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“ astray: we have turned every one to “ his own way; and the LORD hath laid
on him (k) thc iniquity of us all. 7. He “ was oppressed, and he was afflicted (1) “ yet he opened (m) not his mouth : he is “ brought as a lamb to the slaughter (n); “ and as a sheep before her shearers is s dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. 56 8. He was taken from prison (0) and « from judgment (o): and who shall de
" i. e. « he was as one who was ashamed sliew his face." v. 4.
« Borne,” i. e.“ taken upon himf, had upon his shoulders.” Dr, Magee Dr. Hales think the reading should be, noved our diseases,” which would make reference to it in Matt. viii. 17. much
natural. " He healed all that were sick, at it might be fulfilled which was spoken · Esaias the prophet,” “ himself took our firmities, and bare our sicknesses.” Magee, to 436. ) V. 4•
“ Smitten of God, and afflicted," smitten and afflicted of God," Dr. Hales. 'hat it was God's visitation ; that he had eserved by his own sins all he suffered.” f) v. 5.“ But, &c.” rather“ but it was or our transgressions he was wounded, it ras for our iniquities, &c.” St. Paul speaks Christ as him," who was delivered for our fences, Rom. iv. 25." “ Who gave himself or our sins, Gal. i. 4. who “ died for our ins, 1 Cor. xv. 3. ;” and St. Peter says of , that he “ bare our sins in his own body n the tree, that we being dead to sin, should ive unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye vere healed: for ye were as sheep going istray. i Pet. ii. 24." 8) v.5. “ Of our peace," i. e. “ by which sur peace, our reconciliation to God, was o be obtained." b) v. 5.“ With," rather“ by," “ by
“ quity of us all) was exacted, and he was “ made answerable, or made to answer.” In the Hebrew the pronoun he is not expressed before the first verb, it is before the second and the word rendered “ He" in some passages stands for God, and is the very word which is rendered It in the famous prophecy, Gen. iii. 15. “ It shall bruise thy head.” See ante, 617. note on Is. xli. 4. (m) v. 7.
Opened not his mouth.” Though it was not to be expected that this was to be fulfilled to the letter, yet how nearly was it so in our Saviour's instance? When the high priest said unto Jesus, “ Answerest thou “ nothing, he held his peace;" and though he
answer when adjured by the high priest in that solemn form, “ I adjure thee by is the living God,” the reason probably was, because to a question so put, no Jew could innocently refuse an answer. See Matt. xxvi. 62 to 64. Though he admitted to Pilate that he was the king of the Jews, when he was accused before him by the chief priests and elders, he “ answered nothing, insomuch that “ Pilate marvelled greatly. Matt. xxvii. 11 to
14. and Mark v. 2 to 5." St. Peter says of him, “ when he was reviled, he reviled not " again ; when he suffered, he threatened not.
1 Pet. ii. 23." and instead of calling for vengeance whilst he was in the agonies of the cross his language was, “ Father forgive them, for “ they know not what they do. Luke xxiii. 34."
(n) v. 7. “ He is brought &c.” the passage the Eunuch was reading, when Philip joined him, and converted him. Acts viii. 26 to 38.
(c) v.8.“ Prison,"or" custody.” Dr. Hales. (D) v. 8.“ From prison and from judge
ment,” so that it was to be a judicial act, on which the rulers would have time to deliberate; it was not to proceed from accident or sudden passion. The chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people assembled together, and consulted that they might take Jesus, and kill him. Matt. xxvi. 3. 4. When they took him, they led him away, first to Annas, and he sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. John xviii. 13. 24. At Caiaphas's the scribes and elders were assembled, and
) v. 6. “We," i.e. “ mankind," “ the whole human race." (k) v. 6. “ Laid on him, &c.” By the Levial law, the high priest was to take a goat, 1 lay his hands upon the goat's head, and nfess over him all the iniquities of the people, d then the goat was to bear upon him
all eir iniquities. See Lev. xvi. 21. 22. The ws therefore would well understand what was eant by laying on the Messiah the sins of all e world. (!) v.7.
