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and when it had taken root, it thou madest so strong for thyfilled the land.

self. 10 The hills were covered with 16 (0) It is burnt with fire and the shadow of it : and the boughs cut down : and they shall perish thereof were like the goodly cedar- at the rebuke of thy countenance. trees,

17 Let thy hand (k) be upon 11 She stretched out her the man of thy right hand : and branches unto the sea (h) : and upon the son of man, whom thou her boughs unto the river. madest so'strong for thine own self.

12 Why hast thou then broken 18 And so will not we go back down her hedge : that all they from thee :. let us live, and we that go by pluck off her

shall call upon thy Name. 13 The wild boar out of the 19 Turn us again, O Lord wood doth root it up : and the God of hosts : shew the light of wild beasts of the field devour it. thy countenance, and we shall be

14 Turn thee again, thou God whole.
of hosts, look down from heaven:

Psalm lxxxi. (1)
behold, and visit this vine;
15 And the place of the vine- || Sing

Sing ye merrily unto God our yard, that thy right hand hath strength : make a cheerful noise planted : and the branch, that unto the God of Jacob.

grapes ?

v. 16.

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wer (6) “ Sea," i. e. the Mediterranean,

and “ the river,” i.e. the Euphrates. See
Ps. lxxi. 8. It is said of Solomon,
1 Kings iv. 24. that “ he had dominion
“ over all the region on this side the,
“ river," i.e. between the Euphrates and
Jerusalem, which lay nearly upon the

(1) Dr. Kennicott reads consume
“ with fire those who are destroying it,
“ let them perish, &c.;" and Mr. Street,
" Those that burn it with fire and con-

sume it, let them perish," &c. Its

state had been described before. v.17.

(k) " Let thy hand,” &c. This seems capable of two meanings; either, ist, Give thy assistance as before to thy chosen people, the Jews, whom thou hadst distinguished as though thou hadst placed them on thy right hand, and whom thou hadst made so strong, &c.; or, 2dly, Let thy vengeance fall upon those to whom thou hast given strength for no other purpose but to be the instruments of thy wrath. In Ps. xvii. 13, 14. the ungodly are called "

a sword of God's, and « the men of God's hand ;” and see

and thanksgivings to God, reminding them of the deliverance from Egypt, and insinuating that it was nothing but their disobedience which kept them from God's protection and from his choicest blessings. According to Numb. x. 10. "In the " days of their gladness, in their solemn “ days, and in the beginnings of their

months, they were to blow with this trumpets over their burnt-offerings

, and over the sacrifices of their peace-offer“ ings;" but in “ the seventh month, on “ the first day of the month, they “ to have an holy convocation; they

were to do no servile work, it was to " be a day of blowing the trumpets." Numb. xxix. 1.—Levit. xxiii. 23, 24. And this day was accordingly called the Feast of Trumpets. On the tenth day of the same month was the day of atonement, Lev. xxxiii. 27 to 32.— Numb. xxix. 7 to 11. and from the 15th to the 22d, after they had gathered in the fruit of the land, was the feast of tabernacles. Levit. xxiii. 34 to 43.-Numb. xxxix

. 12 to 39. The object of this Psalm might be to fix their minds upon God and the favour he had always shewn them, except in times of disobediente, before the great day of atonement.

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Isaiah x. 5.

(1) An hymn for the Feast of Trumpets, the first day of the seventh month, calling upon the people to join in praises

2 Take the psalm, bring hither “ god be in thee : neither shalt the tabret : the merry harp with “ thou worship any other god. the lute.

11 “ I am the Lord thy God, 3 Blow up the trumpet in the “ who brought thee out of the new moon (m) : even in the time “ land of Egypt : open thy appointed, and upon our solemn 6 mouth wide, and I shall fill it. feast day.

12 “But my people would not 4 For this was made a statute “ hear my voice : and Israel for Israel : and a law of the God 66 would not obey me. of Jacob.

13“ So I gave them up unto 5 This he ordained in Joseph " their own hearts' lusts : and for a testimony : when he came " let them follow their own ima. out of the land of Egypt, and had

“ ginations. heard a strange language.

14 “O that my people would 6“ I (n) eased his shoulder “ have hearkened unto me : for “ from the burden (0) : and his “ if Israel had walked in my " hands were delivered from

ways, " making the pots.


" I should soon have put
“ Thou calledst upon me

“ down their enemies : and turn“ in troubles, and I delivered

my hand against their ad: " thee : and heard thee, what 66 versaries. 66 time as the storm fell upon 16 “ The haters of the Lord 60 thee.

66 should have been found 8 “ I proved thee (P) also : at “ liars (r): but their time should “ the waters of strife.

66 have endured for ever. 9 “ Hear (q), O my people, 17 He (s) should have fed 66 and I will assure thee, O " them also with the finest wheat 6 Israel : if thou wilt hearken “ flour : and with honey out of unto nie,

“ the stony rock should I have 19 “ There shall no strange

66 satisfied thee.”


