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ye (8) suffer, if a man bring you so am I. Are they

Are they ministers of 23. into bondage, if a man devour Christ? (I speak as a fool) I am you, if a man take of you, if a more; in labours more abundant,

man exalt himself, if a man smite in (k) stripes above measure, in 11. you on the face. I speak as (h) prisons more frequent, in deaths

concerning reproach, as though oft. Of the Jews five times re- 24. we had been weak. Howbeit (i) ceived I (1) forty stripes save one. whereinsoever any is bold, (1 Thrice was I beaten with rods, 25.

speak foolishly,) I am bold also. once was I stoned, thrice I suf.2. Are they Hebrews ? so am I. fered shipwreck, a night and a

Are they Israelites ? so am I. day I have been in the deep; in 26. Are they the seed of Abraham? journeyings often, in perils of

take umbrage at my folly in speaking in

my own behalf. 0.20. (9) “ Ye suffer,” &c. i. e. ye have in

deed born with much from these false teachers ; ye have suffered them to treat you as bondmen, to prey upon you, to

use you contumaciously, &c. 1.21. (6) “ As concerning reproach, as

“though,” &c. i. e. upon the imputation of my being weak, not having such

pretensions to power, &c. as they. 121. (0) “Whereinsoever," &c.i.e. if others

boast on account of their lineage, their exertions and sufferings in the cause, their accommodating themselves to the feelings, &c. of others, to bring them over, I have at least as strong claims on

each ground. 0.23. (k) “ In stripes,” &c. St. Paul ap

peals particularly to his exertions and sufferings : they proved his zeal an sincerity in bearing up against them, and God's grace to him in giving him courage, and afford strong ground for considering his do&rine true, because it gained so much ground, notwithstand. ing so much opposition. Dr. Paley makes it the great ground upon which he infers the truth of Christianity, that “ per

sons, professing to be witnesses of “ the Christian miracles, passed their “ lives in labours, dangers, and suffer“ings, which they voluntarily under“ went in attestation of the accounts

they delivered, and solely in conse

quence of those accounts.” i Paley's Evid. 17. St. Paul was not witness to the miracles done in our Saviour's time, but he was to that of his own conversion, to whatever he himself wrought, and probably to many done by the other apostles, &c. Our Saviour had foretold to his disciples, Luke xxi. 12,16,17. that

men should lay hands on them, should

persecute them, delivering them up to the synagogues,” &c. “ that some of them they should cause to be put to “ death, and that they should be hated “ of all men for his name sake,” that is, for embracing Christianity. The sufferings St. Paul here enumerates were, as to him, a completion of the prophecy ; and the Acts, &c. furnish instances of the persecutions of other disciples. Stephen was stoned to death, Atts vii. 59, 60. Herod “ killed James, the brother of “ John, with the sword ; and because it

pleased the Jews, he took Peter also, " and put him into prison." Acts xii. 1, 2, 3. St. Paul, before his conversion, s made havock of the Church, entering “ into every house, and haling men,

women, and children, committed them to prison." Acts viii. 3. - xxvi. 10. The earnest manner, too, in which St. Paul, St. James, and St. Peter, exhort the converts to bear up against pera secution, implies pretty strongly that their sufferings were such as to require strong encouragement. See 2 Thess. i. 3 to 6.--James ii. 5 to 7.—1 Pet. iv, 12 to 19. See also Heb. x. 32, 33. Tacitus also mentions the persecutions of the Christians. No impostor would hold out such a prospect to his followers as that which our Saviour held out; and nothing but conviction would induce them to bear the trials.

(1) Forty stripes, save one." They v. 24. were prohibited, by Deut. xxv. 3. from exceeding forty stripes ; and they were in the habit of using a scourge with three ends, so as to give three blows at one stroke ; and then they never exceeded thirteen strokes, which inflicted thirtynine stripes.

waters, in perils of robbers, in out to sow his seed : and as he perils by mine own countrymen,

“ sowed, some fell by the wayin perils by the heathen, in perils " side; and it was trodden down, in the city, in perils in the wilder

66 and the fowls of the air de. ness, in perils in the sea, in perils

66 youred it. And some fell upon 27. among false brethren; in weari- a rock; and as soon as it was

ness and painfulness, in watch- sprung up, it withered away, ings often, in hunger and thirst,

" because it lacked moisture. in fastings often, in cold and And some fell among thorns; 28. nakedness. Beside those things

6 and the thorns sprang up with that (m) are without, that which " it, and choked it. And other

cometh upon me daily, the care “ fell on good ground, and 29. of all the churches.

