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angry and sin not; let not the sun go down upon yout wrath." He immediately adds "neither give place to the devil." What devil? Evidently wrath; for by letting the sun go down upon their wrath, they gave place to this devil; or, it gave occasion to the enemies of the gospel to speak reproachfully. It is not easy to understand how by anger they gave place to a fallen angel. Besides, men's wrathful passions are ascribed to themselves in Scripture. See James iv. 1-6.
Eph. vi. 11. "Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil." See the whole context. See also all the other texts where the enemies of Christianity are called the devil and satan. What in this verse is called collectively the devil, is thus particularised, verse 12. "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood," or, we wrestle not merely with men. For this sense of the phrase flesh and blood, see the following among other texts, Matth. xvi. 17. 1 Cor. xv. 50. Gal. i. 16. Heb. ii. 14. "But against principalities," or supreme govFor this sense of the word principalities, see Rom. viii. 38. Tit. iii. 1. "Against powers, or, against magistrates clothed with authority. See for this sense of the word powers, Rom. xiii. 1-3. It seems to include supreme rulers both civil and ecclesiastical. See Luke xii. 11. Col. i. 16. Eph. i. 21. Col. ii. 10. Luke xx. 20. "Against the rulers of the darkness of this world." Wakefield renders the passage thus "Clothe yourselves in the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the devices of the accuser. For we not only have to wrestle against flesh and blood, but against authority, against the powers, against the rulers, of this dark age; against the wickedness of spiritual men in a heavenly dispensation." In his note he says, "viz. against Jewish governors, who have a dispensation of
religion from heaven, as well as against heathen magistrates, under the darkness of superstition and idolatry." By the rulers of the darkness of this world, Dodridge understands the "heathen rulers; and by flesh and blood the lower ranks of mankind." These remarks are a sufficient illustration of this passage. If it is asked-What darkness did the apostle refer to? I answer, the ignorance, superstition, and wickedness which abounded both among the Jews and Gentiles. Comp. Luke xxii. 53. Col. i. 13. It is well known, that principalities and powers, both civil and ecclesiastical, Jewish and heathen, were opposed to the gospel. They were the rulers of this darkness, and the people were often excited against Christianity by the prevailing ignorance and popular superstitions. See Acts 19. For the Scripture usage of the words spiritual and high or heavenly places, compare Rom. xv. 27. 1 Cor. ix. 11. 1 Peter ii. 5. Col. iii. 16. John iii. 12. Eph. i. 20. and iii. 10. A phrase, the reverse of the entire expression, "spiritual wickedness in high places," occurs Eph. i. 3. and assists in explaining it. But, let any one go over this passage, and see if he can give any thing like a rational interpretation of it, on the supposition that the devil referred to was a fallen angel.
1 Tim. iii. 6, 7. "Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride, he fall into the condemnation of the devil. Moreover, he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach, and the snare of the devil." The question to be settled is-What devil does the apostle refer to? In answer to this let us hear the following writers. Wakefield renders the passage thus-" No novice; lest he be puffed up, and so fall into blame from the accuser. He ought also to have good testimony from without; lest he fall into reproach, and a snare of the accuser." similar rendering in the Improved Version, MK
on this passage, says " According to Erasmus, this clause should be translated, 'fall into the condemnation of the accuser.' A sense which the word diabolos hath, verse 11. For he supposes that by the accuser is meant, the persecuting Jews and Gentiles, who were ready to condemn the Christians for every misdemeanor." See remarks on the next passage.
2 Tim. ii. 24, 25, 26. "And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient. In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God, peradventure, will give them repentance, to the acknowledging of the truth: and that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will." The principal question to be considered here is What is the snare of the devil? In the preceding text, we saw one in danger of falling into it, and here we read of some being in it, and needing to be recovered out of it. They are described as persons who have not repented, who have not acknowledged the truth, but are opposing themselves to it. The servant of the Lord, in attempting their recovery out of his snare, must not strive, but be gentle unto all men. He must be apt to teach; he must be patient; and in meekness he must instruct those in the snare of the devil, or those who oppose themselves, who have not repented and acknowledged the truth. It should seem then, that both from the situation of those persons, and also the way in which they are delivered out of it, that the snare of the devil is their opposition to the gospel, and the various ways and means by which its enemies prevented men from believing it. M'Knight says "The snare of the devil, out of which the opposers of the gospel are to be taken alive by the servant of the Lord, signifies those prejudices, and errors, and habits of sensuality, which hindered both Jews and Gentiles in the first
age from attending to the evidences of the gospel." In this view the snare of the devil is stated Col. i. 13. Rom. vi. 17.; and their recovery out, Acts xxvi. 18. and many other similar passages.
James iv. 7. "Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you." What devil were they called to resist? The preceding verses point out this devil to be envy and pride, or their evil lusts and passions. Comp. chap. iii. 15, 16. and i. 13. That men's lusts and passions are called the devil and satan in other passages has been shown. Instead of indulging these, we are called to resist them. Comp. verse 8. It is easily understood how we can resist such a devil as this; but we have no ideas, or at least very confused notions on the subject, to understand it of an invisible, fallen angel. The terms devil and satan, being used to designate men's evil lusts and passions, appear to be the foundation of all the other senses in which those terms are used in Scripture. It was Judas' evil lusts, which made him a devil, and on account of them these terms are used to designate the enemies of the gospel. In short, it is such evil lusts and passions, which make men satans or devils. Accordingly, it is difficult to decide in some texts, to which these terms are applied. Nor is this of importance to decide; hence, in some texts, we have given both views as agreeable to the Scripture usage of these terms.
Jude 9. "Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil (he disputed about the body of Moses) durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, the Lord rebuke thee." Whitby, in his preface to Jude, quoting from Dr. Lightfoot, says; "In citing the story of Michael the archangel, contending with the devil about the body of Moses, verse 9. he doth but the same that Paul doth, in naming Jannes and Jambres, 2 Tim. iii. 8. namely,
allege a story which was current, and owned among that nation, though there was no such thing in Scripture; and so he argueth with them, from their own authors and concessions: for among the Talmudists, there seems to be something like the relics of such a matter, viz. of Michael and the angel of death, disputing, or discoursing, about filching away the soul of Moses." Jude here, then, only reasons with the persons he addresses, on a received story among them, for the purpose of refuting their wicked conduct in speaking evil of dignities. In this, he acted as our Lord did, in reasoning on the popular opinion, that satan had bound a woman eighteen years, for the purpose of refuting his adversaries. But the truth of this story is no more admitted in the one case, than the correctness of the opinion is in the other. Both are introduced merely for the sake of argument, without any regard to their truth or falsehood. This story about Michael and the devil must have been invented about the time of the Babylonish captivity or soon after it. Before the captivity we never read of angels having names. Nor before the captivity, does it appear, that the Jews knew any thing about a fallen angel called the devil and satan. It has been shown Sect. 4. that the Jews learned their ideas about the devil, and other things, during the captivity. Besides, the words which Michael used in dispute with the devil, "the Lord rebuke thee," are taken from Zachariah iii. 2. and it is well known that Zachariah prophesied during the captivity. See on this passage Sect. 3. The following quotation from Jahn, not only shows us, that similar opinions to that in the passage before us existed among the Jews, but when and how they came to adopt them. He says, pages 235-6. "The more recent Hebrews, adhering too strictly to the letter of their Scriptures, exercised their ingenuity, and put in requisi