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" that he may know (1) to refuse the evil, " and choose the good. 16. For (m) before " the child (n) shall know to refuse (6) “ the evil, and choose the good, the land " that thou abhorrest (P) shall be for“ saken (9) of both her kings."
« more grievously afflict her by the way of “ the sea (y), beyond Jordan, in Galilee (2) w of the nations. 2. The people that “ walked in darkness, have seen (el a
great light (b): they that dwell in the
land of the shadow of death, upon them “ hath (b) the light shined. 3. Thou has “ multiplied the nation, and not increased “ the (c) joy: they joy before thee, accord « ing to the joy (d) in harvest (e), and a « men rejoice when they divide the spoile
4 For thou hast broken the yoke(f) ofis " burden, and the staff (f ) of his shoulder “ the rod (f)of his oppressor, as in the day
CHAP. IX. to v. 8.(r)
shall not be such as was in her “ vexation, when at the first (u) he lightly « afflicted the land of Zebulun, and the « land of Naphtali, and afterward (x) did
ing chapter ended with denouncing one God's heavy visitations, referring probably sa that upon the opposers of his religion at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans; and the meaning here seems to be, that at the time he is contemplating, want of light shall not be a ground, as in former instances; for a mitig tion of severity ; that the objects of this visto tion should act in opposition to the street light, and thereby justify to the utmur the vengeance he had been denouncing. This is naturally to the rapturous exclarnations span the nature and blessings of this light. 1 Lightf. 622, 623.–2 Lightf. 131. See aliva
(u) v. 1. “ At the first ;" referring probably to the invasion of Benhadad 1 Kings
(i. e. the produce of peaceful times) shall he (i.e. indefinitely, every one, the people of the land) “ eat, that he may know," (or rather when he shall know) to refuse the evil, &c. (i. e. to do righteously). As though he had said, if the people will follow what is right, they shall bave the blessings of peace : the produce of the land shall not be destroyed by invaders.
(1) v. 15. “ That he may know,” i. e. (probably), (if applied to the Messiah,) that he may reach the age of knowing, to rear him to that age, otherwise, the reading should probably be “ when he shall know."
(m) v. 16. “ For,” or “ moreover.”
(n) v. 16. “ The child,” or “this child," i. e. (as many suppose) “Shearjashub," whom Isaiah was ordered to take with him to meet Ahaz. Isaiah vii. 3. Or" a child," i. e. “ any “ child now an infant.” As an assurance of the punctual performance of the more distant promise of the virgin's conception, &c. God giving a pledge which should come to pass before that child, or any one then an infant, should reach the age of distinguishing good from bad. In Isaiah viii. 4. is a promise, that before another child, Mahershalallashbaz, should have knowledge to cry My Father, and My Mother, (i. e. to speak plain) the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria (the capitals of Syria and Israel) should be taken away before the king of Assyria. The mode of expression there throws light on this passage.
1o) v. 16. “ Know to refuse, &c.” i.e. “ attain to years of discretion.”
W) 0.16. “ Abhorrest," or " fearest,” the countries of Syria and Israel. 2 Hales 455. (9) v. 16. “ Forsaken," or “ deprived."
(1) A prophetic extacy, upon contemplating the blessings of the Messiah.
(s) v.1. “ Nevertheless,” or “ for."
(x) v. 1. “ Afterward;” perhaps alluding to the captivity by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria 2 Kings xv. 29.
(y) v. 1. “ The way of the sea," leading from Syria through the middle of Capernaut to Jordan, and from thence by the sea of Galilee into Egypt.
(2) v. 1. “Galilee ;" the chief scene of our Saviour's life and miracles. Mede. Kidd
(a) v. 2. “ Have seen,” and “ hath shine i.e. “ shall see,” and “ shall shine.” The for the future : as certain as though it already happened.
(6) v.2. "A great light, i.e. “the Mesinha the person referred to in verse 6.
(c) v.3. “And not increased," rather "thor “ hast increased. Pole."
(d) v. 3. “The joy in harvest.” A proverb (e) v. 3. * Harvest," and "spoil." Sourcs of joy; the one in peace, the latter in war.