66 ed

• 3.
(m) “ New moon."

The reading should perhaps be," the beginning of the a month.”


3 Shuckf. Connect. Pref. xx. 0.6. (n)“ 1," &c. From hence to the end

of the Psalm, God himself is supposed

to be the speaker.
v.6. (0) The burden.” According to

Exod. i. 11. the Egyptians set task-
masters over the Israelites, “to afflict
a them with their burdens." And accord.
ing to Exod. v. Pharoah ordered them
" to their burdens," viz. the making of

bricks. v.8.

“ Proved thee,” i.e. (perhaps) gave you a proof of my power and watchfulness over you. When the Israelites murmured for want of water in the wilderness, and Moses smote the rock and produced a supply, he called the place

Meribah, because the Children of Israel
strove with the Lord, and he was sanati-
fied in them. Numb. XX. I to ! 3.
xxvii. 14.-Deut. xxxiii. 8.

(9) « Hear," &c. This (probably) 0.9.
was only calling to their recollection the
assurances he had made their fathers, in
Exodus, (see Exod. xix. 5, 6.-XX. 2,
3, 23.-and xxii. 24 to 26.) And he
reminds them, in verse 12. that it was to
their disobedience that the calamities they
had experienced were to be imputed.

(r) "Liars," i.e. in insinuating that 0,16. he was not the true God. The same expression occurs, Ps. lxvi. 2. “Through " the greatness of thy power shall thine

enemies be found liars unto thee."

() For' " he," the reading should v. 17. probably be " I.”

Lessons for the Sixteenth Day of the Month throughout the Year.

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less : see that such as are in need

and necessity have right. Psalm lxxxii, (t)

4 Deliver the outcast and poor: God standeth in(u) the congrega- save them from the hand of the tion of princes (x) : he is a Judge ungodly. among gods.

5 They will not be learned, 2 How long will ye give wrong nor understand, but walk on still judgement : and accept () the in darkness : all the foundations persons of the ungodly?

of the earth(z) are out of course 3 Defend the


and father- 6 I have said,

66 Ye are

(1) A rebuke to the judges for corrup- bably in Isaiah's time that this Psalm was tion and partiality. In 2 Chron. xix. 6, 7. written. (896 years before the birth of Christ), (u) Standeth in," &c. i.e. as in Jehoshaphat gave this exhortation to the 2 Chron. xix. 6. he is with them in tbe judges : “ Take heed what ye do, for ye || judgment.

judge not for man, but for the Lord, (*) “ Princes,” and “ gods, " i. e, the or who is with you in the judgment : highest earthly tribunals. « wherefore now let the fear of the Lord () “ Accept the persons.” This su “ be upon you: take heed and do it, is a Scripture phrase for “deciding par“ for there is no iniquity with the Lord " tially, out of regard to one of the con

our God, nor respect of persons, nor " tending parties." See Levit. xix. 16.– taking of gifts.” And Isaiah's com- Deut. i. 16, 17.-Job xiii.


8. 10.plaint (about 760 years before our Sa. xxxii, 21.- Luke xx, 21.-Gal. ii. 6.— viour's birth) was this: “Thy princes and James ii. 9.

are rebellious ; every one loveth gifts, Foundations of the earth,” i.e. « and followeth after rewards ; they (probably) the principles of justice, re&ti

judge not the fatherless, neither doth tude, &c. the basis of all “ the cause of the widow come unto It is probably in the same sense that the “ them.” Isaiah i. 23. And it was pro- expression is used, Ps. xi. 3. The founda


gods (a) : and ye are all the may be no more in remem“ Children of the Most Highest;" 66 brance."

7 But ye shall die like men : 5 For they have cast their and fall like one of the princes(6). heads together with one consent :

8 Arise, O God, and judge and are confederate against thee; thou the earth : for thou shalt 6 The tabernacles of the take all heathen to thine inhe. Edomites, and the Ishmaelites : ritance.

the Moabites, and Hagarens ;

7 Gebal, and Ammon, and Psalm lxxxiii. (c)

Amalek : the Philistines, with Hold not thy tongue, O God, them that dwell at Tyre. keep not still silence : refrain not 8 Assur also is joined with thyself, O God.

them : and have holpen the chil. 2 For lo, thine enemies make dren of Lot (f). a murmuring : and they that hate


But do thou to them as unto thee have lift up their head. the Midianites (g) : unto Sise

3 They have imagined craftily ra (b), and unto Jabin, at the against thy people : and taken

brook of Kison; counsel against thy secret(d) ones. 10 Who perished at Endor :

4. They have said, " Come, and became as the dung of the • and let us root them out, that earth. " they be no more a people : 11 Make them and their princes 6 and that the name of Israel (e) like Oreb and Zeb (i) : yea,

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« tions will be cast down ; and what hath
" the righteous done ?"

