey, corn, wine, etc. valence of idolatry, instanced in the family

of Abraham - the obstinate attachment to CONSULTATION OF IDOLS,

idolatry, instanced in Israel worshipping the With a view to ascertain the result of wars, golden calf within sight of the glory of Sinai. journeys, and undertakings-a variety of forms of witchcraft, divination, necromancy,

REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF OPPOSITION TO magic, sorc-ry, etc., placed on the same

IDOLATRY, ground as idolatry by Moses, and pronounced Recorded of Naaman the Syrian, after he was to be vanity and delusion.

cured by the prophet of his leprosy, of ShaIIL-NAMES OF IDOLS,

drach, Meshach, and Abednego, and of others,

of whom it is predicted that they will cast their Mentioned in Scripture are-Adrammelech, lidols to the moles and to the bats.



II. HIS RELATION TO THE FATHER. I-NAMES OF GOD GIVEN TO HIM. Described as God's Son, His only begotin Son, The incommunicable name, Jehovah, the Lord His beloved Son, His image, His mul, His (Jehovah) of hosts, the Lord (Jehovah) our Shepherd, His fellow; one with the Father, so righteousness, the mighty God, the true God, that he whó hath seen Him haih seen the God blessed for ever. God our Saviour, King Father, while on the other hand what belonged of Kings, and Lord of Lords, etc.

to the Father belonged to Him

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