“ He was oppressed, and he was afflicted," or, according to Bp. Lowth, Pole, ad others, “ it (i. e. satisfaction for the ini
" clare (9) his generation for he was cut " off out of the land of the living : for (r) “ the transgression of my people (s) was he “ stricken. 9. And he made his grave (t) « with the wicked (t), and with the rich(u) « in his death, because (x) he had done no “ violence, neither was any deceit in his « mouth. 10. Yet it pleased the LORD « to bruise him ; he hath put him to grief : “ when thou shalt make (v) his soul an “ offering for sin, he shall see his seed (2), “ he shall prolong his days, and the plea“ sure of the LORD shall prosper in his
“ hand. 11. He shall see (a) of the travail “ of his soul, and shall be satisfied : by “ his knowledge (6) shall my righteous sera “ vant justify (c) many (d); for he shall “ bear their iniquities.
12. Therefore 66 will I (c) divide him a portion with “ the great, and he shall divide the spoil “ with the strong : because he hath “ poured (8) out his soul unto death : and o he was numbered (b) with the transgres " sors, and he bare the sin of many, and “ made intercession (i) for the transgs 66 sors."
many witnesses were examined: from thence he was led bound unto the hall of judgment, where Pilate sat : Pilate shewed great unwillingness to sentence him to death, but was repeatedly pressed to it by the chief priests and Jews : he went out twice from the judgment hall to them to intimate that he found no cause of death in him ; he sent him to Herod, that he also might examine him ; and he was three times in the judgment hall, and at last in the judgment seat, in a place called the pavement, before he yielded to their importunities. John xviii. 28. 33:—John xix. 4. 9. 13.-Lu. xxiii. 4 to 16. His crucifixion therefore was at the pressing instance of the rulers of the people, the result of consultation and plan, after he had been many hours in custody; their consideration was awakened by Pilate's opposition, and it was under a judicial sentence; so that it was by judgment that he was taken off : his crucifixion too followed immediately upon the judgment, there was no interval : so that in that respect also it is true of him, that he was taken « from judgment."
(q) v. 8. “ Declare, &c.” i. e. “ describe of the wickedness of the men of that genera" tion.” 2 Lightfoot 680.1112.-Dr. Hales.Dr. Lowth.and see Parkhurst's Hebr. Dict.
(r) v. 8. “ For," or rather “ by;" “ it
was to be their sinful act;" the object of his suffering for the sins of men was sufficiently expressed before.
(5) v. 8.“ My people,” i.e. “ the Jews.” (t) v.9.
“ Made his grave,” i. e. “ died ” “ with the wicked" and what is the history as to Jesus Christ? " Then were there two “ thieves crucified with him, one on the right “ hand, and another on' the left. Matt. xxvii.
Joseph of Arimathea, a rich man, begged the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a clean line cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which le had hewn out in the rock. Matt.xxvii. 57 to 6a
(x) v. 9. For“ because" Dr. and Bø Lowth and Dr. Hales read although,"and can nect this with the following verse, althougthe “ had done no violence, neither was there any “ deceit in his mouth; yet it pleased the Lord “ to bruise him, he put him to grief.".
(y) v. 10. “ Shalê make” or slat base “ made,” i Magee 227 to 230.
(z) v. io. “ His seed, &c." or rather" “ seed, that shall prolong their days.".
(a) v.11. “ See," i. e. “ see the fruits of " the good effects."
(b) v. 11. " His knowledge" i.e. the " knowledge of him."
(c) v.11. “ Justify" i.e. “ put in the situ “ ation of just men : of men who have no sa “ for which to answer.” (d) v. II.
Many" not all mankind. (e) v. 12. “ Í,” i.e. “ God."
(f) v. 12. « Divide him, &c." or “ him multitudes for his portion, and he “ have the mighty for his spoil," i. e. he shall have followers and worshippers withol number.
(8) v. 12. Read “ Because he poured, “ and was numbered, &c." " and bare
, da? 2 Hales 441. assigning the reason why Cofra to divide him a portion with the great, &
(b) v. 12. “ Numbered, &c. this our Saviour distindly applies to himself, Loke
“ This that is written must rette “ accomplished in me," " and he was reckoned
among the transgressors."
(i) v. 12. “Made intercession, &c." the fire instance occurred whilst
Christ was yet upon the cross, " Father forgive them, for they have not what they do," Luke xxiii
. whole of this account, so singular and so cumstantial, so utterly impossible to be
" And with the rich, &c." or rather " but with the rich
was his tomb. Schindler 171.
