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means, are slowly gained; but, when obtained by frand, oppression, and wrong, they come upon wings of speed.
The ways to wealth are many, and most of them foul. Frugality is one of the best ; and yet too readily runs into parsimony, which is not innocent ; for it withholds men from works of liberality and charity. The tilling of the ground is the most natural means of obtaining riches; for it is the blessing of our great mother, the earth; but it is slow though sure. Yet it has been observed where men of great wealth apply themselves to husbandry, their riches are multiplied exceedingly. I knew, (said Lord Bacon,) a nobleman in England, who had the largest income of any man in my time; he was a great grazier, a great sheep owner, a great timber man, a great collier, a great planter, a great lead-man, iron master, and so of a number of the like points of husbandry. The earth to him was like the sea to the merchant, in respect of the perpetual importation.
It was said by one, without any paradox, that he acquired with much difficulty a little wealth, and obtained most easily great riches. For when a man's capital has come to that amount that he can command the market, and secure such bargains as are beyond the means of others, and can also make himself partner to the industry of younger men, he cannot but increase rapidly.
The gains of ordinary trades and vocations are honest, and are advanced chiefly by diligence and by a good name for upright and fair dealing. But the gains of bargains are of more doubtful nature, when men shall wait upon others, necessity, broken by servants and instruments to draw them on to ruin ; when they put off others cunningly that would be more liberal purchasers, and the like practices, which are crafty and contemptible.
As for chopping of bargains when a man buys, not to hold but to sell again—that commonly grinds double-both upon the seller and the buyer. Sharings in speculation, do greatly enrich, if the hands be well chosen that are trusted. Usury is the most certain means of gain, though one of the worst, for a man thereby eats his bread sudore vultus alieni, in the sweat of another man's face; and besides—as the proverb goes—he ploughs upon Sundays. And yet certain though it be, it has its flaws in the false value of unsound men and the revulsions of commerce and business, inducing general bankruptcy. A fortunate invention or discovery is sometimes the foundation of extraordinary wealth; and if the inventor have prudence and judgment as well as invention, he may build up for himself a great fortune, especially if the times be propitious.
He that depends upon certain gains will hardly grow to great riches; and be that commits all to adventures, sometimes breaks and comes to poverty. It is good therefore to guard adventures, with certainties of profit, that may uphold against losses. Monopolies and coemption of wares for re-sale, are great means to enrich, especially when the party has intelligence as to what commodities are likely to come in request, and shall provide himself with them beforehand.
Riches obtained by service are commendable for their origin, the service being laudable, while those which are gotten by flattery, feeding humors, and other servile conditions, may be ranked among the most despicable.
Deeds of Kindness.
Be not penny-wise : riches have wings and sometimes they fly away of themselves; and sometimes they must be set flying to bring in more. Men leave their riches either to their kindred or to the public; and moderate measures prosper best in both. A great estate left to an heir, is as a lure to all the birds of prey round about to seize on him, if he be not well established in years and judgment. Glorious gifts and foundations, are like sacrifices without salt, and but the painted sepulchres of alms, which soon will putrify and corrupt inwardly. Therefore portion not your advancements by quantity, but frame them by measure : and defer not your charities till death; for surely if a man weigh it rightly, be that does so, is liberal rather of another's property than his Own.
DEEDS OF KINDNESS.
SUPPOSE the little cowslip
Should hang its golden cup,
I'd better not grow up."
Would miss its fragrant smell;
To see it from the dell!
Suppose the glistening dew-drop
Upon the grass sbould say,
I'd better roll away"-
Before the day was done,
Would wither in the sun.
Sappose the little breezes,
Upon a summer's day,
The traveller on his way-
And softest ones that blow,
If they were talking so?
How many deeds of kindness
A little child may do,
And little wisdom, too!
Much more than strength to prove
For others by his love.
FRONTIE GERMAN BY THE EDITOR.
XLII-THE PIOUS SA EPHERD BOY.
On a beautiful evening in May, when all nature stood forth in beauty and bloom, little Wendelin was watching his sheep. Though all around was so beautiful, he stood in sadness beside a blooming thorn-bush, and the clear tears flowed down over his cheeks.
At this moment little Alois, the hunter's son, came to him out of the wood, and said to him sympathisingly : 'Why do you weep ?” “Alas," said Wendelin, “I have just seen a disgusting toad creep in under the bushes.” “Ho!" "said Alois, "how can you weep about a matter like that?"
Wendelin said: "As I looked on the toad I thought within myself, this creature looks so vile, creeps so weariedly on the ground, is chased by all men, knows nothing of its Creator, and paeses most of its life in bogs and dark holes of the earth, till at last it dies and rots away. And you, I said to myself, have an erect human form, and a beautiful human face ; you can walk about in freedom, contemplate heaven and earth, and take delight in green grass and lovely flowers; you know your Creator, and have an immortal soul, and yet you have never heartily thanked God for these unspeakable gifts. This ingratitude of mine so pained me that I was compelled to weep."
Alois was greatly moved by these words, and through his life never for. got them. In his old age he often repeated them to his grand-children, and added : If these hateful creatures are even useless in every other respect, they are still of great use in this, that they teach us better to esti. mate the blessings we enjoy as men whom God has made to be the noblest of his creatures on earth."
