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lari,’ from επιπροσθέω. “ For the corrections of God are salutary, and instructive, leading to amendment, and preferring the repentance to the death of a sinner; and souls in their separate state, though obumbrated with perturbations, yet have a clearer discernment than they had whilst they were in the body, as they are no longer clouded and encumbered with the flesh.' Strom. vi. p. 764. See also p. 794, and the notes.

μάρτυς δέ

- In the Epistles of Ignatius there is a harshness of style, but a lively spirit, and a noble enthusiasm, especially in that to the Romans. · He tells the Ephesians that he had a design to write them another letter, and to instruct them in some points, μάλιστα εαν ο Κύριός μοι αποκαλύψη, especially if the Lord should reveal any thing to me.' Whence it seems not improbable that he had been favoured with some revelations. xx.

The same inference may be made from these words to the Philadelph. vii. · When l'exhorted you to adhere to your bishop, presbyters, and deacons, some of you suspected that I had been informed of dissensions amongst you,

μο! εν ώ δέδεμαι, ότι από σαρκός ανθρωπίνης ουκ έγνων" το δε πνεύμα εκήρυσσεν λέγων τάδε. Χωρίς του επισκόπου μηδέν ποιείτε.

« Testis autem mihi is est, in quo vinctus sum, quod a carne humana non cognoverim ; sed Spiritus annunciavit, dicens ista ; Sine episcopo nihil facite.'

Ad Rom. vi. Ζών γαρ γράφω υμίν, έρων του αποθανείν. ο έμος έρως έσταύρωται, και ουκ έστιν εν εμοί, πυρ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε ζων, και λαλούν εν εμοί, έσωθέν μοι λέγον, δεύρο προς τον πατέρα.

• Vivens enim scribo vobis, amore captus moriendi. Meus amor crucifixus est; et non est in me ignis amans materiæ. Sed aqua vivens et loquens in me, intus mihi dicit; Veni ad Patrem.'

There is in this something very sublime and pathetic. The expression ύδωρ λαλούν, resembles the vocales unde which inspired the poets and prophets. Statius Silv. 1. ii. 6.

Et de Pieriis vocalem fontibus undam.'

An oracle of Apollo Delphicus, given to Julian, and preserved by Cedrenus:

, .

Είπατε τω βασιλεί, χαμαι πέσε δαίδαλος αυλά.
Ουκέτι Φοίβος έχει καλύβαν, ου μάντιδα δάφνην,

Ου παγαν λαλέουσαν, απέσβετο και λάλον ύδωρ. * Dicite regi, humi cecidit elegans aula.

Non amplius Phoebus habet casam, non vaticinatricem laurum, Non fontem loquentem, extincta est etiam garrula aqua.' In these verses, which, to do them justice, are elegant, Apollo, to raise Julian's compassion, deplores the silence of his oracles, and of the speaking streams. In the first line read βασιληι. Anacreon, xiii.

Οι δε Κλάρου παρ' όχθαις
Δαφνηφόροιo Φοίβου
Λάλον πιόντες ύδωρ
Μεμηνότες βοώσιν.
Nec non aquam

Apollinis loquacem
Ripis Clari, furore

Acti subinde clamant.' Vetus interpres (says Cotelerius), “Et non est in me ignis amans aliquam aquam: sed vivens et loquens est in me.” Hoc est Graece ; Και ουκ έστιν εν εμοί πυρ φιλουν τι ύδωρ" ουκ έστιν εν εμοί πυρ φιλούν τι ύδωρ δε ζών, αλλόμενον εν εμοί. “ Et non est in me ignis qui aliquid amet : sed aqua viva, intra me saliens." Ex antiquo interprete; “ Et non est in me, aqua autem alia viva manet in me.” Legebat quippe άλλο et μένει, Ιoco αλλόμενον : et omisit que non intelligebat. Apud Metaphrastem, quem sequuntur Græci in Meπεο; Ουκ έστιν εν εμοί πυρ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε μάλλον ζων και λαλούν εν εμοί. “ Εt non est in me ignis amans materia: aqua vero potius vivens et loquens in me.” Perplaceret mihi ; Και ουκ έστιν εν εμοί πυρ φιλόύλον ύδωρ δε ζών, και αλλόμενον εν εμοί. Νam φιλόύλον Jolianus Ignatii interpolati codex retinuit. αλλόμενον autem confirmatur per illud Johannis iv. 14. το ύδωρ ο δώσω αυτώ γενήσεται εν αυτώ πηγη ύδατος αλλομένου εις ζωήν αιώνιον. Aqua quam ego dabo ei, fiet in eo fons aquæ salientis in vitam æternam.” Greci conjunctim ; Ούκ έσχες πύρ φιλόύλον εν

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σοι, Ιγνάτιε: ύδωρ δε ζών μάλλον και λαλούν, δεύρο προς τον πατέρα" ύδωρ το αλλόμενον, το έκ ζωής εις ζωήν μετοχετεύον ημάς.

Ie Clerc says, “Est in exemplari Greco, πυρ φιλόύλον. Ignis materialis est Dinbüros, amans materiæ ; quâ nempe alitur. Sed spiritualis ignis, quo urebatur Ignatius, materiæ, hoc est, rerum corporearum, amans non erat. Quod est nonnihil coactum, ut et sequentia de aquả in eo loquente. Sed sancti viri sermo refertus est ejusmodi violentis adlusionibus.'

The λαλούν ύδωρ must not be altered: it is sufficiently confirmed by the citations of Cotelerius in this very note where he is inclined to reject it; and it is more elegant and proper than Le Clerc imagined.

