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rising of the sun (6) shall he call upon my name, and he shall come upon princes, as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth clay. 26. Who hath declared (c) from the beginning that we may know? and before time (d), that we may say, He is righteous (e)? yea there is none that sheweth (e), yea there is none that declar. eth (e), yea there is none that heareth (e) your words (f). 27. The first shall say (g) to Zion, Behold, behold them (b), and I will give to Jerusalem one that bringeth good tidings. 28. For I beheld (i), and tbere was no man even amongst them, and there was no counsellor, that when I asked of them, could answer a word. 29. Behold, they are all vanity, their works are nothing: their molten images are wind and confusion."

CHAP. XLIII. (k) UT now thus saith the LORD that created (l) thee, O Jacob, and he

" that formed (1) thee, O Israel, Fear not, “ for I have redeemed (/) thee, I have called thee by thy name (m), thou art mine. “ 2. When thou passest (n) through the " waters, I will be with thee; and through “ the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: “ when thou walkest through the fire, " thou shalt not be burnt; neither shall " the flame kindle upon thee. 3. For I am " the LORD thy God, the holy One of Is“ rael, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt (o) for

thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. " 4. Since () thou wast precious in my « sight, thou hast been honourable, and I 6 have loved thee : therefore will I give(p) “ men(p) forthee,and people for thy life(o).

Fear not, for I am with thee: I will “ bring thy seed from the east, (q) and “ gather thee from the west(9), 6. I will say “ to the north (9), “Give up ;” and to the “ south(9), “Keep not back:” bring my sons “ from far, and my daughters from the ends “ of the earth ;" 7. Even every one that is

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o put an end to it. See Poli Synopsis, and Jer. i. 14 to 16.

(6) 5.25 “ The rising of the sun," i, e. "the east.”

(c) v. 25. “ Who hath declared, &c.” The neaning of this verse (perhaps) is this: I have iven you the prediction in verse 25; and what rediction can these false gods give in return ? Who of them hath declared any thing before it happened, that we might know it, or before hand, that we might say, he is true, &c." (d) 0.26. “ Before time," or “ beforehand.” (e) v. 26. “ Righteous” or “ true :" " shew. eth,” and “declareth,” and “heareth," rather hath shewn,” “ hath declared,” and “ hath heard." ) v. 26. “ Your words,” i. e. (probably) any predictions from you." (3) v. 27. “ The first shall say," or rather

I am the first to say," I tell her beforehand, hat she shall see a return of joyful days. (h) v. 27. “Behold them," i.e. “the works God shall perform the deliveries he shalleffect.” Dr. Lowth reads the whole verse, “ I that am the first will give unto Zion and unto Jerusalem one that bringeth good tidings; saying, Behold, behold them :" and Poole agrees rith him, except that he renders the beginning

I will be the first to give, &c.” The Sept. ranslation is, “ I will give the rule to Zion,

and I will call Jerusalem into the way.” (*) v. 28. “Beheld, &c.” i.e. " antongst the

“ idols and their worshippers, and there was “ none who could foretell what should happen,

or answer any question.”

(k) Assurances from God of favour and protection, and signal deliveries to his people; a challenge to shew any foreknowledge but in God; an appeal to the Jews for instances of it in him; a denunciation against Babylon ; a promise of future blessings to God's people ; and an intimation that it was for their transgressions they had been in trouble. This chapter is supposed to have been written in Hezekiah's time, about 712 years before the birth of Christ, and about 106 before the commencement of the Babylonish captivity.

(1) v. 1. “Created," " formed," " redeemed, “ &c." expressions to intimate God's peculiar attachment to them above all others.

(m) v. 1. “ Called thee by thy name," i.e.

given thee thy name ; fixed upon a name for “ thee ;” another mark of attention and regard. Abp. Secker reads, My name," and see v.7.

(n) v.2. “Passest, &c." i.e. in the “greatest " difficulties and dangers thou mayest be sure “ of my protection."

(6) v.3. “Gave Egypt, &c." i.e. (probably) « I have brought my judgments upon Egypt “ and other nations to procure you deliverance, “ and to give you examples.”

