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• Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths : for,out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4. And he shall judge (d) among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat (e) their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks : nation shall
« not lift up sword against nation, neither - shall they learn war any more. “ house of Jacob, come ye (f), and let “ us walk in the light of the LORD. « 6. Therefore (s) thou (b) hast forsaken “ thy people, the house of Jacob, because “ they be replenished from the east (i) and “ are soothsayers (k) like the Philistines, « and they please themselves in the chil“ dren (l) of strangers. 7. Their land also
is full of silver and gold (m) neither is
unto the heathen; and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river (i.e. the Euphrates) even to the ends of the earth. Zech. ix. 10." “ For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive,” (i. e. shall have everlasting life within eir power.) 1 Cor. xv. 22. Mr. Mede exects that there is still to come a second and ore glorious admission of the Gentiles, when ne Jews shall also turn to the true religion. Iede 139, 140, 29th Disc.
Judge,” i. e. (perhaps) “ bring his judgments upon." Vengeance upon his nemies is one of the characteristics of the Iessiah. According to Balaam's prophecy, ne Star and Sceptre he foresaw (i. e. Christ), as to “ smite the corners of Moab, and de
stroy all the children of Sheth,” (i. e. his ponents). Numb, xxiv. 17.
And it was retold of him, Ps. ii. 9. that he should “ rule the heathen with a rod of iron, and break them in pieces like a potter's vessel ;" in s. cx. 6. that he “should judge among the heathen, and fill the places with the dead bodies, and wound the heads over many
countries ;' and Is. xi. 4. post, that he hould “ smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and slay the wicked with the breath of his lips.” And see Ps. xxi. 8. 9. The estruction of Jerusalem, in little less than orty years after the crucifixion, was uestionably one of God's jndgments; and the Fars which have been so long agitating the -orld, and have scarcely now subsided, in which robably more than six millions have perished, may have been instruments in his hands to bring bout his purposes. Happy they, in whom they -ork humble and serious reflection, whom ey lead to righteousness, and the fear of the Lord !!
Beat, &c.” Peace has always een the tendency of Christ's religion.
earth peace, goodwill towards men. Luke ü. 14." In Is. xi. 6 to 9. post, the peaceble character of Christ's kingdom is strongly, elineated ; and in Zechariah's prophecy of Christ and the nature of his kingdom, he says,
" I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim," (i. e. the kingdom of Israel), “ and the horse
from Jerusalem,", (i, e. the kingdom of Judah); " and the battle bow shall be cut off ; " and he ” (i. e. the Messiah) “shall speak
peace unto the heathen. Zech. ix. 10." Passages possibly looking forward to a period very different from
any which has yet occurred, when man shall live in perfect harmony with man, and wars shall cease throughout the world,
(f) v.5. “ Come ye, &c." The position of this verse, after those which foretell the call and coming in of the Gentiles, might be in. tended to imply that the house of Jacob would long resist the true religion, and not walk in the light of the Lord, but that they also in the end would be converted, and join the flock of Christ. There are other passages, however, which more plainly predict this event, and its accomplishment is perhaps at no great distance.
(8) v. 6. “ Therefore,” An induction, not from what had preceded, but from what follows : It is because they are replenished from the east, &c. &c. that thou hast forsaken them. From hence to the end of the chapter is foretold the punishment of the Jews for their idolatrous practices, for their confidence in their own strength, and for their distrust of God's protection. It predicts also the downfall of idolatry.
(b) v. 6. “ Thou,” i.e.“ God.”
(i) v. 6.“ From the east," where divination was practised.
(b) v. 6. “Soothsayers.” This was against the injunction, Deut. xviii. 14.
« These na “ tions, which thou shalt possess, hearkened « unto observers of times, and unto diviners; “ but as for thee, the Lord thy God hath not “ suffered thee so to do.”'
(?) v. 6. “ In the children,” by associating with them, learning their practices, and (perhaps) intermarrying with them.
(m) v. 7. “ Silver and gold." One command, Deut. xvii. 17. to the king they were in after times to have was, “ neither shall he “ greatly multiply to himself silver or gold.'