Who (n) is

sprang up, and bare fruit an weak, and I am not weak? who 6 hundred-fold.” And when he 30. is offended, and I burn not? If I had , must needs glory, I will

glory of " He that hath ears to hear, jer the things which concern mine (6)

“ him hear.” And his disciples The God and Fa- asked him, saying, “ What might ther of our Lord Jesus Christ, " this parable be?” And he said, which is blessed for evermore, 6. Unto (o) you it is given to know knoweth that I lie not.

“ the mysteries of the kingdom

c of God: but to others in paThe Gospel. Luke viii. 4. “ rables ; that seeing they might When much people were ga- not see, and hearing they might thered together, and were come < not understand.

Now the pa- 1 to him out of every city, he spake " rable is this: The seed is the 5.

by a parable: “ A sower went " word of God. Those by the

31. infirmities.

v. 28.

as

(m) That are without,” &c.i. e. my external sufferings, such as he had stated, " that which cometh,” &c. i.e. his inward anxiety, &c. for the care of all the churches.

(n) “Who is weak,” &c. This per0.29.

haps means, that he accommodated him-
self in innocent points to the tempers
and feelings of others, to win them over,
and keep them, he says,

i Cor. ix. 22.
“ To the weak became I as weak, that
I might gain the weak. I am'made
“ all things to all men, that I might by
« all means save some."

(6) “ Mine infirmities," i.e. perhaps, V. 30. what I have done and suffered, rather

than the gifts, &c. conferred upon me.

(0) “ To you it is given," &c. The v. 10. reason why the disciples had this privi.

lege, and the others not, may be collected
from the parallel passage in Matt. xiii.
12. &c. viz. because the disciples, from
following him, had shewn an anxious
desire after the truth, and the others,

notwithstanding his miracles, had shewn no such disposition. In St. Matthew he adds, “ whosoever hath, to him shall be

given, and he shall have more abun“ dance; but whosoever hath not,

from « him shall be taken away even that he “ hath ;” meaning, that to him that is properly inclined, opportunities shall be given, which shall be withheld from those who are not; as he also says, John xv. ii. “ Every branch that beareth fruit, my Father purgeth it, that it

may bring forth more fruit.” Instead, too, of stating it as the objea, that they might not see, &c. St. Matthew only states as the fact, that “ seeing they

see not, and hearing they hear not, “ neither do they understand.” And it is probable that St. Luke did not mean that this was the object, but merely used the form of speech, by which what is really only the consequence, is stated as the motivé. See ante 44. note on Matt.

ii. 15.

“ way-side are they that hear ; nothing worth ; Send thy Holy " then cometh the devil, and Ghost, and pour into our hearts “ taketh away the word out of that most excellent gift of charity,

“ their hearts, lest they should the very bond of peace, and of 13.

u believe and be saved. They all virtues, without which whoso“ on the rock are they, which, ever liveth is counted dead before “ when they hear, receive the thee. Grant this for thine only “ word with joy; and these have Son Jesus Christ's sake. Amen.

no root, which for a while be« lieve, and in time of tempta

The Epistle. 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 14. “ tion fall away. And that which | Though I speak with the

« fell among thorns are they, | tongues of men and of angels,

which, when they have heard, and have not (9) charity, I am
go forth, and are choked with

become as (r) sounding brass, or
“ cares and riches and pleasures a tinkling cymbal. And though 2.

“ of this life, and bring no fruit I have the gift of prophecy, and 15. to perfection. But that on the

understand all mysteries, and all
“ good ground are they, which, knowledge; and though I have
« in an honest and good heart, all faith, so that I could remove
“ having heard the word, keep | mountains (s), and havenotcharity,
“ it, and bring forth fruit with I am nothing. And though I (t) 3.
“ patience."

bestow all my goods to feed the
poor, and though I give my

body to be burned, and have not QUINQUAGESIMA SUNDAY, or the Sunday charity, it profiteth me nothing. 4. next before Lent.

