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THRASHING, Divided by lot according to the number of Done on floor, thrashing.floor, barn-floor, cornfamilies, as commanded by Moses, and per floor, by a rod, or hoofs of unmuzziud cattle, formed by Joshua at Shiloh.

cart-wheels or teethed instrnments; straw and

grain separated by removing with a fan or TENURE OF LAND, Held from God in perpetual entail on con- judgment, etc.

fanners;-chaff driven by the wind: symbol of dition of military service, -returning, if alienated, to its original owner at the year of jubilee,

GRASS, or redeemable on certain conditions, in. stances in Naomi, Naboth, etc.

For cattle, green and abundant, refreshed by

rain, on house-tops short-lived, soon withered TRANSFER OF LAND,

and used as fuel-cast into the oven : emblem Bought in patriarchal times, and made over of life, of prosperity, of the wicked, etc. by charter also in Jewish times.


Beans, bulrushes, flags, flax, gourds, heath,
Rich, fertile, and well watered, with hills, lentiles, mandrakes, mallows, millet, reeds,
and valleys, and minerals underneath. rushes, rye, tares.

FAILURE OF CROPS, Wilful fire raising punished by restitution, as of grass,-a terrible visitation, as in days of also devastations of animals,-landmarks not. A hab;of grain,-caused by inclement seato be removed, --growing crops might be son, -by drought and wet, -by locusts,—by plucked by the traveller, but not cut with a predatury enemies, -often very severe;—hunger sickle.

or cleanness of teeth, urging to various repulsive COLTIVATION OF SOIL,

elements of food, even during a siege to canni. Assigned to Adam and to man, as the means balism, and producing blackness of skin, ema. of sustenance.

nation, fainting, and death : the symbol of METHODS OF CULTIVATION,

spiritual destitution,-instances in the days Ploughing, performed by oxen, and in winter, David, Ahab, Elisha, siege of Samaria, of seven

of Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, of the Judges, of -breaking up the clods and fallow ground; the years, foretold

by Elisha, during siege of Jerusymbol of reformation, of spiritual industry, salem,

after the captivity, in reign of Claudius and of ruin.


GOD'S CARE OF HIS PEOPLE Divers seeds not to be used,- often trodden into the soil by feet of animals;—a work of During famine, as in case of Elijah, often hope; and

the emblem of increase and spirit" promised. ual instruction. PLENTY,

MEANS AGAINST FAMINE, Often experienced to an hundred fold: the gift Granaries of Egypt filled by Joseph, and corn of God.

imported from other countries. REAPING, Corn cut with a sickle by shearers or harvest.

UNRECLATBED LAND, men, and gathered into sheaves, tares into bund- Dry, desolate, waste, and howling, noe sown, marshes les: -a season of joy and of industry: the often wood or forest, filled with

wild beasts, symbol of retribution generally in mercy and and haunted by robbers;-noxious vegetation judgment.

in it, thorns, thistles, nettles, briars, brambles, GLEANING,

these also on scenes of ruin: symbols of spi. Corners of fields not to be reaped; -forgotten ritual sterility and desolation. For names of Blieafs not to be fetched, but left for poor, deserts and forests in Scripture, see uuder instanced in Ruth.





the Dove, an emblem of the Spirit of God; Out of the dust of the ground, and named by ions, rapid Hight, lofty nest, penetrating eye,

the Eagle, distinguished for its powerful pin. Adam.

and rapacity, illustrative of persecutors,—the

Hawk as a bird of passage and prey,--the GOD'S PROVIDENCE OVER THEM,

Ostrich, as timid and easily driven from its In the necessary food and preservation of nest, -the Owl as the symbol of desolation, everv one of them exemplified at the food, the Partridge illustrative of the persecuted, in Nineveh, etc., represented as teaching and the Peacock as admired for its beautiful tellin of God, honouring Him, crying unto Him, plumage,-Poultry noted for affection to their and seeking their meat from Him.

young, -Quails as birds of passage, which

cross the Arabian desert,—the Raven as a bird WILD BEASTS,

of prey,--the Sparrow as common and little

esteemed, two sold for a farthing,—the Swallow, God's scourge, while on behalf of his people, and Crane as birds of passage--their instincHe makes with them a covenant and peace. tive knowledge of the time of their migration

employed as a reproof to Israel; and the Vul

ture, as filthy and rapacious, etc SUBJECTION OF THE INFERIOR ANIMALS TO

Appointed by God, effected by taming them,

FOWLING, and exemplified in the killing of the lion by Pursued by means of snares, gins, and nets. Samson, etc.

