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The Encyclical Letter of our Lord Pope Gregory XVI., to all Patriarchs,

Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops, issued May 8, 1844. Translated into English by Sir Culling Eardley Smith, Bart. Latin text and the authorized Italian translation appended. 8vo.

pp. 33. London: John Snow. Few protestants are aware of the diligence and zeal with which the adherents of popery are now seeking the dissemination of their faith. Facts, however, are so rapidly accumulating, that we shall be forced ere long to recognize the truth, and the sooner this is done the better. An important step will be gained when the true protestants of this country are fully apprized of the measures of the papacy. We may then hope to see them emulate the zeal of their opponents, and when once they do so, we shall have no fear of the result. With these views we thank Sir Culling Smith for the publication before us. It is well timed, and eminently fitted to be useful. It tears away the veil behind which the real spirit of the papacy is sought to be concealed, and discloses to protestant eyes its unmitigated hostility to the general circulation of the inspired volume. The letter of the pope, here presented in an English dress, is an authoritative manifesto against such circulation. There is no gainsaying its evidence, no appeal from its decision, and his allegiance to the popedom is more than questionable who does not immediately comply with the mandate issued. This letter was published in Latin and Italian in the official gazette of the papal government, on the 25th of May last; and is now presented to the British public as an instructive warning, adapted to rectify some popular misconceptions, and to stimulate the pious labours of all enlightened protestants. strongly recommend its early perusal to our readers, and especially to such of them as occupy the ministerial office.

Saul, a Dramatic Sketch. Josephine to Napoleon, with other Poems and

Translations. London: B. Kempton. The author is evidently a man of classic taste, and of an elegant mind. The volume is a suitable present for his own circle of acquaintance, where it will find many admirers, but it is not likely to win the now sated ear of the great public.

The Life of Sir Thomas More. By the Right Hon. Sir James Mackin

tosh. London: Longman and Co. Having repeatedly expressed our opinion of this biography, we need say no more at present than that the edition before us is an exceedingly neat and tasteful one. It is got up in the olden style, and is printed separately from the other biographies with which it was originally associated. Though not able to go to the full extent of the biographer's panegyric, we know few volumes over whose pages we more love to ponder.

248

Literary Intelligence.

In the Press. The Correspondence and some other Remains of the late John Foster, with a Memoir by J. E. Ryland, Translator of ‘Neander's Church History,' and Notices of Mr. Foster as a Preacher and a Companion, by John Sheppard, Author of Thoughts on Private Devotion ;' may be expected to appear in in the course of a few months.

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Just Published. Vacation Rambles and Thoughts; comprising the Recollections of Three Continental Tours in the Vacations of 1841, 1842, and 1843. By T. N. Talfourd, D.C.L., Sergeant-at-Law. In Two Volumes. Vol. I.

Journal of a Clergyman during a Visit to the Peninsula in the Summer and Autumn of 1841. By the Rev. W. Robertson.

The Collegian's Guide; or, Recollections of College Days, setting forth the Advantages and Temptations of University Education. By the Rev. ***, M.A.

Parochialia ; or, Church-School and Parish. The Church System and Services Practically considered. By John Sandford, M.A.

The Pictorial Sunday-Book. By John Kitto, D.D.

History of the Reformation in Germany. By Leopold Ranke. Second Editiou. Translated by Sarah Austin. Vols. 1. and Il.

The History of Sweden. Translated from the Original of Anders Fryxell. Edited by Mary Howitt. Vol. I.

Saul: a Dramatic Sketch. Josephine to Napoleon ; with other Poems and Translations.

A Collection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes; comprising the best Compusitions in general use, and including many by eminent English and Foreign Musicians, which are now for the first time published in this country. Harmonized for Four Voices, with an Arrangement for the Organ and Pianoforte :

: forming the First Part of the People's Music Book. Edited by James Turle, Esq., and Edward Taylor, Esq.

Sacred Music; comprising Anthems by the most eminent English Composers from the period of the Reformation to the present time, Hymns, Anthems, Motets, and Sacred Songs, selected from the Works of celebrated Italian and German Composers, and adapted to English words, with an Accompaniment for the Organ and Pianoforte; forming the Second Part of the People's Music Book. Edited by James Turle, Esq., and Edward Taylor, Esq.

The Natural History of Animals; being the Substance of Three Courses of Lectures delivered before the Royal Institution of Great Britain. By Thomas Rymer Jones, F.R.S., F.Z.S.

The Curiosities of Heraldry, with Illustrations by old English Writers. By Mark Anthony Lower. With numerous Wood Engravings. The Scottish Church Questior. By the Rev. Adolphus Sydon.

Congregational Dissent Apostolical Conformity : an Introductory Discourse. By A. J. Morris.

Old England's Alarum.
Letters on Mesmerism. By Harriet Martineau.

Christian Baptism ; an Enquiry into the Scripture Evidence of its Nature, the Mode, Subjects, and Design of the Rite, and the Meaning of the Term. By John H. Godwin.

The Mother's First Book; containing Reading Made Easy and the Spelling Book. In two parts. By Mrs. Marcet.

THE

ECLECTIC REVIEW

For MARCH, 1845.