Charity suffereth long, and is

kind; charity envieth not; chaThe Collect.

rity vaunteth not itself, is not O Lord, who has taught us that puffed up, doth not behave itself 5. all our doings without charity ar unseemly (u), seekéth (*) not her

D.I.

o. 1. (9) “Charity,” i. e. “complete good

« will to man.” St. Paul's object in this chapter is to shew, that such good will for God's sake, upon a principle of duty, is better than all the gifts of the spirit, of which he had been writing in the preceding chapter.

(s) “Sounding brass," &c. i.e. all my pretensions and qualities are vain and

empty.
0. 2. Could remove mountains.” St.

Paul was perhaps aware of our Saviour's
declaration, Mark xi. 23.

" Whosoever
“ shall say unto this mountain be thou
“ removed, and be thou cast into the
sea,

and shall not doubt in his heart, “ but shall believe that those things " which he saith shall come to pass, he “ shall have whatsoever he saith.” See Matt. xxi. 22.

(1) “Bestow,” &c. This shews that v. 3: the word “charity” is here used for something far beyond “almsgiving."

(u) « Unseemly," i. e. scornfully, v.5. contemptuously. (x)

" Seeketh not her own," i. e. v. 5. to the prejudice of others ; is not so intent upon its own private advantages, as rigorously to insist upon its right, where it will essentially hurt others. In i Cor. x. 33. he instances in himself, that he “ seeks not his own profit, but the profit " of

many, that they may be saved.” In Philipp. ii. 21. he complains, that “all “ seek their own, not the things which

Jesus Christ's ;" and in 1 Cor. X. 24. he cautions them, “ let no man “ seek his own, but every man another's rc wealth."

are

own, is not (y) easily provoked, was a child, I spake as a child, 6. thinketh (2) no evil; rejoiceth understood as a child, I though

not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in as a child; but when I became 7. the truth ; beareth all things, be- man, I put away childish things

lieveth all things, hopeth all For now we see through a glass, 8. things, endureth all things. Cha- darkly; but then (e) face to face:

rity never (a) faileth : but whe- now I know in part; but then ther there be prophecies, they

shall I know even as also I am shall (6) fail ; whether there be known. And now abideth faith, tongues, they shall cease; whe- hope, charity, these three; but

ther there be knowledge, it shall the greatest of these is charity. 9. vanish away. For we (c) know in part, and we prophesy in part;

The Gospel. Luke xviii. 31. 10. but when that which is perfe&t is Then Jesus took unto him the

come, then that which is in part twelve, and said unto them, “Bee 11. shall be done

away.

When (d) I “ hold (f), we go up to Jerusa

0. 8.

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0.5.

G) “ Easily," rather, “highly." 0.5

«. Thinketh,” i. e. imputeth to others.

(a) “ Never faileth," i. e. is a quality which will always have scope ; will never become useless; will continue even in the world to come.

(6) “ Shall fail," not that any thing foretold under God's inspiration should fail of coming to pass ; but that the time should come when the gifts of prophecying, of tongues, that is, of speaking different languages, should be no longer useful ; when that time should be is ex. plained by what follows, when that which is perfect should be come, when we should know even as we are known, i.e. probably, in the life to come.

(c) “ We know in part,” &c. i. e. at present our knowledge is limited, one knowing more than another, and none having perfect knowledge ; and therefore the gifts of prophecying, &c. are at present distin&tions ; but the time shall be when all shall have perfect knowledge, when we shall all know as much as these gifts could communicate, and then they

will be wholly useless, of no value.
0.10. (d) “ When,” &c. This illustrates

what preceded; as persons when ad-
vanced to manhood disregard as of no
value what they learnt as mere children,
so when perfeá knowledge in all things
is attained by all, particular steps only
leading towards that perfect knowledge

will be in no estimation.
0. 12. (e) “ Face to face,” i.e. as clearly

as one man can see another who is close

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to him. So 2 Cor. üi. 18. in contrasting the glory which was visible under the Gospel, beyond that which was visible under the Mosaic dispensation, when Moses put a veil before his face, to di. minish the light which there might otherwise have been, St. Paul says,

we all, “ with open face, beholding as in a glass " the glory of the Lord, are changed," &c. So St. John, in speaking of the perfect knowledge he expected after. wards, says, “we shall see him as he " is." i John iii. 2. A similar expres. sion occurs, Isaiah lü. 8. "

They shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Sion." (5)

Behold,” &c. This conver- v sation is also mentioned by St. Mat. thew, xx. 17. and by St. Mark x. 32. St. Mark's Gospel is generally supposed to have been overlooked by St. Peter : St. Matthew's account, therefore, is from one who was present at it, and who must therefore have known whether such a conversation occurred, and St. Mark's account may be considered as sanctioned by another ear-witness ; and if after the resurrection and their subsequent intercourse with our Saviour, and receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, they could have wanted any thing to confirm their faith, the recollection of this prophetic communication was at least likely to have had that effect. St. John details a very long conversation at the last supper, in which our Saviour speaks repeatedly of his approaching death. See John xüi. to xvii. and post.

cé lem, and all things that are (8) the things which were spoken. “ written by the prophets con- And it came to pass, that as he 35.

“ cerning the Son of man shall was come nigh unto Jericho, a 1. “ be accomplished. For he shall certain blind man sat by the way

“ be (b) delivered unto the (i) side begging: and hearing the 36. “ Gentiles, and shall be mocked, multitude pass by, he asked what

" and spitefully entreated, and it meant. And they told him 37. 3. “ spitted on : and they shall that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by.

“ scourge him, and put him to And he cried, saying, “ Jesus, 38. “ death: and the (k) third day “ thou (m) son of David, have " he shall rise again.” And

mercy on me.”

And they 39. they ( understood none of these which went before rebuked him, things: and this saying was hid that he should hold his peace : from them, neither knew they but he cried so much the more,

4.

1.31. " Written.”

There are many passages in the Old Testament from which it might be collected that the Messiah was to suffer. See particularly

Psalm xxii. 7,8. 17, 18.- Isaiah liii. 32. (b) Delivered." The accounts by

St. Matthew and St. Mark differ in some respects from this of St. Luke, but not very materially. St. Matthew says, “ Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, “'and the Son of Man shall be betrayed “ unto the chief priests, and unto the “ scribes, and they shall condemn him " to death, and shall deliver him to the « Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, " and to crucify him; and the third day " he shall rise again." St. Mark states it thus: “ Behold, we go up to Jerusa“ lem, and the Son of Man shall be “ delivered unto the chief priests, and “ unto the scribes; and they shall con“ demn him to death, and shall deliver “ him to the Gentiles; and they shall “ mock him, and shall scourge him, and "shall spit upon, and shall kill him ; " and the third day he shall rise again." This difference in unimportant particulars, and correspondence in substantials, is a strong confirmation that the conversation really occurred. Fabricated accounts generally agree in particulars as

well as substantials. 32. () “ The Gentiles." Pilate, to

whom he was delivered, and from whom the order came for his crucifixion, was a Roman Governor, not a Jew, and the Romans were among those whom the Jews called “ Gentiles." The Jews had not, at the time of our Saviour's cruci: fixion, the power of awarding a capital punishment.

(k) “ The third day,” &c. This v. 33. was furnishing a decisive test for trying his pretensions, one that an impostor would never have offered. (1)

“ Understood none,” &c. It is v. 34. probable the apostles were not yet aware that the Messiah's was to be merely a spiritual kingdom ; and they might expect, as the Jews did, that it was to be temporal. In Matt. xvi. 21, 22. when our Saviour began to shew unto his disciples that he should suffer many things, and be killed, Peter said unto him, " Be “ it far from thee Lord, this shall not “ be unto thee.” According to Matt. xvi. 22. when he gave them the same intimation, “they were exceeding sorry." When our Saviour charged Peter, James, and John to tell no man what they had seen at the transfiguration till the son of man were risen from the dead, “ they

questioned one with another what the “ rising from the dead should mean." Mark ix. 10. Mary Magdalen and the women who went with her to embalm our Saviour's body the third day after his crucifixion, could not have understood that he was to rise on that day, for if they had, they would not have gone to embalm him. See post, note on Luke xxiv. 45. and post, note on John xvi. 6. Even after the resurrection they asked our Saviour, “ Lord wilt thou at this time restore the kingdom unto Israel.” Acts i. 6.

(m) “ Thou son of David.” This v. 38. was the same as calling him the Messiah : when our Saviour asked the Jews whose son the Christ was to be, they immediately answered, “ David's.”' Matt.

xxii. 42.

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