« there any end of their treasures: their land “ is also full of horses (n), neither is there ti åny end of their chariots. 8. Their land " also is full of idols (0): they worship the “ work of their own hands, that which or their own fingers have made. 9. And " the mean man boweth down (p), and the
great man humbleth(p) himself: therefore « forgive them not (9). 10. Enter (r) into " the rock, and hide thee in the dust, for “ fear of the LORD, and for the glory of “ his majesty. 11. The lofty looks of mau t shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of " men shall be bowed down, and the LORD “ alone shall be exalted in that day (s). « 12. For the day of the Lord of hosts “ fball be upon every one that is proud and " lofty, and upon every one that is lifted “ up, and he shall be brought low; " 13. And upon all the cedars (1) of Le« banon, that are high and lifted up, and upon
all the oaks of Bashan. 14. And i upon all the high mountains, and upon 66 all the hills that are lifted
upon every high tower, and upon ever “ fenced wall, 16. And upon all the ship “ of Tarshish (u), and upon all pleasan “ pictures (u). 17. And the loftiness “ man shall be bowed down, and “ haughtiness of men shall be mad or low; and the LORD alone shall « exalted in that day. 18. And the id “ he shall utterly abolish. 19. And the ~ shall go into the holes (x) of « rocks, and into the caves of the " for fear of the LORD, and for “ glory of his majesty, when he ariseis « shake terribly the earth. 20. In a
day a man shall cast his idols of sibul " and his idols of gold, which they may “ each one for himself to worship
, to “ moles, and to the bats: 21. Togoit " the clefts of the rocks, and into the top “ of the ragged rocks, for fear of the “ LORD, and for the glory of his majesty " when he ariseth to shake terribly 66 earth. 22. Cease ye (y) from 16 whose breath is in his nostrik :);
(n) v. 7. “ Horses." Another command to their king, Deut. xvii. 16. was, “He shall " not multiply horses to himself” to prevent their intercourse with Egypt.
( ) v. 8. “Idols.” Idolatry was an offence against which the Mosaic institutions were particularly strict : If an individual were guilty of it, he was to be stoned to death, and no ties of kindred, friendship, or love, were to induce a man to pity or conceal the offender; and if a city were guilty, the inhabitants and cattle were to be destroyed utterly with the edge of the sword, and the city and the spoil thereof were to be burnt. Þeut. xiii. 6 to 16. So particular was God to keep up amongst his own peculiar people, who had such repeated and decisive proofs of his power, that worship he prescribed, and that reverence for himself he had so full a right to demand.
(p) v. 9. "The mean,” “ the great," i.e. "all ranks," " boweth down,” and “ humbleth “ himself," to worship the idols.
(q) v. 9. Forgive them not,” or rather " thou wilt not forgive them," assigning the reason why God will withhold forgiveness.
(r) . 1o. Enter, &c." A spirited mode of insinuating the greatness of the impending vengeance. So Hos. x. 8. “ They shall say " to the mountains, cover us; and to the ** hills, fall on us;" and see Rev. vi. 16.
(s) v. 11. " That day,” i. e. the “ day of to God's vengeance."
(t) v. 13, 14, 15, 16. Trees in prolet writings signify great men. Mede. Anda dars, oaks, mountains, hills, towers, sh ships, and pictures, are here figurative espai sions for persons of rank and opulence.
(u) v. 16. “ Ships of Tarshish." Pere who have aggrandized themselved by the merce, and pleasant pictures," those have raised themselves by works of art.
(x) v. 19.“ Holes, &c.” The consterna tion and disınay during the sixth seal in Rey lations is described in nearly the same nana Rev. vi. 15 to 17. “ The kings of the eard " and the great men, and the rich men, “ the chief captains, and the mighty “ and every bond inan, and every free mall, “ themselves in the dens, and in the rocks " the mountains, and said to the moure " and rocks, “ fall on us, and hide us from “ face of him that sitteth on the throne
, " from the wrath of the Lamb ; for the 46 day of his wrath is come, and who shall " able to stand."