Ignatius, who was a Syrian, and bishop of Antioch, was well acquainted with the oracle of Apollo Daphnzus, and with the Castalian fountain, which were at his door, and which are frequently mentioned by ecclesiastical writers. Sozomen in his description of Daphne says, "Ην γαρ ενθάδε Δαφναίου Απόλλωνος περικαλλές άγαλμα, και νεως μεγαλοφυώς τε και φιλοτίμως εξειργασμένος-έπιστεύετο δε παρα τοις τάδε πρεσβεύουσι, δείν αυτόθι και ύδωρ μαντικών από Κασταλίας της πηγής, ομοίως της εν Δελφοίς ενεργείας τε και προσηγορίας λαχούσης.

Erat enim illic Apollinis Daphnæi pulcherrimum simulacrum et templum magnifice atque ambitiose constructum.--Credebatur etiam ab illis qui ista colunt et prædicant, aquam illic divinatricem fluere ex fonte Castalio, qui idem nomen eandemque efficaciam haberet, quam ille Delphicus.' v. 19.

Ignatius therefore opposes to the speaking prophetic waters of the Pagans, the living waters mentioned by our Lord in John iv. 14, which speak better and nobler things than the fabulous and poetic fountains. The interpolator, who could not put himself in the place of Ignatius, and had not the same thoughts and iniages which arose in the mind of the martyr, Hung away ύδωρ λαλούν, the speaking water, which he understood not, and for which he had no taste, and put in ύδωρ αλλόμενον, to make it a closer copy from St. John.

In the interpolated epistle πυρ φιλούν τι is absurd; but φιλόύλον πηρ makes good sense. He who in this passage,

which we have been examining, can prefer the larger to the shorter epistle, must be a critic, who, of different expressions, likes the worst the best, and should be fed with chaff.

They who contend for the larger episties would do well to weigh one thing, which they never seem to think of, namely, that, whilst they want to support I know not what, they are hurting the reputation of an apostolical father, whom they have in great esteem: for if the passages which I have already pointed out, and those which others have censured, could be showed to be genuine, Ignatius would be much less valued than he is by men of sense and judgment. But though the shorter epistles be, on many accounts, preferable to the larger, yet I will not affirm that they have undergone no alteration.

IGNATIUS suffered under Trajan about the beginning of the second century. Here was a good man put to death by a good emperor: but the Pagans then began to perceive that Christianity, if it prevailed, would prove the ruin of their religion ; and some of them probably persuaded Trajan to act contrary to his disposition, which was mild and placable. Pliny, in his Epistle to that emperor, says, that in his province the temples had been, in a manner, deserted, sacrificing left off, and the worship of the gods neglected. Trajan forbad the Christians to be sought after, and yet ordered them to be punished if convicted. .O sententiam necessitate confusam! negat inquirendos, ut innocentes; et mandat puniendos, ut nocentes. - Quid temet ipsum censurâ circumvenis ? Si damnas, cur non inquiris? si non inquiris, cur non et absolvis ? Thus Tertullian, in his Apologetic, inveighs, ingeniously enough, against the inconsistency and absurdity of this sentence, and has had the good fortune to engage most of his readers in the same way of thinking; and yet, after all, the emperor's decree was . not quite so absurd as Tertullian imagined. Trajan had no haired towards the men, and pitied their case, but disliked the religion for the reason above mentioned ; therefore he was willing to treat the Christians gently, but would neither repeal the laws to which they were obnoxious, nor give them leave to exercise their religion freely.

Ignatius expressed an earnest desire to suffer for the sake


of Christ, and a great joy at the expectation of it; but it appears not that he rashly sought or provoked danger. To him might be applied a these lines of Lucan, which suit him as if they were made for him :

• Projeci vitam, comites, totusque futuræ
Mortis agor stimulis.-Agnoscere solis
Permissum est, quos jam tangit vicinia fati,
Victurosque Dei celant, ut vivere durent,

Felix esse inori.' He speaks of himself with modesty and humility; he exhorts the Christians to live peaceably together, and to pay a high regard to their bishops and pastors; and has gone too far in his expressions: but it is something of an excuse for him, that the state of the times led him to it. It was to be feared lest the heretics, who in those days were vile persons, should seduce the unwary; and mutual quarrels might have proved fatal to the common cause. A house ill cemented, and beaten with the storms of persecution, could not have stood.

In his Epistle to the Romans he desires them not to interpose, and by any ways endeavour to preserve him from martyrdom ; and he says that the wild beasts had feared and refused to touch someb who had been thrown to them, which he hoped would not happen to him: à [Dinρία] και κολακεύσω συντόμως με καταφαγείν, ουχ ώσπερ τινων δειλαινόμενα ουχ ήψαντος. Quas et blanditiis de mulcebo, ut citius me devorent; non ut quosdam veritæ non attigerunt.' v. So afterwards, when Blandina was exposed, none of the beasts would kill her, says Eusebius, who took it from an authentic history of the martyrs of Lyons in Gaul. v. 1. ' In Diocletian's persecution, Eusebius was eyea Le Clerc Hist. Eccl. p. 566.

I know not whether Ignatius had in view any Christian martyrs, or Daniel who was cast into the den of lions,

• In Ignatius and Eusebius it is ήψαντο. Stephanus reads ήψατο, which probably is right, because-u Séan follows. But, as to the rule in our grammars, · Neutra pluralia gaudent verbo singulari,' there are abundance of exceptions to it, particularly in the Seriptures. See in the LXX, Genes, xlviii. 6. Isai. Ixiv. 3. Zach. xiii. 7. and Matth. vi. 26. X. 21. Marc. v. 13. xiii. 12. Luc. xxiv. 11. Joh. X. 8. Revel. xxi. 4. Homer. Il. T. 29.

-μή τοι ταύτα μετα φρεσή σησι μελόντων.


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