FISHES, Each noted for its own characteristic peculi. Often employed for food; Fishing a common arity, Bear for fierceness Bchemoth or Hip employment, prosecuted by means of hooks, popotamnus for great strength-Boar for wast- nets and drags; illustrative of the work of ing, -Coney for its inaccessible abode, --Deer Gospel ministers, and an emblem of the Asfor agility and beauty -Dog for its filthy and syrians carrying Israel away captive,-tho predatory liabits,-- For for its smallness and fish-gate, a gate of Jerusalem. cunning, ---Leopard for its spotted hide, and swift and sudden spring, --Lion for its bold

REPTILES, ness, power, and terrific voice; an emblem The Dragon, probably including several ani. of a mighty ruler, a powerful people, and mals under it, represented as being of terrible Satan the adversary; an instrument of judg- and poisonous aspect, and frequenting ruined ment in God's hand, as in the case of the cities, rivers, and marshes; illustrating the to Samaria:--Leviathan, or Crocodile, for its malignity of the wicked one, -the Frog an bulk, terrible appearance, and impenetrable object of disgust,—the Horseleech as craving for scales, -Unicorn for its strength,-Wolf for its blood,

-the Worm as bred in putrifying

mat. ferocity, etc.

ter, as also in certain diseases; often alluded to in connection with the grave and illu t

rative of the punishment of the place of PROPHETIC SYMBOLS FROM ANIMALS,

woe,-the Se pent described as sublil, fiery, Lion denoting Assyria,—the Bear Persia,—the crooked, deadly poisonous, and susceptible of Leopard Greece,—the beast diverse from all, being charmed, illustrative of the cunning Rome.

of Satan,--the Snail found in damp and shady places,-the Viper in many respects

sinailar, and often associated with the ser. Prosecuted by means of the bow, and the net;

pente illustrative of persecution.

The Ant noted for diligence; Bees for their

number and sting; iilustrative of enemies Birds marking the approach of summer by numerous and formidable; valuable also for their singing; -cage of unclean birds,-nest built their honey, which is characteristic of Canaan, on the branches of trees, in rocks and in places and often used for food, -the Calerpillar and inaccessible, a: emblem of a place of peace; Locust for their devastations and as a means -Bat, Bittern, and Cormorant, alluded to as of divine chastisement, - the Ca ker worm inhabitants of solitary and forsaken places, and Palmer-worm also a divine scourge, the



Flea on account of its insignificance-Flies scales and fins ;-Clean fowls not formally for their swarms,-the Gnat for its proverbial described, but the unclean excepted by name; smallness, --Grasshoppers, for their vast num- creeping things, clean in part, describea and bers, and individual smailness,-the Hornet named, as the locust, beelle, grasshopper, etc., for the severity of its sting, and as an unclean in part described and named, as the instrument of Divine judgment, -Lice one lizard, etc, of the plagues of Egypt, the Moth for its silent destructiveness--the Spider for its frail

THE HERD, web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men, Cattle an important description of wealth in etc.

ancient times, the calf often fatted and killed

as a luxury; -- Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan, ANIMALS USED FOR LABOUR,

the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccus. The ass for riding and work, persons of rank tomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men riding on white asses, wild asses regarded as un under divine chastisement; statutes appointed tameable—the camel used on long desert jour- enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground neys, the swift dromedary,--the horse which very extensive, -dairy produce, Milk, Butter, Israel was forbidden to multiply, used espe. and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently cially by warriors in early times, and in draw. exemplified, and very often referred to in ing the chariots of the great -The war steed, Scripture-the Horn frequently employed as characterized by strength, fleetness, and cou- an emblem of power, pride, protection, and rage,-Mules employed in riding, horses of as a prophetic symbol. various colours, with their riders and chariots, used as prophetic symbols in Zechariah.

THE FLOCK. DISTINCTION OF ANIMALS INTO CLEAN AND Sheep-a common element of ancient wealth,

UNCLEAN, FOR SACRIFICE AND FOOD, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, Animal food given to Noah, etc., blood for. are illustrative of mankind going astray from bidden, and fat, animals unclean which had of a scattered people, and

of Christ's


God; symbols of innocence and helplessness, been killed by beasts, or died a natural death; under persecution-Tending the flock performed christian law, and conscience

, require ab-tinence by the sheepmaster and household, similitude from what may be doubtful to ourselves, or of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of offensive to weak brethren.