(y) v. 22. “ Cease ye," i. e. “ place “ pendence on."
(z) V. 22." Whose breath is in his postink) " Who can therefore give no assistance to « compared to God's. When God forme man he breathed into his nostrils the breath might intend to bring to their recollection life. Gen. ii. 7. And by this expression sal origin and creation, and consequent inferior
for wherein (a) is he to be accounted of,"
OW will I sing to my wellbeloved a song of my
beloved touching his vineyard : My well-beloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill. 2. And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein : and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes (c). 3. And now, O. inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt me, and my vineyard." 4. What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it? wherefore when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes (c)? 5. And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard; I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up: and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down. G. And I will lay it waste : it shall not be pruned, nor digged, but there shall come up briers and thorns : I will also command the clouds that they rain 110 rain upon
7. For the vineyard of the LORD of
« hosts is the house of Israel, and the men " of Judah his pleasant plant : and he “ looked for judgment, but behold oppres“ sion; for righteousness, but behold a
cry (d). 8. Wo unto them that join “ house to house (e), that lay field to field, “ till there be no place, that they may be “ placed alone in the midst of the earth. y.
In mine ears said the Lord of hosts, “ Of a truth many houses shall be desolate,
even great and fair, without inhabitant. « 10. Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield
one bath (f ), and the seed of an homer “ shall yield an ephah (f). 11. Wo unto “ them that rise up early in the morning, “ that they may follow strong drink, that « continue until night, till wine inflame “ them. 12. And the harp and the viol, " the tabret and pipe, and wine are in “ their feasts : but they regard not the " work of the LORD, neither consider the “ operation of his hands. “ fore (8) my people are gone into cap“ tivity, because they have no knowledge: o and their honourable men are famished, " and their multitude dried up with thirst. " 14. Therefore hell (b) hath enlarged “ herself, and opened her mouth without “ measure: and their glory, and their “ multitude, and their pomp, and he that “ rejoiceth shall descend into it. 15. And “ the mean man (i) shall be brought down, « and the mighty man (i) shall be humbled,
(d) 0.7.“ A cry," from those who were.
nan. The folly of trusting to man where
reliance ought to be placed upon God is robated, and the same reason assigned to ose man's insufficiency l'salm cxlvi. 2. 3. put not your trust in princes, nor in any hild of man, for there is no help in them : or when the breath of man goeth forth, he hall turn again to his earth, and then all his houghts perish." -) v. 22,“ Wherein, &c.” What assistance he give? What has he on which reliance be placed ? 5) This chapter is unconnected withi what eded or follows. It reproves the Jews for r wickedness, ascribes to that cause calaes which had already befallen them, and ks forward to the Babylonish invasion and laps to more distant judgments. :) v. 2.4. “Wild “grapes," i.e. grapes no value."
(e) v. 3. “ House to house," i. e. « set their “ whole minds upon increasing their posses* sions."
(5) v. 10. “ One bath,” “ one ephah," something less than a bushel. " An homer" was eight bushels; a bath, an ephah, and the Joth of an homer, were the same. Ezek. xlv. 11. The meaning therefore here is, the scarcity. shall be so great, that the harvest shall not produce more than a tenth of what was sown. (8) v. 13•
o Therefore." This is the reason, because they have no knowledge. See ante, note on Is. ii. 16. (b) v. 14: “ Hell
, &c." A bold figurative expression : intimating a destruction so great, that hell (personified) would feel unable to hold the numbers, unless she were enlarged.
(i) v. 15. “ The mean man,” and “ the “ mighty man," i. e.“ all ranks.”