(f) “ The yoke,&c." « the staff,&c."" the “ rod, &c." figurative expressions to denote the weight of those burthens (the burthens of sa from which they were to be delivered.
for great joy:
2 Hales 455
of Midian (f). 5. For every battle (8) of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood, but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire. 6. For unto us a child is (h) born, unto us a son is (h) given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder : and his name shall be called (i) Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty (k) God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace (l.)
7. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end (m), upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice (12), from henceforth even for ever : the zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.”
CHAP. XI. (...)
rod (P) out of the stem of Jesse, E and a branch () shall grow out of his
roots. 2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom
“ and understanding, the spirit of counsel " and might, the spirit of knowledge, and 66 of the fear of the LORD: 3. And shall “ make him of quick understanding in the " fear of the LORD, and he shall not judge " after the sight of his eyes, neither “ reprove after the hearing of his ears. “ 4. But with righteousness shall he judge “ the poor, and reprove with equity for 66 the meek of the earth: and he shall “ smite the earth (q) with the rod of his “ mouth, and with the breath of his lips “ shall he slay the wicked. 5. And righ“ teousness shall be the girdle of his loins, " and faithfulness the girdle of his veins. “ 6. The wolf (r) also shall dwell with “ the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down 66 with the kid : and the calf, and the “ young lion and the fatling together, and
a little child shall lead them. 7. And o the cow and the bear shall feed(s); - their young ones shall lie down together; " and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. “ 8. And the sucking child shall play on " the hole of the asp, and the weaned
(f) v.4. “ Of Midian.” See Judges vi. vii. iii. This was one of God's signal deliverances, bout 1250 years before Christ. Israel served e Midianites seven years; and at the end of at time, Gideon, with 300 men, went up gainst Midian : their hosts were discomfited, id fell upon each other, their princes and 20,000 men were slain, and Israel was de. vered. (3) “ Every battle, &c.” or “ the greaves of the armed warrior in the conflict, and the garments rolled in blood, shall be for
a burning, even fuel for the fire.” Burning rms was a symbol of peace ; and the meaning robably is, that the deliverance he contemlated was not an ordinary deliverance, but that He was looking forward to one who should inroduce a religion, the tendency of which should e, to make wars to cease throughout the earth. See Ps. xlvi. 9.
(1) v. 6. « Is,” that is, " is to be ;" the present for the future. See note on verse 2.
(i) v. 6. “ His name shall be called," i, e. * he shall be.”
(k) v. 6. "The mighty," or " a mighty."
(1) v. 6. « Of peace.” So that peace, or principles calculated to produce it, was to be one of the chiaracteristics of his kingdom. See ante, Is. ii. 4.–Mic. v. 5.
() v.7.“No end." So Dan, vii. 14.“ His”
(i.e. the Messiah's) “ dominion is an everlasting * dominion, which shall not pass away, and his “ kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” And see Dan. ii. 44.--Dan. vii. 18. 27.
(n) v. 7. “ With judgment and with justice." Another characteristic. See post, Is. xi. 4.
(0) A prophetic account of the character of the Messiah, and the peaceable nature of his kingdom, of the call of the Gentiles, and restoration of the Jews.
W v. I. “A rod,” and “ a branch,” i. e. “ the Messiah.” Though the nation might have been so reduced, that they might be compared to a tree which had nothing left but stem and roots, yet from thence should a rod or shoot come forth, and a branch grow. See 2 Lightf. 584. (8)
« Smite the earth." One of the characteristics of the Messiah. See ante, note on Is. ii, 4.
(r) v. 6. “ The wolf, &c." figuratively : “ Such shall be the harmony and concord, that " the most violent dispositions shall not molest “ the meekest." It corresponds with the description, Is. ii. 4. ante, which looks forward to the same period, “ they shall beat their swords “ into plough-shares, &c." And see Is. Ixv. 25. (s). v. 7. • Feed," add " together.''
So in the Hebrew.
“ child shall put his hand on the cockatrice“ den. 9. They shall not hurt (t) nor “ destroy in all my holy mountain : for o the earth shall be full of the knowledge ss of the Lord, as (u) the waters cover the
10. And in that day there shall “ be a root (*) of Jesse, which shall stand “ for an ensign (y) of the people; to it « shall the Gentiles seek (Z), and his rest « shall be glorious.
11. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD
« shall set his hand again the second time, “ to recover the remnant (a) of his people " which shall be left, from Assyria, and “ from Egypt, and from Pathros, and < from Cush, and from Elam, and from “ Shinar, and from Hamath, and from r the islands of the sea.
12. And he « shall set up an ensign (y) for the nations
, 6 and shall assemble the outcasts “ Israel (6) and gather together the i “ persed of Judah from the four com
(1) v. 8.“ Hurt, &c." So Is. ii. 4. " tion shall not lift up sword against nation, “ neither shall they learn war any more.” Though it is the natural tendency of chris. tianity to produce peace upon earth, and goodwill between man and man, so that there would be no wars or dissensions if its dictates were universally followed, yet it is probable both these passages in chapter ii. and chapter xi. refer to a period not yet arrived, but perhaps near approaching.
(u) v. 9: “ As," i. e.“ as completely” the earth shall be as full of the knowledge of the Lord as the sea is of water ; there shall be no place this knowledge shall not reach.
(x) v. 10. “A root, &c." i. e. “ the Mes“ siah ;" so called, Rev. v. 5. “ Behold the “ lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, “ hath prevailed, &c.” And Rev. xxii. 16. “I “ Jesus have sent mine angel, &c. I am the “ root and offspring of David, &c.
(y) v. 10. 12. “ An ensign.” To collect followers, to gather together those who are willing to range under his standard. See Is. xlix. 22. and Is. lxii. 10.
(z) v. 10. “ The Gentiles.” Another prophecy of the coming in of the Gentiles; of their adopting Christ's religion. See ante, Is. ii. 2. and the note there.
(a) v.11.“ The remnant, &c.” One, amongst many, of the prophetic intimations of a signal restoration of the Jews. The dispersion of the Jews into all nations, so distinctly denounced against them for disobedience, Deut. xxviii. 25. 37. 64. and their continuance as a marked and distinct people, is one of the signal miracles of God's hand,and bears the strongest testimony at this day to the truth of the Mosaic writings: These writings contain as plain and clear a prophecy as can be of the future restoration of the Jews. “ It shall come to pass, when all “ these things are come upon thee, the blessing “ and the curse, which I have set before thee, or and thou shalt call them to mind among all
" the nations whither the Lord thy God had “ driven thee, and shalt return unto the Lord “ thy God, and shalt obey his voice according “ to all that I (i. e. Moses) command that " this day, thou and thy children, with all the “ heart, and with all thy soul; that then the “ Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and “ have compassion upon thee, and will returns “ and gather thee from all the nations whither “ the Lord thy God hath scattered thee. And " the Lord thy God will bring thee into the “ land which thy fathers possessed, and the “shalt possess it; and he will do the good, “ and multiply thee above thy fathers, k." Deut. xxx. 1 to 5. In speaking of this, at other prophecies on the same subject
, in his admirable Lectures on the last four books ek Moses, Dr. Graves (the present Dean of Ardagh in Ireland) observes, « Undoubtedly the las “guage of prophecy justifies the Jews a
looking forward to some most signal and fa“ vourable change, some illustrious restoration “ of divine favour and temporal prosperity." And it may be collected as his opinion
, that whatever may be the accomplishment of the predictions, it is clear it has never yet place: That as to the time and circumstance of the event, the Christian will pronounce opinion with great caution and reserve, that the present circumstances of the world reason to believe it is approaching: There change will probably consist, primarily, ale conversion of the great bulk of the entire in tion, the descendants of the ten tribes, as well as of the two, to Christianity, and that when once converted, they may become, in the lande in which they are dispersed, such irresistible preachers as to carry conviction to every! 2 Graves 447. 448. 454. 473: 474. See ait, note on Deut. XXX. 4.