Dr. and Bp. Lowth and Dr. Hales. And when our Saviour was crucified,
CHAP. LV. (k)
Iye everyone that thirsteth, come
ye (I thath no money; come ye buyand eat, h, come, buy wine and milk' without ney, and without price. 2. Wheree do ye spend money for that which is
bread (n)? and your labour for that vich satisfieth (n)not? hearken diligently to me, and eat ye that which is good (), dlet your soul delight itself in fatness(o). Incline your ear and come unto me: ar, and your soul (P) shall live, and I ll make an everlasting covenant with u, even the sure mercies of David (q).
Behold, I have given him (r) for a itness to the people (r), a leader and ymmander to the people (r). 5. Behold,
« thou (s) shalt call a nation that thou • knowest not, and nations that knew not " thee (s), shall run unto thee, because of “ the LORD thy God, and for the holy One “ of Israel; for he hath glorified (t) thee. « 6. Seek ye the LORD while he may 6 found (u), call ye upon him while he is 66 near.
7. Let the wicked forsake his “ way, and the unrighteous man his “ thoughts : and let him return unto the « LORD, and he will have mercy upon him ; " and to our God, for he will abundantly “ pardon. 8. For my thoughts are not “ your thoughts (x), neither are your ways
my ways, saith the LORD. 9. For as the “ heavens are higher than the earth, so are “ my ways higher (y) than your ways, and “ my thoughts than your thoughts.
10. For as the rain cometh down, and
t of guess or conjecture, was accurately to the letter fulfilled in Jesus Christ, and it ever been fulfilled in any other? and yet is but one of the many prophecies which olish the proof that he was the true Messiah.
then can it have happened that the Jews : resisted this evidence ? St. Paul in the it of prophecy, gives the answer : because lindness in part is happened to Israel, until he fulness of the gentiles be come in. Rom. i. 25.” When they shall search the scrip's, when they shall turn to God, and pusly and with humility endeavour to find the truth, we have the sure word of scripthat “they shall look upon him whom they lave pierced, Zech. xii. 10. and Rev. i. 7."
all Israel shall be saved, Rom. xi. 26." k) An invitation to all mankind, gentiles as 1 as Jews, to faith and repentance; and asances of pardon and blessings to all believers. '?) v.1. “ Waters," i. e. “ of life ; spiritual neat and drink; what will support and invigoate the soul.” Our Saviour enlarges upon this a, John vi. 27-33-35. “ Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life. The bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on me shall never thirst ;" and see John vi. 53 to 1. and John vii. 37 to 39. So John iv. Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst.” (m) v. 1. “ And he,” or “even he,” money not necessary for this purchase. (n) v. 2. “ Not bread," and "satisfieth not,”
“what hath no spiritual nourishment, will not « feed the soul.”
() v. 2. “ Is good,” and “ fatness," " what “ hath in it the true goodness, nutriment for the 66 soul."
(P) 0.3. “ Your soul,” it is for that I will provide.
(g) v. 3. “The sure mercies of David,” i.e. " the gospel dispensation,” the blessings to be procured for man by the Messiah, which were promised to David, who was a type of Christ.
(r) v. 4. “ Him," i.e. “ the Messiah,” “the people,” i. e. “the nations," "the gentiles," all mankind.''
(s) v. 5. “ Thou,” and “ thee,” i.e. “the “ Messiah.” The meaning is, that the nations who have not practised or known the true worship of God, shall be converted to christianity, and embrace the true religion. See ante, Is. ii.2. and Is. ii. 10.
) v.5. “ Hath glorified," i. e. “shall glo.
rify," the perfect for the future ; it being as certain as though it had already happened.
(u) v. 6. "While he may be found," and “ whilst he is near,” to intimate, that if the opportunity is not seized, when it occurs, it may never be again offered. The same intimation is given, Prov. i. 24. ante, and in the parable of the ten virgins, Matt. xxv. I to 12.
(x) v. 8. “My thoughts are not as your " thoughts," i. e. (probably)“ upon the sub.
jects of mercy and pardon God greatly differs “ from man: man cannot easily grant a full and “ free forgiveness to him who hath offended 6 him: God can."