Gods," i. e. as gods ; supreme in power, &c.

(6) For “princes," the reading should probably be, “poor," “outcasts.” It is saying nothing, (at least nothing in unison with the context,) to say of the princes, that they should fall like one of the princes.

(c) A prayer to God for assistance, at the time of some powerful combination of the heathen nations against Israel or Judah. It is generally supposed to have been written in the time of Jehoshaphat, (about 896 years before the birth of Christ), when the children of Moab, and the children of Ammon, and others, came up against him to battle, and he pro. claimed a fast, and all Judah gathered themselves together to ask help of the Lord. See 2 Chron. xx. It might perhaps belong to an earlier period, before the people were divided into two kingdoms, and passed under the general name of Israel, see verse 4; possibly to David's time, about 1035 years before the birth of Christ, when the children of Ammon sent to hire chariots and horses out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria Maachah,

and out of Zoba ; and they hired 32,000
chariots, &c. See 2 Sam. x. 6. and
i Chron. xix. 6. It is observable, that
the instances referred to in the 9th and
nith verses all occured before David's

(d) " Secret," i.e. chosen ; such as, v.3.
according to Psalm xxvii. 5. he would
“ hide in his tabernacle in the time of
trouble, and in the secret place of his
“ dwelling," &c.

(e) " Israel.” Jehoshaphat was king v. 4. of Judah only. The kingdom of Israel, or of the ten tribes, was in his time under Ahab, and under Ahaziah his son.

(8) “ Children of Lot," i. e. the v. 8. Moabites and Ammonites.

(g “ Midianites." All their males v. 9. and part of their women were slain ; the rest were carried away captive ; their cities were burnt; and their cattle and goods spoiled. This was in the time of Moses, about 1452 years before the birth of Christ. See Numb. xxxi.

(b) “ Sisera," and “ Jabin.” occurrence was about 1316 years before the birth of Christ. See Judges iv.

(1) • Oreb and Zeb,” “Zeba and v. 11. « Salmana.” About 1249 years before

This v. 9.

make all their princes like as 2 My soul hath a desire and Zeba and Salmana;

longing to enter into the courts 12 Who say,

« Let us take of the Lord : my heart and my to ourselves : the houses of flesh rejoice in the living God. " God in possession."

3 Yea, the sparrow hath found 13 O my God, make them her an house, and the swallow like unto a wheel (k) : and as the a nest, where she may lay her stubble before the wind


young : even thy altars, O Lord, 14 (1) Like as the fire that of hosts, my King and my God. burneth up the wood : and as 4 Blessed are they that dwellthe flame that consumeth the in thy house : they will be alway mountains (m).

praising thee.

0 15 Persecute them even so 5 Blessed is the man whose with thy tempest : and make strength is in thee : in whose them afraid with thy storm.

heart are thy ways. 16 Make their faces ashamed, 6 Who going through the vale

PE O Lord : that they may seek of misery, use it for a well (o) che thy Name.

and the pools are (s) filled with 17 Let them be confounded and water. vexed ever more and more : let 7 They will go from strength(9) ia them be put to shame, and perish. to strength : and (r) unto the Godh

18 And they shall know, that of gods appeareth every one of an thou, whose Name is Jehovah : them in Sion. art only the Most Highest over 8 O Lord God of hosts, hear all the earth.

my prayer : hearken, O God of

Psalm Ixxxiv. (n)

9 Behold, O God our de O

HOW amiable are thy dwell- fender : and look upon the face ings : thou Lord of hosts !

of thine Anointed.

v. 13

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the birth of Christ. See Judges vii. (0) “ Use it for a well,” &c. i. e. pero 24; 25. and viïi. 4 to 21.

haps, “ turn to good account even

the (k) For “ a wheel” read “ chaff." “ hardships with which they meet;" OF See Ísaiah xvii. 13.

it may be, “ go through the vale of (1) The Bible translation omits “ that “ misery," (remarkable for drought), and “ that ;" and then the meaning “ with as much spirit as if it abounded is this : “ Destroy them with thy tein- “ with wells, and was filled with pools pest and storm as effe&tually as fire

" of water." “ destroyeth wood, and flame desolateth () “And the pools are,” i.e. and of the mountains."

as if the pools were. (m) “ The mountains," i.e. the dry (9) “Go from strength," &c. i. c. wood or grass upon them.

constantly gain fresh strength and vigour; (n) Upon the blessings of attending' || advancing from one degree to another: Of the temple. It is supposed to have been it may mean from one fastness or resting written when David, or some other per- place to another. son, was prevented attending the temple (r) “And,” &c. i.e. perhaps, until

. worship ; or it might have been written The meaning of the 6th and 7th verses to be used by the people at the stated probably is: “Who go through the vale times of their going up to Jerusalem to “ of misery as though it abounded with worship, to animate them on the way, “ wells, and were filled with pools of See the note on the 122d Psalm.

“ water : they gain strength as they ada

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