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had made written acknowledgments of them, as Michaelis imagines. Three circumstances seem to favour the opinion that he had sent several letters. In chapter iii. 18, it is written: * For many walk of whom I have told you often,' &c. In iii. 1, we also find the following: 'To write the same things to you, to me, indeed, is not grievous,' &c. Again ; Polycarp mentions letters to the Philippians as having been written to them by Paul. Yet it cannot be denied that these considerations afford but a slight presumption, because they are capable of another explanation. Thus, reyov (iii. 18) may be restricted to his former discourses when present. To write the same things to you, is a phrase that may import, to write the same things which I previously inculcated by word of mouth, as Beza, Rosenmüller, and others, understand it; or, to write the same things to you as I have written to other churches, as Macknight, with less probability, interprets it. The plural énuotola! employed by Polycarp, may be used for the singular, as Cotelerius has shown. The passage in the eleventh chapter of Polycarp's Epistle, already quoted, has been adduced for the purpose of neutralizing the plural number é Tirtonaà as employed in the third chapter.
But the singular number (epistolæ ejus) may here allude to the most prominent, i.e., the present epistle. Lardner, after Salmeron, thinks, that the plural é TicToda means not only the Epistle to the Philippians, but also both Epistles to the Thessalonians, because the words, 'He glories in you in all the churches which then alone knew God,' are taken from 2 Thess, i. 4. This is doubtful. The quotation is not very clear. On the whole, it never can be proved that the apostle had written to the Philippians previously to his sending them the present canonical letter. But in our view there is a presumption in favour of his having done so.
Heinrichs advocated the opinion, that the epistle is composed of two letters, different in argument and object; the one ad. dressed to the whole community at Philippi, the other intended for the apostle's intimate friends alone. The former is supposed to contain chapters i., ii., ji, verse 1 as far as šv Kugios; and iv. 21-23 (inclusive): the latter, chapter iii. beginning with tà aútd vgáce in the first verse, and chapter iv. 1—20. The two letters are thought to have received their present position and form when the New Testament epistles were collected. The words το λοιπόν, χαίρετε εν Κυρίω certainly appear to indicate the speedy termination of the letter, as the analogy of 2 Cor. xiii. 11; Ephes. vi. 10; 2 Thess. iii. 1, shows. Not that the verb Waigete is necessarily valedictory, or equivalent to the Latin valete; but that the adverbial expression ti dostov indicates a summing up in brief space of all that the writer intends to add. In 1 Thess. iv. 1, the same formula stands at a considerable distance from the termination of the Epistle, intimating that it is placed at the end of an important topic, at whatever place of the Epistle the dicussion of such a topic comes to a close. Perhaps the apostle originally intended to conclude it at ü. 1; but when Epaphroditus did not immediately set out, or on the receipt of additional information regarding the Judaisers, he was moved by the Holy Ghost to append a warning against them.
The hypothesis which Heinrichs ingeniously developed and defended, was approved in the main by a reviewer in the “Jena Literatur-Zeitung' for 1805. It was afterwards adopted, with slight variations, by Paulus. But it has never met with general approbation. Resting, as it does, on no foundation, and supported by arguments more specious than solid, it must be abandoned to that universal neglect into which it has already fallen. It has been refuted by Bertholdt, Flatt, Schott, Krause, Rheinwald, and others. It is, therefore, unnecessary to enter, on the present occasion, upon a formal demolition of it, because it has found so little favour even among the speculating countrymen of the original proposer.
This Epistle is the shortest addressed to any church, except the second to the Thessalonians. It may be divided into six paragraphs, or parts. The doctrinal and the moral are not separately treated, as in other letters written by Paul. They are, more or less blended throughout. The first part is historical, relating to the writer's condition at Rome. The Epistle does not exhibit the same regularity of structure or sequence of argument as generally characterise the writings of the apostle. There are sudden digressions, and breaks in the logical succession of ideas, especially towards the end. The intimacy subsisting between himself and his readers, no less than the kindheartedness of the latter, rendered an artificial plan unnecessary. Its predominant character being the pathetic and the affectionate, the heart of the apostle is exhibited with singular tenderness and beauty of expression. His reasoning powers were not required for the confutation of error among the Philippians; and there is, therefore, less of the formal and the consecutive in the composition. Its general tone is practical. The deep earnestness and gratitude of the writer are unfolded in terms pervaded by uncommon delicacy and affection. A generous tide of noble feeling is poured into the Epistle, from a soul overflowing with the purest and highest sentiments of which humanity is capable.
The six paragraphs are these : (a). Chap. i. 1-11; (6). i. 12 -ii. 18 ; (c). ii. 19-30 ; (d). iii. l-iv. 1; (e). iv. 2—9; (f). iv. 10–23.
(a). i. 1-11. After the inscription and salutation, Paul expresses his gratitude to God on behalf of the Philippians, his continual mention of them in prayer since the time they received the gospel, and his confident expectation that the work of sanctification in their hearts would be carried on until the day of death, and perfectly completed. He calls God to witness his deep-seated affection towards them, praying that their love and knowledge might be still more abundant, and the fruits of their righteousness yet more productive.