(p) v.4. “Since," or “ because.” “Will I “ give,” or “ have I given." "Men,” or “Na.

tions.” “ Life,” or “ Safety."
(a) v.5, 6. “ East," " west," « north,"

9. Let all

o called by my name : for (q) I have cre“ ated him for my glory, I have formed “ him, yea, I have made him. 8. Bring “ forth the blind people (r) that have eyes, 66 and the deaf that have ears. “ the nations be gathered together, and let “ the people be assembled : who (s) among “ them can declare this, and shew us for“ mer things ? let them bring forth their “ witnesses, that they may be justified (t):

or let them hear (u) and say, It is « truth.” 10. Ye (x) are my witnesses, " saith the LORD, and my servant (y). 66 whom I have chosen : that ye may know “ and believe me, and understand that I

am he: before me there was no god « formed, neither shall there be after me. 66 11. I even I am the Lord, and beside

there is no Saviour. 12. I have de“clared, and have saved, and I have 66 shewed, when there was no strange god (2)

“ among you: therefore ye are my “ nesses, saith the LORD, that I am GAL

13. Yea, before the day (a) was, la " he: and there is none that can deliver " of my hand : I will work, and who sha 6 let it? 14. Thus saith the Lord vom “ redeemer, the holy One of Israel, " PH your

sake I have sent (b) to Babylon. “ have brought (6) down all their noble “ and the Chaldeans, whose cry (c) is in “ ships. 15. I am the Lord, your one,

the Creator of Israel, your « 16. Thus saith the LORD, which make

a way (d) in the sea, and a path in “ mighty waters :

17. Which brined “ forth the chariot and horse, the as “ and the power; they shall lie down to “ gether, they shall not rise : they are en “ tinct, they are quenched as tow. 18.00 “ member ye not (e) the former thing “ neither consider the things of all


“ south.” The recollection of this and similar promises would keep alive in the Jews during their captivity and in every other dispersion, the expectation of being again restored to their own land : and it is worthy of remark, that in many conferences with the Jews in Asia, in these our times, Dr. Buchanan found this expectation in full force. See Buchanan's Christian Researches, 236, 237,

(2) v.7.r." For for my glory I have created “ him, I have formed him, &c."

(-) v. 8.“ The blind people, &c." or rather " the people who are blind, though they have

eyes, and deaf, though they have ears."
(s) v.9.

Who, &c." a challenge for any instance of foreknowledge but from God. See ante Is, xli. 22.

(t) v. 9. “ Justified," i. e. (probably) “in “ their idol worship ; in looking up to any « other God."

(u) v.9.“ Let them hear, &c.” “ If they can " bring forth no witnesses, let them attend to “ the proofs God can give, and then admit his


(x) v. 10. Ye," i.e. “ the Jews,” who had experienced the fulfilment of many of God's predictions. See v. 12.

(') v.10.“ My servant," i. e. (according to different commentators), either “ the Jewish

people," or prophets in general," or " I saiah," or

Cyrus," or " the Messiah," he (whoever is meant), “ is also my witness.” In Is, xliv. 28. God says of Cyrus," he is my shepherd, " and shall perform all my pleasure ;' in Is. xlv.

1. He calls him « His anointed," * *

right hand I have holden," and iksi. 25.

he refers to the deliverance he would make by means of Cyrus, as a proof of his foreksite ledge. These passages favour the notin the Cyrus is the person here intended.

(z) v. 12. *“ No strange god, &c." so let it was to none but me, that the prediction and deliverance could have been ascribed.

(a) v. 12.“ Before the day," i. e. “frost eternity; before the creation of light and day

(6) v. 14. “ Have sent," and" by “ brought," i. e. “ will send," and "E “ bring.” It is common in prophecies to spea of future events in the past tense.

(c) %.14.“ Cry,” or “ pride," " glory Dr. Lowth,

(d) v. 16. “A way, &c.” This and by next verse probably allude to the passar the Israelites through the Red Sea, a destruction of Pharaoh and his host : * reminding them what he had then deri intimates what he can still do.