" and the eyes of the lofty shall be hum« bled. 16. But the LORD of hosts shall “ be exalted in judgment, and God that “ is holy shall be sanctified in righteous
17. Then shall the lambs (k) feed « after their manner (1), and the waste “ places of the fat ones (m) shall stran
gers (n) eat. 18. Wo unto them that “ draw iniquity (o) with cords of vanity, « and sin as it were with a cart-rope: “ 19. That say, “ Let him (pj make speed, “ and hasten his work, that we may see “ it: and let the counsel of the holy One 66 of Israel draw nigh and come, that we
may know it," 20. Wo unto them that « call evil good, and good evil; that put “ darkness for light, and light for dark“ ness; that put bitter for sweet, and 6 sweet for bitter. 21. Wo unto them « that are wise (q) in their own eyes, and
prudent in their own sight. 22. Wo
« unto them that are mighty to drink wine, 6 and men of strength to mingle (r) strong 6 drink: 23. Which justify the wicked “ for reward, and take away (s) the righ “ teousness of the righteous from him. 24.
Therefore as the fire devoureth the " stubble, and the flame consumeth the " chaff, so their root shall be as rottenness " and their blossom shall go up as dust
because they have cast away the lawd o the LORD of hosts, and despised “ word of the holy One of Israel “ 25. Therefore is the anger of the Low “ kindled against his people, and he had “ stretched (t) forth his hand against then, 66 and hath smitten them; and the hik “ did tremble, and their carcases cum « torn in the midst of the streets : For “ this his anger is not turned away,
bu « his hand is stretched out still. 26. And “ he will lift up an ensign to the nations
(b) v. 17. “ The lambs," i. e. either literally, or " the meek, the innocent, the unassuming." (1) v. 17.
“ After their manner,” i. e. pro.. bably, “ as they please : securely without in
terruption or restraint.”
(m) v. 17. “ The waste places of the fat “ ones,” i.e. “ the extensive possessions of the “ rich :” where, according to verse 8. “ field “ is laid to field, till there be no place.”
(n) v. 17. " Strangers.” It shews the vanity of enlarging an estate, if strangers are to have it.
(c) v. 18.“ Draw iniquity, &c.” Bold imagery (as I conjecture) in Isaiah's finest stile, to paint the insolent audacity of the wicked : placing Sin and Iniquity (personified) as idols in a triumphal car, drawing them in triumph with decorated cords or traces. hurrying them fearlessly along as if their cords had the strength of cart ropes or cables, and were in no danger of breaking, and then defying the Holy One of Israel in the words of verse 19. “Sin,” here is undoubtedly a substantive: and that their idols were carried about in chariots with great pomp may be inferred from 2 Kings xxiii. 11. ante; for Josiah “ took away the horses the kings of “ Judah had given to the sun,” (one of the chief objects of idolatrous worship) “ and “ burned the chariots of the sun with fire.” See Parkhurst's Heb. Lexicon, 4th ed. 685. An account of the procession of Juggernaut, the great idol of the Hindoos, which Dr. Buchanan wit. nessed in 1806, (and which account was met with
long after the former part of this note wami ten), may enable the reader the better to appetite the explanation here suggested." Thetree “ of the idol was placed on a stupendous met “ tower, about 60 feet in height, resting an “ wheels, which indented the ground depila
, “ as they turned slowly under the ponders “ machine. Attached to it were six cables
, o “ the size and length of ships cables, by which " the people drew it along. Thousands of “ men, women and children, pulled by each “ cable, crowding so closely, that some could
only use one hand. Infants are made 3 “ exert their strength in this office, for it i “ accounted a merit of righteousness to mort “ the god." Buchanan's Researches, 35,
(p) v. 19.“ Him,” rather the very God." in derision, him whom ye so call. The words in Heb. are “ the true Jah," i. e. the real “ existing Being
(9) v. 21. • Wise in their own fuera “ Above being instructed."
.(r) v. 22.“ Mingle, &c.” They used to add spices to their wine, to increase its strength See Ps. lxxi. 9.
(s) v. 23: “ Take away, &c." i.e. by “ treating him as a guilty person."
“ Hath stretched, &c." This may refer to the calamities in the times of Ahaz, when the Lord brought Judah lor
, and delivered Judah and Jerusalem to trouble to astonishment, and to hissing, because of sins of Ahaz. See ante, note on Is. i. 2.