(6). i. 12—ii. 18. That the Philippians might not be dejected on account of what had befallen him, he informs them that God had overruled his imprisonment for good, by rendering it subservient to the advancement of the gospel. His bonds had been made known in the prætorium and throughout the city; and by witnessing his patience and fortitude, several of the brethren had been induced to preach the gospel all the more fearlessly. Not that the motives of all who proclaimed Christ were pure, for some envied the apostle's popularity, but yet, as long as Christ is preached, the apostle rejoices. He expresses his confidence in the fact that the Redeemer should be magnified, either by his life or his death, although he thinks it, on the whole, more desirable, for the sake of the Philippians and others, that he should live a little longer, that he might joyfully meet them again. But whatever might be the issue of his present captivity, he exhorts them to lead a holy life, to be firmly united in one spirit, and not to be terrified by their enemies. In the most tender and pathetic strains he beseeches them to cultivate mutual love, to avoid vain glory, and to be exceedingly humble in the estimate of their own attainments. To enforce the duty of humility the more impressively, he next introduces the example of Christ, who left the glories of the heavenly state to live on earth a life of lowly obedience and suffering for the sake of men. Having described the Saviour's person, both in his humiliation and exaltation, he exhorts them to work out their salvation with reverential fear, remembering that the divine energy was not inactive within them; to avoid murmurings under their sufferings, and disputings for pre-eminence; to be blameless and harmless in the midst of an evil generation; and not only to hold fast, but also to diffuse the word of life around, that the apostle might rejoice in the day of Christ on their account.
(c.) ii. 19–30. He promises to send Timothy to them, of whom he speaks as a disinterested, zealous, affectionate minister, and one whose excellence was well known to themselves. But still he was in expectation of being shortly released, and of following Timothy to Philippi. He then gives a reason for
sending Epaphroditus to them in the mean time. He mentions the dangerous sickness of their messenger, his earnest longing to return to his flock, and the self-sacrificing fidelity with which he had laboured. Him he commends to their esteem and honour, as a workman worthy of their highest regards.
(d). iii. 1-iv. 1. Having understood from Epaphroditus that there were Judaising teachers at Philippi, the apostle in this paragraph warns the believers against them, affirming that they are the true people of God who place no confidence in conformity to the law of Moses, Had this law furnished ground for glorying, he might certainly boast of it, for he was descended of Jewish parents, circumcised, a rigid Pharisee, observing all its outward requirements. But he was willing to forego all these pretensions for Christ, while he sought justification by faith in His righteousness alone. Hence his great object was to know the Saviour, to become experimentally acquainted with Him in the efficacy of his resurrection producing a spiritual resurrection in him, and preparing him for a glorious immortality; to endure like sufferings with the Redeemer for His sake; and being united to Him, to attain to the certainty of a blessed resurrection. He proceeds to describe his christian experience as progressive. He always aimed at higher attainments in the christian life; hence he exhorts them to follow his example, hy walking after the same rule as they had done already. În contrast with his own aims and conduct, he places the practices of the Judaisers, whom he describes as enemies of the true doctrine, sensual, unclean, wordly-minded, selfish. How unlike this to the apostle whose citizenship was in heaven, and who was always looking for the Saviour to raise him to a blessed immortality! The Philippians, therefore, as having the same faith and prospect, are exhorted to stand fast in the Lord.
(e). iv. 2-9, Paul beseeches Euodias and Syntyche to be reconciled; entreats his true yoke-fellow' to assist several pious women in their evangelical labours, who had maintained the truth of the gospel along with himself and Clement, After this, he subjoins a few general precepts relative to spiritual joy, moderation, and contentment. Virtue is recommended in all the different forms in which the wisdom of ancient philosophy had presented it; and as the Philippians had seen it so em. bodied in himself, they are enjoined to practise it in its widest aspect.
(f). iv. 10—23. He thanks the Philippians for the signal proof of their kindness towards him, but intimates, with a delicacy and nobleness of soul never surpassed, that he had learned to be contented in whatever circumstances he might be placed; prepared to suffer want if needful, or to have an abundance of the conveniencies of life, with equanimity of temper trained in the school of Christ. The Saviour's strength enabled Paul to do and to suffer all His will concerning him. After stating that he was more pleased with their gift as an evidence of their christianity than as a supply of his own wants, he encourages them to expect an abundant fulfilment of all their desires from God the Father, to whom he ascribes all the glory. The Epistle closes with salutations, and the usual benediction.
Art. II. The Collegian's Guide. By the Rev. * * * * * *, M.A.,
College, Oxford. London: Longman. 1845. This book aims at conveying useful instruction under a form not unpalatable to young and rather thoughtless readers. In order to gild the pill which it desires to administer, it condescends to a certain amount of slang which had, at first opening, rather prejudiced us against it. A person who has acquired a taste for foolish university stories, will find all reading of that sort dangerous, in spite of the moral which the story is designed to convey. Nor are we sure that the book before us has wholly escaped that objection, although we cheerfully acknowledge that no student could read it through without finding amply sufficient to sober his silly and flighty notions.
Whether a person wholly unacquainted with the universities would glean from this book any clear conception of their system, we are somewhat in doubt. The writer plunges so rudely into the midst of affairs, and takes so many things for granted, that a stranger would be for some time bemazed rather than instructed. Vivid scenes are drawn, which are like the lifting up of a curtain to give particular glimpses of university life; but a general confusion remains for some time, which may with difficulty be dispelled by a careful re-consideration of the whole book. For ourselves, nevertheless, it has several points of interest, partly as exhibiting the thoughts of a well-intentioned and intelligent academician, partly as giving us in a fair and accessible form the standard apology offered by university men for the system of things existing in what ought to be the seats of learning.
We are slightly puzzled by a few points, which awakened in us more than once an apprehension that the writer was not so well acquainted with the University of Oxford as he pretends to be; and we will notice them, even at the risk of betraying our own ignorance,- expressly adding, that our doubts entirely