(b) v. 12. “ Israel," i.e. (perhaps) " the ten " tribes ;” and “ Judah," the two. At Cochis, in China, there is a colony of Israelites
, abox 16,000, whom Dr. Buchanan considers descended from the
ten tribes. 2 Graves 4354
f the earth. 13. The envy also of Ephraim (c) shall depart, and the adersaries (d) of Judah shall be cut off : Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah hall not vex Ephraim. 14. But they hall fly upon (e) the shoulders of the Philistines (f) toward the west, they hall spoil them of the east together : hey shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab, and the children of Ammon (f) hall obey them. 15. And the LORD hall utterly destroy the tongue (g) of he Egyptian sea, and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river (b), and shall smite it in the seven treams, and make men go over dryshod. 16. And there shall be an high
" and turneth it upside down, and scattereth « abroad the inhabitants thereof. 2. And « it shall be, as with the people (2) so with “ the priest ; as with the servant, so with « his master; as with the maid so with “ her mistress; as with the buyer so with “ the seller; as with the lender, so with - the borrower; as with the taker of usury « so with the giver of usury to him.
(c) v. 13. “ Ephraim," i. e.“the ten tribes,” Numb. xxiv. 17. 18. the noted prophecy of - subjects of the kings of Israel. Isaiah re- Balaam, where the future adversaries of God's atedly gives them the appellation of “ Eph- religion are called by the names of the then rahim," because the tribe of Ephrahim was in opposers of his people, “ Moab," “ Sheth,”
time the most powerful. See Is. vii. 2. 5. “ Edom,” and “ Seir.” And see post, Isaiah 17.-Is. ix. 9. So Zech. ix. 10. (d) v. 13. “ Adversaries,” rather “enmity.” (3) v. 15.“ Tongue." A narrow piece of That the dissensions between the ten tribes and land running into the sea. Sou Lucan 613 : he two, those who were under the kings of “ ”
and the next verse are figurative ; and the Judah, should cease.” See Zechariah ix. 10. meaning probably is, that so far from impeere in the prophecy of the times of christi- diments to the return of the Jews and Israelites, ty it is said, “ I will cut off the chariot from it should meet with the greatest facilities—there Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and should be no obstacle—that where land would the battle bow shall be cut off.” And obstruct them, it should be swallowed upzek. xxxvii. 21. 22. 24. 28. where, in refer- where water, it should be made dry: that God ce to times certainly not yet arrived, “ Thus would interpose as signally and effectually, as saith the Lord God, “Behold, I will take the if he were to destroy the tongue of the Egypchildren of Israel from among the heathen, tian sea, and make it water, or as if he were whither they shall be gone, and will gather to dry up the streams of the Nile or Euphrates, them on every side, and bring them into their and make it land. own land : and I will make them one nation (b) v. 15.
• The river," i. e. either “ the in the land upon the mountains of Israel: and “ Nile," or, (Mede 529.) “ the Euphrates." one king shall be king to them all: and they (i) There are no marks in this chapter to shall be no more two nations, neither shall confine its predictions to any one particular they be divided into two kingdoms any more event. It might have in view each of the three at all: and David my servant” (i. e. the great desolations ; that by Shalmanezer, who essiah) “ shall be king over them: and they carried away the ten tribes; that by Nebuall shall have one Shepherd : they shall also chadnezzar, who carried the inhabitants of walk in my judgments, and observe my Judah and Jerusalem to Babylon ; or that by statutes, and do them; and the heathen shall the Romans, who finally destroyed Jerusalem know that I the Lord do sanctify Israel, within
40 years after our Saviour's crucifixion ; when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of
and it might relate even to more distant times. them for evermore."
(k) v. 1. “ The earth,” i.e. “ the land of (e) v.14. “Fly upon," i.e. perhaps, “make u Judea.” common cause against.”