() v. 9. "Higher," i.e. “ more excellent, “ more exalted, kinder, more benevolent, “ more merciful.”
“ the snow from heaven, and returneth " not thither, but watereth the earth, and “maketh it bring forth and bud, that “ it may give seed to the sower, and « bread to the eater: 11. So (z) shall my « word be that goeth forth out of my « mouth: it shall not return unto me “ void (a), but it shall accomplish that " which I please, and it shall prosper in « the thing whereto I sent it. 12. For ye “ shall go out with joy, and be led forth “ with peace : the mountains and the hills “ shall break forth before you into sing“ ing (b); and all the trees of the field “ shall clap their hands. 13. Instead of “ the thorn shall come up the fir-tree, and « instead (c) of the brier shall come up the “ myrtle-tree : and it shall be to the LORD “ for a name (d), for an everlasting sign o that shall not be cut off.”
CHAP. LVỊ. (%)
judgment, and do justice: for my “ salvation is near to come (f), and my “ righteousness to be revealed.” 2. Blessed " is the man that doeth this, and the son « of man that layeth hold on it; that “ keepeth the sabbath from polluting it
, « and keepeth his hand from doing a “ evil. 3. Neither let the son of the “ stranger (8), that hath joined himself to “ the LORD, speak, saying, “ The Loa “ hath utterly separated me (b) from his “ people:" neither let the eunuch (b) say, « os Behold, I am a dry tree (i).” 4. For " thus saith the LORD unto the eunuchs " that keep my sabbaths (k), and choose the “ things that please me, and take hold of
(x) v. 11.“ So, &c." i.e. as “rain meliorates “ the earth, and produces fruit in the vegetable • world, so shall my word improve the hearts “ of man, and bring forth works of righteous“ ness and goodness."
(a) v. 11. “Void," i.e.“ without produc
(6) v. 12.“ Into singing," highly poetical, implying a state of exalted happiness and exul. tation. So Virgil (who had probably seen Isaiah, or some extracts from it) “ Ipsi lætitiâ voces “ ad sidera jactant Intonsi montes.” 5 Eclog. 62. Milton advances a step higher, and makes the trees join in an act of devotion. “And wave “ your tops ye pines with every plant, in sign “ of worship wave."
(c) 0.13: “ Instead, &c." figurative, to ex. press a change to better times : perhaps a spi. ritual change.
(d) v. 13. “ For a name," i. e. perhaps, “a topic of praise."
(e) Anexhortation to justice, from the consideration that some signal deliverance by God was near. Encouragements to strangers and aliens to turn to God's worship, and keep his commandments, with an intimation of some approaching judgment, on account of the indo. lence and misconduct of the rulers and teachers of the people.
(f) v.1. “ Near to come," so that whoever should not have qualified himself to deserve it, might be excluded for ever. See Is.lv. 444 chance of sharing in blessings, and the being included in punishments, are both held out as incentives in this chapter.
() v. 3. “ The stranger," and " the eunuch,
“ &c.” This encouragement to the strangers and the eunuchs (who stand here for the years tiles) intimates that times are referred to stan the great distinction between Jew and feste should no longer exist; when the blessings of God's kingdom should be equally open to all; and when, as it is expressed in 5.7. Ged's " house should be called an house of prayu " for all people." According to the Mosaic law, eunuchs were never to enter into the congregation of the Lord, Moabites or Ammonites cot until the roth generation, nor Edomites or Egyptians until the 3d. See Deut. xxiii. 1.5.7 The old distinction between Jew and Gentle Christ destroyed. See Acts x. 34. 35.-Rom iii. 29, 30.-Gal. iii. 28.—Eph. ii. 11 to 16.
(b) v.3.“Separated me," i.e. "by those Mo
saic institutions which forbad their entering « into the congregation.”
(i) v. 3. “A dry tree," i. e. “ excluded “ from the blessings ;" in the situation tree without moisture to support it, or man without son or daughter. It was looked upon as a signal blessing, and a mark of God's favour, to have sons and daughters, to perpeta ate the father's name and family: it gave him
earth beyond his own life. See verse 5.