Art. I.-1. The Life of the Rev. Andrew Bell, D.D., LL.D., Prebendary

of Westminster, and Master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham. Comprising the History of the Rise and Progress of the System of Mutual Tuition. The first Volume by Robert Southey, Esq.; edited by Mrs. Southey : the two last by his Son, the Rev. Charles Cuthbert

Southey. 3 vols. 8vo. 2. A Brief Sketch of the Life of Joseph Lancaster. Including the

Introduction of his System of Education. By William Corston. 18mo. Few men in their time have occupied a larger share of public attention, or left behind them more enduring monuments, than Dr. Bell and Mr. Lancaster. Rich in incident, and pregnant with instruction, the lives of both now lie before us; and singularly as they contrast in outward attraction, in bulk, and in literary merit, they shall, for various reasons, receive from us equal notice, and be examined with equal care.

Andrew, the son of Alexander and Margaret Bell, was born,' says Dr. Southey, 'in the city of St. Andrews, on the 7th of March, 1753. His father was a barber, and evidently of no mean reputation. "Persons are still living who remember him hastening through the street with a professor's wig, ready dressed, in each hand, his arms at half stretch to prevent their collision. After trimming one professor, he would sit down and breakfast with him, and then away to trim and breakfast with another; his appetite, like his mouth (and his mind also), being of remarkable and well-known capacity. Being a man of ability, he added to his original trade that of a clock and watchmaker, and

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ultimately became baillie of the city, quelling, on one occasion, a popular tumult by his personal influence after all other means had failed.

The future doctor was his second son ; a plodding, industrious boy, fond of his books, but hating school, on account of the tyranny which he witnessed and endured. Oh, it was terrible ;' he said, 'the remains of feudal severity. I never went to school without trembling; I could not tell whether I should be flogged or not.'

In 1769 Andrew matriculated at the college, eking out his scanty resources by private teaching. Dr. Wilkie, who was at that time the Professor of Natural Philosophy, particularly noticed him. "Mind what I say,' Wilkie would say to him, laying his hand on his head, and stroking it; 'pursue your studies, and they will make your fortune. I never knew a man fail of success in the world if he excelled in one thing.' This excellent piece of advice can scarcely be impressed too frequently or too forcibly on young men. • Dr. Bell,' says his biographer, 'adhered to it in his latter years too literally and too long.'

In the year 1774, having finished his education, he embarked for America, where, for the next five years, he appears to have been chiefly employed in tuition. In 1779 we find him a private tutor in the family of a wealthy merchant in Virginia, enjoying a salary of £200 a year, and, in accordance with what afterwards proved the ruling passion of his life, occupied at the same time in obtaining money, by collecting debts and other transactions in business. This part of his journal,' says the editor, ‘is filled with memoranda of dealings in American currency and tobacco.'

In 1781 he set sail for England. The voyage was disastrous. Nine days after leaving York, the brig went on shore in lat. 45°. His journal of this event is brief, but graphic :- An uninhabited country; the cold and frost so intense that all safety is despaired of. Almost continual snow. Terrible prospect. Revised my accounts; and, in expectation of death, devised what I had in my pocket-book, if human being should ever come this way. Snow for sixteen hours. Fair night, and most intensely cold. Observation 45° 50'. A fisher's tent seen in ruins to the south-west.'

Providentially, the severity of the weather abated ; a small boat passed along shore, and ultimately, after eighteen days' suffering, they reached Halifax in safety; where, after a week of good weather,' he goes to church, and notes it down in his diary, 'infinitely superior to the meeting.' Here he embarked afresh, and in due time reached England in safety.

After remaining in London about five weeks, where, he says, *sight-sceing and coach hire' cost him sometimes ' a guinea a day,' he visited Bath and Bristol, and then proceeded to Scotland, making his way sometimes on horseback, sometimes on foot, and sometimes by stage or other conveyance. With the startling exception of a duel which he fought with an English student, and in which he endangered the lives of the seconds rather than that of his antagonist, his visit appears to have been passed tranquilly in the society of his old friends and acquaintances, and in the education of two Virginian youths who had been committed to his care.

About this time Dr. Berkeley (son of the bishop), with whom he had become acquainted at St. Andrews, 'encouraged him to take orders in the English church, and promised to render him all the good offices in his power. By the aid of this kind and zealous friend he soon obtained ordination, and was shortly after elected minister of the Episcopal Chapel at Leith.

Dissatisfied with this position, and seeing no prospect of preferment, he now determined, by the advice of his friends, to go to India, thinking that he might turn his talents and acquirements to good account as a philosophical lecturer, and in the way of tuition.' Dr. Southey states that an influential friend (Mr. Dempster) omitting nothing that could contribute to Mr. Bell's success in India, thought it fitting that he should be dignified before he went out with a doctor's degree, and accordingly applied for one to the University of St. Andrews. But from a letter addressed by Mr. Bell to Principal M'Cormick, which has recently been published in a Scotch newspaper, and of the existence of which his biographer was probably ignorant, it appears that the application was his own. · I think it an object of considerable importance,' he says, 'to be distinguished with the honourable title of D.D.' And then he begs that it may be done as soon as possible, stating that his father has directions about the fees; and adding, with characteristic vanity, ‘My mind is above my fortune and above my birth.' To his surprise and disappointment, the diploma granted was that of M.D., a designation of questionable value to one who had neither pursued nor studied the art of medicine.

On the 2nd of June, 1787, he reached Madras, where his reception was so good, that he abandoned his original intention of proceeding to Calcutta, and remained at Madras with the prospect of being speedily appointed to the charge of a military male orphan asylum which was about to be commenced.

The tide of fortune rapidly set in : within two months of his arrival he was appointed (subject to confirmation at home) Chaplain to the 4th European Regiment, then stationed at

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