(e) v. 18. “ Remember ye not, &c.". spirited mode of intimating that their futu deliveries should so far surpass any they before experienced, that their former delivere would almost be forgotten. Jeremiah expresse the same idea more fully, Jer. xvi. 14. 15

; Jer. xxiii. 7. 8. « Behold the days come, “ the Lord, that it shall no more be said, " Lord liveth, that brought up the childres “ Lord liveth, that brought up the chilòm


19. Behold I will do a new thing (f); now it shall spring forth, shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert. 20. The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls : because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people (8) my chosen. 21. This people have I formed for myself, they shall shew forth my praise. 22. But thou hast not called upon me (s) O Jacob, but thou hast been weary of me, o Israel. 23. Thou hast not brought me (i) the small cattle of thy burnt offerings,

“ neither hast thou honoured me with thy " sacrifices. I have not caused thee to “ serve with an offering, nor wearied thee “ with incense. 24. Thou hast bought

me no sweet cane with money, neither " hast thou filled me with the fat of thy « sacrifices : but thou hast made me to “ serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied

me with thy iniquities. 25. I even I am “ he that blotteth out thy transgressions o for mine own sake, and will not remem“ ber thy sins. 26. Put me in remem“ brance (k): let us plead together : de« clare thou that thou mayest be justified (I). “ 27. Thy first father (m) hath sinned,

of Israel from the land of the North, and from all the lands whither he had driven them.” The dispersion of the Jews, which case of disobedience was so plainly denounced ainst them by Moses, and their continuance a distinct unmixed people, scattered amongst

the nations under heaven, and yet united th none, living in general, not by themselves, it in populous cities and towns, and yet prerving entire their national appearance and haracter, bear a decisive attestation to the athenticity of those writings in which their ispersion is foretold, and leave no doubt but rat the other predictions in the same writings

their re-union and restoration will also be 116illed. What says Moses as to their disperon? “ Thou shalt be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth." Deuter. xxviii. 25. Thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a bye word, among all the nations whither the Lord shall lead thee. Deuter. xxvii. 37." “ The Lord shall scatter thee among all nations, from the one end of the earth even unto the other. Deuter. xxviii. 64." Compare with these predictions the gular state of the Jews from the destruction Jerusalem to the present time, a period of ore than 1700 years, and canst thou resist the clamation, “ It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes.” See 2 Hales 343. d see ante. note on Isaiah xi. u? (f) 7. 19. “A new thing, &c." sessions in this and the following verse are obably figurative, and refer to some spiritual formation God would effect : most likely, to e christian dispensation : giving spiritual light

the heathen nations might well be called aking“ a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert,” and “the beasts of the field, the dragons and the owls,” might represent le uninformed Gentiles. If the words were

to be understood in their literal sense only, the important introduction, “ Remember ye not “ the former things,” and “ I will do a new

thing,” can hardly be accounted for, for how much greater things than these had God before done for them on their departure from Egypt, their journeyings in the wilderness, their passing over Jordan, and their settlement in Canaan?

() v. 20. “ My people,” i. e. (perhaps) “ those upon whom this spiritual reformation « shall be accomplished.”

(b) v. 22. “ Î'hou hast not called upon me, 66 &c."

So that if thou shouldest partake of my favours, it is from kindness in me, not merit in you : your demerit will justify the captivity which is coming upon you, and will warrant me in calling in, and shewing favours to, other nations.

(i) v. 23." Brought me, &c.” The meaning of this and the following verse probably is this,

Though you have made all the sacrifices the " law requires, you have not done it in a manner “ to honor me : you have not considered me whilst

you were doing it : your lives and conduct “ have not been such as were to be expected " from persons who were continually presenting " themselves before me.” The emphasis is upon me: Thou hast not brought me the cattle, &c. neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices ; I have not caused thee to serve, &c. (i. e. it is not respect and reverence for me that has caused thee to make these offerings) and if your hearts were right towards me, you would not consider the offering a service, nor the incense a labour.

(k) v. 26. “ Put me in remembrance," i.e. if you can shew any merit in yourself.

(1) v. 26. “ That thou mayest be justified," or “ if thou hast any justification."