“ sorrow, and the light (6) is darkened in " the heavens thereof."
rom far, and will hiss (u) unto them rom the end of the earth : and behold, hey shall come with speed swiftly. 7. None shall be weary, nor stumble mongst them : none shall slumber nor leep: neither shall the girdle of their pins be loosed (x), nor the latchet of heir shoes be broken. 28. Whose rrows are sharp, and all their bows ent, their horses hoofs shall be counted ike flint (y), and their wheels like a vhirlwind (z). 29. Their roaring shall e like a lion, they shall roar like young ions : yea, they shall roar and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, ind none shall deliver it. 30. And in that lay they (a) shall roar against them (a), ike the roaring of the sea : and if one ook unto the land, behold darkness and
CHAP. VII. Verse 10 to 17. OREOVER (c), the LORD spake again unto
Ahaz (d), saying, “ Ask thee a sign (e) of the LORD • thy God, ask it either in the depth, " or in the height above.” 12. But Ahaz said, “I will not ask, neither will I
tempt (f) the Lord.” 13. And he said, “Hear ye now, O house of David, “ Is it a small thing for you to weary “ men, but will ye weary my (8) God cc also ?
14. Therefore the Lord himself " shall give you a sign, “ Behold, a “ virgin (h) shall conceive, and bear a son, " and shall call his name (i) Immanuel. “.15. Butter and honey (k) shall he eat (1),
u) v. 26. “ Hiss,'' i. e. “ call," to collect m. The same expression occurs, Is. vii. 18. The Lord shall biss for the fly, and for the x) v. 27. “ Be loosed," i. e. " lways be ready for action.” The garments hose times were long and flowing, and when ✓ were to move rapidly, required girding. the description of another irresistible army, Joel ii. 2. &c. post. y) v. 28. “ Like fint.” No road shall be
hard for them, and nothing shall lame m: the horses in those times had no shoes, that a hard hoof was of great importance. Cowth. (2) v. 28. “Like a whirlwind.” Irresistible, it nothing can stop or withstand. (a) v. 30." They," i. e. “ these hostile armics ; " " them," i. e. “ the Jews.” b) v. 30.
“ And the light, &c.” i.e. proly “even in the heavens," (the place for ight) there is nothing but darkness.” The ole verse is figurative, to denote the greats of their distress. c) A prophecy of the miraculous concepl of the Messiah. See ante, 47. d) v. 10. Ahaz,'' king of Judah ; a very ked king.
See ante, note on Isaiah i. 2. e) v. 11. “ A sign.” Ahaz was at this time ler great apprehensions from Rezin king of ria, and Pekah king of Israel: God had t assured him they should not succeed, and e offers him a sign. (f) v. 12. "Tempt," i.e. (probably) “try, rust; appeal to." (8) v. 13. “My," emphatically, to intimate
that they had deserted him, and turned him off ; that they had no longer confidence or hope in him, so that he was no longer their God. And to what an extent they had abandoned God may be seen, ante, note on Isaiah i. 2.
(h) v. 14. “ A virgin, &c." or rather “ The
virgin.” 2 Hales 454. So far from God's meaning to give up the Jews, he shall in his own time break through the course of nature, and cause even a virgin of their nation to conceive, and bear an extraordinary son, who shall be Emanuel, or God with us. This miraculous conception is perhaps implied in the first promise, Gen. iii. 15. that " the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head,” and it is more distinctly referred to, Jer. xxxi. 22. • The Lord hath created a new thing in the “ earth, a woman shall compass a man." And see Mic. v. 3. where after the known prophecy that it should be in Bethlehem Ephratah that the Messiah should come forth, it is added, “ Therefore will he give them up, until the « time that she which travaileth hath brought “ forth.” And see ante, 47. note on Matt. i. 23. 2 Lightf. 101. (i) v. 14.
“ Call his name," i.e. “ be." (k) v.15;
“ Butter and honey,” the undisturbed produce of the land : the produce of peaceful times.
(?) v.15. “ Shall he eat," i. e. (if this applies to the Messiah,) he shall be reared and nourished as children usually are ; that though his birth is miraculous, and his nature godlike, there shall be nothing extraordinary in his progress through childhood : or, if (as many think) the prophecy relative to the Messiah terminates at verse 14: “ butter and honey,''