(1) v. 2. “ As with the people, &c.” i.e. (f) v.14.“Philistines," "Edom,” “Moab,” all ranks shall undergo the same fate : none d'" the children of Ammon," i. e. (perhaps),
« shall escape.". e opposers of the true religion. See ante,
The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled : for the Lord hath spoken " this word. 4. The earth mourneth, and “ fadeth away, the world languisheth and “ fadeth away, the haughty people of the “ earth do languish. 5. The earth also is « defiled under the inhabitants thereof : “ because they have transgressed the laws, “ charged the ordinance, broken the ever“ lasting covenant (m). 6. Therefore hath “ the curse devoured the earth, and they " that dwell therein are desolate: therefore « the inhabitants of the earth are burned, “ and few men left. 7. The new wine “ mourneth (n), the wine languisheth, all “ the merry-hearted (0) do sigh. 8. The « mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of “ them that rejoice endetlı, the joy of the “ harp ceaseth. 9. They shall not drink “ wine with a song (P), strong drink shall 6 be bitter to them that drink it. 10. The
city of confusion (9) is broken down : every house is shut
that no man may
“ come in. 11. There is a crying for (r) or wine in the streets, all joy is darkened, " the mirth of the land is gone. 12. In " the city is left desolation, and the gate is v smitten with destruction. " thus it shall be in the midst of the land " among the people, there shall be as the « shaking of an olive tree, and as the “ gleaning-grapes (s) when the vintage is “ done. 14. They (1) shall lift up their “ voice, they shall sing for the majesty of “ the LORD, they shall cry aloud from the
sea. 15. Wherefore, glorify ye « Lord in the fires (u) even the name of the « LORD God of Israel in the isles of the
sea. 16. From (x) the uttermost part " of the earth have we heard songs, ever “ glory to the righteous: but I said, “ My “ leanness, my leanness (y), woe unto me: " the treacherous dealers (z) have dealt (1) “ treacherously, yea, the treacherous 6. dealers have dealt (z) very treacherously.
17. Fear (b) and the pit, and the share
(m) 0.5: “ The everlasting covenant," i.e. " that made at mount Sinai." Exod. xxiv.
3 to 8.
(n) v.7. “ The new wine mourneth," i. e. either, “ the means of making new wine fail, “ from the destruction of the vineyards," or “ even that, which above all things used to “ produce mirth, no longer has that effect."
() v. 7. “ The merry-hearted,” i.e." those " who used to be so."
(e) v.9. “ With a song," i.e. “ there will “ be no cheerfulness or singing even amongst " those who drink wine." (9) v. 1o. “ Confusion," or
(r) v.11. “A crying for," i. e. (perhaps) " a scarcity of," " complaints for want of it.”
(s) 0.13: “ As the shaking of an olive tree, “ and as the gleaning grapes, &c." i.e. probably“ a remnant,” for which these might be proverbial expressions ; such as remains to those who have to shake the olive tree, or glean the grapes. See Jer. xlix. 3. “ If grape
gatherers come to thee, would they not “ leave some gleaning grapes." And Obad. i. 5. the same expression ; and see post, Is. lxv. 8.
(t) v. 14. “ They," i.e. “ the remnant."
(ac) v.16. The first part of this verse probably refers to the reception of the gospel by the Gentiles, the latter, to the rejection of it by the Jews: the former, a subject of exultation, the latter of grief: and then the follow
ing verses intimate the heavy vengeance with would come upon the Jews. (y) v. 16. « My leanness," i.e. probably
, either an exclamation of sorrow, as "alas
, “ alas,” or it may refer to the Jews, Isazhi people, and intimate a great scarcity of tree worshippers from amongst them.
(2) v. 16. “ The treacherous dealers,' i. e. probably, “ the Jews." The expression here used might have some well known application in Isaiah's time. It occurs again, Isaiah xxi. 2. “ A grievous vision is declared unto me: the “ treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the “ spoiler spoileth." The meaning may be that the Jews, who had so often dealt deceitfully with God, would deal much more so, and incur much heavier punishments.
(a) v. 16. « Have dealt,” or “ deal." probably refers to future conduct.
(6) v. 17. “ Fear,” rather “ the terre; a contrivance to frighten beasts into the tal, The same idea and expressions occur,
Jer. xku. 3. “ Fear, and the pit, and the snare, shall be “ upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab : he that • fleeth from the fear shall fall into the pit, “ and he that getteth up out of the pit shall “ be taken in the snare." The resemblance of the words here used for “ fear, the pit, and “ the snare,” is a remarkable instance of what frequently occurs in Isaiah, viz. using together words of nearly the same sound. The words are, “ Pahad, Pahat, and Pah,"