(m) v. 27. First' father," rather chief

The ex


" and thy teachers have transgressed against " me. 28. Therefore I have profaned (n) “ the princes of the sanctuary, and have “ given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to “ reproaches.

ET now hear, O Jacob, my ser-

vant (); and Israel, whom I have “ chosen (p). 2. Thus saith the LORD that “ made () thee, and formed (P) thee from “ the womb, which will help thee. Fear not, “ O Jacob my servant; and thou, Jesu“ run (9), whom I have chosen. 3. For “ I will pour water (r) upon him that is " thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: “ I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and “ my blessing upon thine offspring : « 4. And they shall spring up as among “ the grass (s), as willows by the water

courses. 5. One (t) shall say, I am the “ Lord's : and another shall call himself

« by the name of Jacob : and another " shall subscribe with his hand unto the “ LORD (u), and sumame himself by the “ name of Israel. 6. Thus saith the LORD “ the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts, I am the first, and I am " the last, and beside me there is no God. « 7. And who (x), as I, shall call, and « shall declare it, and set it in order for “ me, since I appointed the ancient people " and the things that are coming, and shal " come? let them shew unto them. 8. Fer " ye not, neither be afraid : have not I tol “ thee from that time (y), and have de “ clared it? ye are even my witnesses (2). • Is there a God beside me ? yea, there is no God; I know not any. 9. They " that make a graven image are all of them " vanity; and their delectable things (0) “ shall not profit; and they are their own « witnesses; they see not, nor know; “ that they may be ashamed. 10. Who

“ leader.” Bp. Lowth. The meaning probably is, So far are you from merit and justifi. cation, that your chief men and leaders, from whom the best was to have been expected, are given up to sin and to transgression.

(n) v. 28. “ Have profaned,” and “have “ given,” speaking of what was about to come, as though it had already happened.

() Assurances from God to his people of protection and favour, upon his foreknowledge and power, upon the absurdity of idol worship, and upon the mercy God would display, and the deliverance he would accomplish. The date commonly ascribed to it is 712 years before the birth of Christ, about 106 before the commencement of the Babylonish captivity.

6) v. 1. “My servant,” “ whom I have « chosen," and verse 2. “ made thee,” and « formed thee from the womb." Expressions of attachment calculated to produce corresponding sentiments from the people towards God, to secure their fidelity and animate their hopes during adversity.

(9) v. 2. • Jesurun," i. e. “ Israel.” The same name is used for Israel. Deut.xxxii. 15.xxxiii. 5. 26. The word signifies " upright," or " uprightness."

(v) v. z. “ Pour water, &c.” This and the following verse probably look forward to the times of the Messiah, and to spiritual blessings to be then bestowed, when, according to Joel ii. 28, “ God was to pour out his spirit “ upon all Alesh.”

(s) v. 4. As among the grass," or other, as grass amongst, or near, or in the mited

waters," i. e. by the water side. So Heb. Sept. and Bp. Lowth.

(t) v. 5. Is considered as alluding to the coming in of the Gentiles to the religion of Christ. See ante, Is. ii. 3.

(u) v. 5: “ Subscribe with his hand unto " the Lord,” or “ subscribe upon his hand, I

am the Lord's," Sept. alluding to the custom as to soldiers, who received a mark on their hands to signify who was their commander. This practice is referred to Rev. xiii. 16. "be 6 caused all, both small and great, &c. to re“ ceive a mark in their right hand, or in their forehead ;” and again Rev. xiv. 9. “ If any " man worship the beast and his image, and " receive his mark on his forehead, or in hand, &c." See Blayney on Jer. 388. (*) v. 7.

Who, as I, shall call, &c."ia « who, like me, can foretell future events “ bring them to pass : if there be any such, kt “ them display their power; let them shem “ what is immediately coming, and what shall “ come hereafter." "The same idea, expressed more fully, occurs, Is. xli. 22. 23. ante 618, and see Is. xliii. 9. ante 620.

(y) v. 8. “ From that time," or " from of « old."

(2) v. 8. “ My witnesses.” He makes the like appeal to thein, Is. xliii. 10. ante 620.