Christ the Shepherd of souls ;--Multiplication ANIMAL3 CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES, Wild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks

of the flock, a token of the Divine blessingQuadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and and mountains,—the domesticated led in flocks chewed the cud, unclean which did not part by a he-goat-the milk and flesh valuable for the hoof or chew the cud;-Fishes clean which food, and the nuir employed in manufactures; bad scales and fins, unclean which had noti-emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.



employed, bricks, stones, timber,-Erection Tents, used in part at least by the Antedilu- was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used vians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the as a symbol of the increase of families, and of wilderness

, -- Moterials composing them, cords, spiritual edification. curtains and stakes; tiguratively applied to the

ORDINARY FORM OF HOUSES, earth, with the curtains of heaven above, Walls so built as very much to seclude the and also to the body of man.

building,-Courts uncovered, open spaces;

Roof required by the Mosaic law to be flat, and OCCASIONAL DWELLINGS,

fenced with battlements, usually communi. Caves resorted to, for shelter, and in seasons cated with the house, and was often resorted of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture,- to for the purpose of observation, for making Makkedah, Adullam, Engedi, etc.

public proclamation, and for retirement and

prayer, -Peter on housetop,-Pillars employed ORDINARY DWELLINGS,

for strength and ornament, symbolically ap

plied to eminent men,--Door, porch, gule, the Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and passage for entering and departing - Windows cottager; Foundation metaphorically applied for light,-the Dial for determining the hour, to the mountains, and to the world at large, -the various apartments constructed so as to illustrative of strength; a name given to suit the various objects for which they are Christ and his Apostles ;-Materials usually designed.


names given to them from that of the in unwalled villages held on the same principle ouiller, from the object of the erection, or us io ordinary inheritance, - Houses in wal. from some circumstance connected with the led cities limited in respect to their redemp.

erection. Different kinds of cities speci. tion and restoration; dedicuion attended by find, namely, Rovul, Treasure, Commercial, certain ceremonies and privileges --the thir. Chariot, Penced Cities, the walls of great tieth Psalm.

strength, and provided at intervals with watch lowers and battlements; - gaies some

tiines constructed of brass, iron, etc., being FURNITURE,

places of concourse, spaces around them used Beds sometimes richly ornamented, but ordi. for merchandise, and for judicial proceedings, narily couches ranged round the walls of the often alluded to as the resort of the idle, rooins ; used as an emblem of the grave; Streets and thoroughfares usually narrow in botties made of leather or the skins of animals; the east, - Watchmen employed to guard during instanced in Hannah, the Gibeonites, etc., - the night; elders of the people appointed by The pilcher used for carrying water, exem- Moses to act as magistrates; instanced in the plified in the woman of Samaria,—The table history of Ruth. used for meals and often lised figuratively for the food itself as "providing a table." Seats (domestic) often formed simply of the sleep

CITY OF GOD, ing couches folded up;-other household stutt Jerusalem, often called the holy city, so named consisted of pots, baskets, etc.

from being specially the place of God's pre

sence, the scene of his worship, and the conTIE HEARTII,

vocations of his people Israel Fires for cooking, and during the winter months for warmth; instanced in the hall o: ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS, the high priest during the trial of Jesus; for. Erected by good men to mark special manifes bidden to be lighted on the Sabbath day, Fuel of wood, thorns, dried grass, etc.,

-The tations of God's favour, as by Jacob at Beth-el, Candle or limp of oil usually kept burning Moses at Sinai, Joshua at Gilgal, etc. during the night, and often employed as an emblem of domestic prosperity, but "lamp pu' out," the symbol of domestic adversity; keprosy as the result of God's displeasure; often the in houses and law about it

subjects of prophecy, and often described as

in the case of Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, CITIES,

etc. Rebuilding of a city once in ruins is illus. Erected for security, for convenience in mer. trated in the case of Jerusalem after the Babychandise, and often from personal ambition, lonish captivity.