Whoever does not rejoice in the blessings of his Creator, and is not humbly thankful for them, does not deserve to be a human being.
XLIII–THE WONDERFUL LITTLE BOX. . A certain housewife had all kinds of ill luck in her house affairs, and became poorer every year. Then she went into a deep wood to a Hermit, and related to him her sad condition, saying : The affairs of my house get along badly; do you know of any means by which the evil may be remedied ?"
The Permit, who was a cheerful old man, told her to wait a short time, . and went out. In a little while he returned with a small box carefully
shut up and sealed. “This box,” said he, "you must use for a whole year, carrying it three times every day, and three times every night, through the kitchen, the cellar, the stable, and all places in and about the house, and then you will find tbat your affairs will mend. When a year has passed bring the box to me again.”
The good housewife placed great confidence iu the virtues of the little box, and diligently carried it about as directed by the Hermit. On the first day as she carried it into the cellar, she met the hireling who was in the act of secretly carrying away a jug of beer. The same night as she bore the box into the kitchen at a late hour, she found the maid engaged in making an egg pudding for herself. As she passed through the stable she saw that the cows stood in filth, the horses were uncurried, and instead of oats bad merely a bit of hay to eat. Thus every day she discovered some new evil to remedy, and thus matters were greatly improved.
When the year had passed round, she carried the little box back to the Hermit with great joy, and said : Every thing now goes better. But let me have the little box another year; it contains most excellent remedies."
Then the Hermit laughed and said : “I cannot let you have the box; but the remedy that it contains you shall freely have." He opened the box, and behold! there was nothing in it but a slip of white paper, on which was written,
“Would you have your affairs go right,
XLIV - THE LITTLE CROSS.
Theresa had received as a present a beautiful little cross. It was made of black ebony wood, and the four ends of it were encased in gold. She carried it on a blue ribbon as an ornament on her breast.
Once the small cross-piece broke out, and Theresa asked her father to have it made whole again..
"That I will cheerfully do," said her father; "yes, and besides this, I will also teach you how you may manage that no suffering which meets you in the world shall be a cross to you..
" See here: Without the short cross-piece, the long piece is not a cross; it only becomes a cross when the short cross-piece is put in. So it is with every sorrow, which we call a cross. The will of God is as the long piece; and our own will, which is disposed ever to cross the will of God, is as the short cross-piece. Hence, in every cross of suffering which meets you, take the short cross-piece out, and then it will be for you a cross no longer."
To yield our own short-sighted will submissively to the will of God takes away every sorrow, and causes our cross to be a cross no longer. HOSPITALITY.
To receive and entertain strangers is a Christian duty as well as a dictate of humanity. The man of the world cheerfully extends a hospitable hand to those who promise to do him honor or afford bim entertainment, and to those who come to him recommended by their rank, their elegant manners, or their pleasing conversation : nay, to the praise of whatever is least blighted by the frosts of sin, be it said, he sometimes shows the most cordial generosity to the unpolished, the unbefriended, and the obscure. But the Christian is moved to this duty, not merely by the kind impulses of nature, but by the dictates of disinterested charity, by the divine command, and by those illustrious and unequalled patterns of hospitality which are exhibited in sacred history. These being the objects of his frequent contemplation, call forth his admiration and provoke to imitation. He observes how well the hospitalities which Abraham and Sarah habitually used to all strangers, were suited to the heavenly messengers they unwittingly entertained ;* and how courteously Lot afterwards received them at the gates of Sodom, how respectfully he pressed them when they refused his offers, and how much he proposed to sacrifice to their security. Nor can be less admire the generosity and delicacy of the princely Boaz in giving first his hospitalities, and then his marriage vows to the widowed and defenceless Ruth, or the kind attentions of the noble lady of Shunam to the prophet Elisha, when she invited him to dine at her table whenever he passed that way, and caused to be built for him a chamber, and placed in it a bed, and a table, and a stool, and a candlestick.
The Christian has most frequent occasion to offer his hospitalities to his brethren. To those, no less than to others, he should be ever ready to show every attention which kindness and propriety can suggest. At anniversary and other meetings, when large pumbers of them are assembled from distant places, it is not to be expected that many of them can come bearing letters of introduction to resident brethren. The latter, therefore, ought not to stand upon ceremony, but make the first advances to their brethren, offering them entertainment according to their ability. Our Saviour, almost at the beginning of his ministry, gave a beautiful instance of this open-hearted and informal hospitality. John the Baptist seeing Jesus pass by, said to the two disciples who were with him : “Behold the Lamb of God !" whereupon they, being desirous of an acquaintance with the Messiah, followed him. Christ turning and seeing them following him, asked them : “What seek ye?" They in turn asked, “Rabbi, where dwellest thou ?" He replied, “Come and see.” They then accompanied him to his abode, and tarried with him the rest of the day. t A mode of address so brief and abrupt would be in ill-keeping with the intercourse of modern society; nevertheless,
.* The Mahommedans have a legend that Abraham was so hospitable, that on one occasion be invited even the Angel of Death to dine with him.
John 1: 35-39.