(a) v. 9. " Their delectable things," ie " their idols,” in which they delight.

hath formed a god, or molten a graven image that is profitable for nothing? 11. Behold all his fellows (a) shall be ashamed: and the workmen, they are of (a) men; let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; yet they shall fear, and they shall be ashamed together, 12. The smith (6) with the tongs both worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, and worketh it with the strength of his arms; yea, he is hungry (c), and his strength faileth : he drinketh no water, and is faint. 13. The carpenter stretcheth out his rule ; he marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with planes, and he marketh it out with the compass, and maketh it after the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house. 14. He heweth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress and the oak, which he strengtheneth for himself among the trees of the forest : he planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it. 15. Then shall it be for a man to burn: for he will take thereof and warm

“ himself ; yea, he kindleth it, and baketh “ bread ; yea, he maketh a god, and wor“ shippeth it; he maketh it a graven image, 66 and falleth down thereto. 16. He burn“ eth part thereof in the fire ; with part “ thereof he eateth flesh (d); he roasteth “ roast, and is satisfied : yea, he warmeth « himself, and saith, “ Aha, I am warm, I “ have seen the fire." 17. And the resi

due thereof he maketh a god, even his

graven image : he falleth down unto it, " and worshippeth it, and prayeth unto it, " and saith, “ Deliver me, for thou art

my god." 28. They have not known, nor understood : for he hath shut their

eyes (f), that they cannot see; and their « hearts that they cannot understand.

19. And none considereth in his heart, “ neither is there knowledge nor under“ standing to say, “ I have burnt part of « it in the fire; yea, also I have baked “ bread upon the coals thereof; I have “ roasted flesh and eaten it; and shall I « make the residue thereof an abominaos tion? shall I fall down to the stock of a “ tree ?” 20. He feedeth on ashes (s): a

(a) v. 11. " Fellows,” or “ followers," * worshippers.” “They are of men," or " they

above all men," (6) 0. 12. “ The smith, &c.” Bp. Lowth bserves upon this passage,

" the sacred writers are generally large and eloquent upon the subject of idolatry: they treat it with great severity, and set forth its absurdity in the strongest light : but this passage of Isaiah, - verse 12 to 20, far exceeds any thing that was ever written


the subject in force of argument, energy of expression, and elegance of composition.” Idolatry was a sin against thich the Israelites were peculiarly cautioned, nd the strongest denuntiations passed against

Deut. xi. 16. 26. 28.--xii. 2.-xvii. 2 to 7. "he character of their kings is in general deided in scripture by this test. Solomon, in is old age, was seduced into it by his wives, od for this offence God wrested from his son lehoboain ten of the tribes, and they formed

separate kingdom under the kings of Israel. Zvery one of the kings of Israel, without exeption, was addicted to this offence, and so Pere many of the kings of Judah. Great part of he ten tribes had within ten years been carried aptive into Assyria, 2 Kings xvii, 6. and he time was now approaching when the prohecy of Isaiah, Is. vii. 8. “ within threescore

“ and five years shall Ephrain, (i. e. the ten “ tribes) be broken, that it be not a people," was to be fulfilled. Judah had been deeply involved in idolatry in the time of Ahaz, Heze kiah's father, and were again about to become so in the time of Manasseh, Hezekiah's son. They would also be carried into an idolatrous country in the Babylonish captivity. These warnings therefore, against idolatry, were well suited to the times, to deter the devout part of the people from idolatrous practices, and to keep them a distinct and separate people, as the stock from which the Messiah was to come, during the captivity. The denuntiation against the ten tribes was about 30 years before the period to which this chapter is ascribed, and at the end of the 65 years, the carrying away those tribes was completed. 2 Hales 455.

(c) v. 12. “ Is hungry, &c. So that this his god he is making cannot protect him from hunger or thirst, fatigue or weakness.

(d) v.16. “ Eateth Mesh," or rather “baketh bread," Sept. ; and this agrees with what is stated in verses 15 and 19.

() v. 18. “He hath shut their eyes,” or rather “ their eyes are shut.” It is their own act.

(3) v. 20. “ Ashes," unpalatable, and without nourishment; probably a proverb, for

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