Ammon, and the league of the tribes with Musters made by Moses in the wilderness, by the cupning Gibeonites. Ehud and Gideon among the judges; by command of the States-general, and very

BANNERS. fiequently by the kings of Judali, and Israel, Israel marching in the wilderness, had the etc. Strange niethod of sudden summons em standard of Judah, Issachar, and Z bulun ployed by Saul.

on the east, Reuben, Simeon and Gud, on STANDING ARMY,

the south, Ephraim, Manasseh and B njamin Began hy Saul, attempted by David, and north; sign of 'mustering natijns, and the

on the west, Dan, Asher and laphtali on the completed under the kings. - Foreign armies often referred to "3 those of Egypt, Midian, gathering of converts to Christ. Amalek, Philistiit. Moab, Syria, Assyria, Ammon, etc,- Allied arinies also often re

DISCIPLINE, ferred to in sacred hi tory, as in the case Founded on gradations of rank. the common of the kings of Canaan against Joshua. - soldiers being the mass of the army, and the Judah allied with Simeon,-A:nmon with officers in command, consisting of various Syria, — Julah with Syria, -Judah with grades, distinguished in different armies as, Israel, -Judah with Assyria, - Moab with captains of thousands, captains of hundieds,

captains of 'fifties, captains of the host, cap 1 they heard the evil report of the spies—by tains of the guard, centurions, etc.

Moab when they saw the numbers of Israel, by the kings of the Amorites when they heard

of the wonders which God had wrought for CONSTITUENTS OF ARMIES,

the tribes,—by the Roman guards at the Infantry, Cavrlry largely employed in foreign sepulchre of Jesuis, — promise made to Israel armies, but forbidden by Moses to Israel, lest that their enemies would be panic struck bethey should traffic with Egypt,--those who fore them, which was often fulfilled in their fought in chario's,

pioneers, etc.; - the Com. history. mi-sariat provided sometimes by voluntary contribution, and sometimes by compulsory

ARMOUR, levy.

Usually worn by soldiers in battle, used sym. WAR TRUMPET,

bolically to denote the weapons by which

the Christian may meet and successíuily repel Employed in mustering the people and in his spiritual foes, the defensive consisting of directing them while under arms, commanded the helmet, for the head, -the shielet fastened by Moses, used by Joshua at the siege of on the left arm, and used in parrying off the Jericho,--by Gideon,-by Nehemiah, etc. strokes of enemies, the symbol of divine

protection,—the coat of mail fitted to the VALOUR,

body, to protect it - greaves, titted round

the legs to protect them, -- the offensive Often displayed in the troops, often in indiv. consisting of the bow and arrow, the characters jual heroes, as in those who attached them, istic weapons of the Jews and foreign nations; selves to David, and in heroines, as instanced image of terrible evil inflicted by man, as also in Deborah, Challenges to deeds of valour of divine: judgments,--the dagger, durts, or made by Caleb, calling to the assault of Kir. javelin, the spear, the sling, used by shepherds jath-sepher, - by Jonathan to attach the in defending their tlocks, as well as in war,Philistines,-by Goliah to meet himself, etc. illustrative of casting or expelling a people out

of their own land, and the sword the most COWARDICE,

deadly of all the ancient weapons; the sym

bol of divine punishment and of human Evinced by Israel in the wilderness, when ' persecution.



THE HEAD. Formed out of the dust-fearfully and wonder- Hair its natural covering, often standing for fully made-symbol of the Church, in its the person or life itself, a natural symbol of sympathetic unity; has an interest in Christ's chief or governor-bowed in token of reve. salvation; grows in stature, and possesses rence to God and respect to man-covered senses, appetites, and organs.

with dust a mark of mourning-hoary, a mark

of age and venerable appearance--baldness a CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE BODY.

token of disease, grief, and reproach-tossed in Flesh the name often given to the whole cor. token of contempt, anointed for refreshment, poreal person, or to corrupted human nature, one hair not falling to the ground denoting used to signify what is external, denotes perfect safety: Beard usually worn among humanity generally. Bone, name and index of the Jews - Forehead, a spot on it marking blood relationship, often alluded to as the public or official rank-Face bowed down in seat of pain, often applied to the dead body, obeisance-falling on it the result of sudden as bones of Josepł. Joints said to be loosened in or overpowering sensation–To set the fuce de. fear. Skin black, expressive of severe disease, noting steady purpose-cheek, to smite on it an bones cleaving to it" denoting emaciation

act of haughty contempt-ear the organ of sinews hardened, a symbol of obstinacy—blood hearing, to give ear denoting attention-bad often used to express murder as “the polluc characteristics of the ear denoted by the epi. tion of blood." Flesh and blood an expression thets, uncircumcised, stopped, not inclinedcarfor humanity.

rings, a common ornament. Eye the organ

of sight, and the source of tears; sometimes Are often alluded

to and frequently employed dimmed by age or sorrow; occasionally painted by the inspired writers.

by women, exemplified in Jezebel, an evil eye


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