(b) v.4. “My sabbaths," one of the dis tinguishing marks of God's people. A con stant acknowledgement of his superintendance and rule; the whole subject of the 4th com mandment, and the foundation of a special pro mise, Is. lviii. 13. 14. “ If thou turn away tbt “ foot from the sabbath, from doing thy plor “ sure on my holy day; and call the sabbatia
y covenant (1); 5. Even unto them ill I give in mine house, and within my alls, a place and a name better than of ns and of daughters: I will give them I everlasting name, that shall not be cut F. 6. Also the sons of the stranger, at join themselves to the LORD to serve m, and to love the name of the LORD, be his servants, every one that keepeth le sabbath from polluting it, and taketh old of my covenant: 7. Even them will bring to my holy mountain (m), and ake them joyful in my house of prayer: ieir burnt-offerings (n) and their sacrices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for line house () shall be called an house f prayer for all people (P). 8. The ORD God, which gathereth the outcasts
“ of Israel, saith, “ Yet will I gather “ others (9) to him, besides those that are “ gathered (q)unto him.” 9. All ye beasts “ of the field, come to devour (r), yea,
all ye beasts in the forest, 10. His (s) « watchmen (t) are blind: they are all “ ignorant; they are all dumb dogs (u , they
cannot bark: sleeping, lying down, “ loving to slumber. 11. Yea, they are “ greedy (x) dogs which can never have “ enough, and they are shepherds that “ cannot understand (x): they all look to “ their own way, every one for his gain, í from his quarter. 12, Come ye, say “ they, I will fetch wine (y), and we will fill “ ourselves with strong drink; and to“ morrow shall be as this day, and much " more abundant.”
elight, the holy of the Lord, honourable : nd shalt honour him, not doing thine own rays, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor peaking thine own words : then shalt thou elight thyself in the Lord: and I will cause nee to ride upon the high places of the earth, nd feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy ather; for the mouth of the Lord hath poken it ;" an intimation so expressed how man neglect !! See also note on Is. Iviii. 13. 1) v. 4. “ Take hold of my covenant,” i. e. ake to my religion, follow my commandnents, walk in my laws, and look
my yromises." m) v.7. “My holy mountain," i.e. “ the lace for worshipping me: my church,” the nountain of the Lord's house, which is to De established in the top of the mountains, ind to be exalted above all the hills ; unto vhich all nations shall flow; Is. ii. 2." i.e. he church of Christ." n) v. 7. “ Burnt offerings,” and “ sacriices," i.e. “ their worship,” “their prayers ad praises." o) v.7. “Mine house, &c." this passage is rred to by our Saviour, Matt. xxi. 13.rk xi. 17. and Luke xix. 46. p) v.7. “ All people,” Gentiles as well as '9) v. 8. “ Others," i. e. “the Gentiles," hose that are gathered," i.e. “ already," the Jews.” So says our Saviour, John X. 16. Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice : and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.” (r) v. 9. “ Come to devour ;” an intimation heavy judgment upon those who should dis
regard the offers he had been making : whether it refers to any judgement in particular, or to judgments God should from time to time inflict cannot well be known. The Jews experienced dreadful visitations in little more than a century, when they were attacked by Pharaoh Decho. 2 Kings, xxiii. 33. the Chaldees, Syrians, Moabites and Ammonites, 2 Kings xxiv. 2. ; and at length carried captive into Babylon, 2 Kings xxiv. 25.; and they had a still heavier visitation within 40 years after our Saviour's crucifixion, when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans. In our own times too there have been such visitations upon the earth as bore strong marks of being “ God's judgments.” There is a similar invitation to the beasts during the Babylonish captivity, Ezek. xxxix. 17 to 22. ; and another above 20 years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Rev. xix. 17. ; 80 that if Isaiah's was not intended to reach to our times, that in the Revelations may. If God's judgments are in the earth, what manner of persons ought we to be to avert them from our land?
(s) v. 10. “ His” or “ the.”
(1) v. 10. “ Watchmen" i. e. (probably) “ the governors in church and state, they who “ ought to see what is approaching, and to “ give warning.”
(u) v. 10. - Dumb dogs" who give no alarm when thieves approach.
(x) v. 11. “Greedy,” “ too ntent upon “ gain,” “cannot understand," i. e. " have no “ understanding."
(3) 6.12." Fetch wine," giving themselves up to sensual indulgencies, without regarding threats or warnings.