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round about her : and tell the 6 There be some that put their towers (6) thereof.

trust in their goods : and boast 12 Mark well her bulwarks, themselves in the multitude of set up (c) her houses : that yé their riches. may tell them that come after. 7 But (b) no man may deliver

13 For this God is our God his brother : nor make agreefor ever and ever : he shall be ment unto God for him ; our guide unto (d) death.

8 For it cost more to redeem

their souls : so that he must let Psalm xlix. (e).

that alone for ever ; O hear ye this, all ye people : 9 Yea, though he live long : ponder it with your ears, all ye

and see not the grave. that dwell in the world ;

10 For (i) he seeth (k) that 2 High and low, rich and wise men also die, and perish topoor : one with another.

gether : as well as the ignorant 3 My mouth shall speak of and foolish, and leave their riches wisdom: and my heart shall for other. muse of understanding.

11 And yet they think (1) that 4 I will incline mine ear to the their houses shall continue for parable (f): and shew my dark ever : and that their dwellingspeech upon the harp.

places shall endure from one ge5

Wherefore should I fear in neration to another, and call the the days of wickedness (8) : and

lands after their own names. when the wickedness of my heels 12 Nevertheless (m), man will compasseth me round about?

not abide in honour : seeing he

(6) “ Tell the towers,” and “ mark “ well her bulwarks," i.e. probably to see that they have sustained no injury from the enemy.

(c) for “ set up" read “ examine.'' (d) Unto,” i.e. “ until.”'

e) On the inefficacy of riches to protect from death or to confer any hope or benefit afterwards; and on the difference after death between the good and bad. (5) For “the parable" read “

a pa« rable.” i. (3) For “ of wickedness” read “ of

“ sickness," and for “ the wickedness “ of my heels,” read “ the evil of old


proposes as the point to be considered, " what is the ground of

“ fear at the approach of death.” 7. (b) “ But,” &c. The meaning per

haps may be this, riches can produce no deliverance; for even goodness, which is of higher concern, will not enable a man, even in the longest life, to save his brother. The notion that one man's goodness may be a preservation to his rela

tives occurs Ezek. xiv. 14. 16. 20. and
1 John v. 16. In Ezekiel God declares,
that when he sends his visitations on a
land, “though Noah, Daniel, and Job

were in it, as I live, saith the Lord,
“ they shall deliver neither son nor daugh-

ter, they shall but deliver their own “ souls by their righteousness." And in John the passage is, “ If any man see « his brother sin a sin which is not unto “ death, he shall ask” (i.e. of the Son of God) “ and he shall give him life for " them that sin not unto death."

(i) For," &c. So that if a wise v. 10. man cannot deliver himself from death, how can it be expected he should deliver his brother?

(k) “ He seeth," i.e. all men see, it is v. 10. evident.

(1) They think,” i.e. many think.

(m) The reading should perhaps be, v. 12. “ Nevertheless, man, though he be in “ honour, yet if he have not understand. “ing, is like the beasts that perish." In the Septuagint it is verbatim the same as the 20th verse. The object may be to shew,



may be compared unto the beasts 18 For (9) while he lived, that perish; this is the way of counted himself an happy man them.

and so long as thou doest we 13 This is their foolishness : unto thyself, men will speak goo and their posterity praise their of thee. saying.

19 He shall follow the gen 14 They lie in the hell like ration of his fathers : and sha sheep (n), death gnaweth upon never see light. them, and the righteous shall 20 Man (r) being in honou have domination () over them in hath no understanding : but the morning : their beauty shall compared unto the beasts th consume in the sepulchre out of perish. their dwelling.

15 But() God hath delivered my soul from the place of hell : for he shall receive me.

MORNING PRAYER. 16 Be not thou afraid, though one be made rich : or if the

Psalm 1. (s) glory of his house be increased The Lord, even the most mig

17 For he shall carry nothing ty God, hath spoken : and calle away with him, when he dieth : the world, from the rising (1) 4 neither shall his pomp follow of the sun unto the going dow him.



that at the hour of death riches or ho- (9) For “ for" read “ though," and nour are of no avail ; the only thing of begin verse 19. with “Yet.” The mean any service is righteousness, the having ing probably is, “ Though he counted had what the Scripture calls “ Under- “ himself happy during his life, and “ standing."

“though procuring cartbly good will (n)“ Like sheep,” &c. A distinc- procure a man earthly praise,

' set her tion is probably intended to be drawn “ his happiness and the advantage of between the good and bad, the former “ earthly good stops : he cannot see being delivered by God, and received by “ himself from death, nor can be expet him (verse 15.), and the latter left to “ afterwards to see light.". perish as beasts.

(r) The Bible translation is, " Mar v.14.

(0) “ Domination over them in the " that is in honour, and understandeth “ morning," i.e. perhaps, the advantage “ not” (that is, has not true wisdom over them of being raised and received by “ is like the beasts that perish,” : 4 God (as in verse 15.); there will be a (probably)“ perishes as the beasts, with morning to their night.


further hope.” This was the v. 15. (P) The Bible translation is, “ But

proposition advanced in the 12th verse “ God will redeem my soul from the and it is repeated, as being proved. power of the grave, for he shall re

(s) Upon the insufficiency of sacrifice “ ceive me,” which seems preferable.

alone, and the necessity of abstaining The meaning probably is, “ Though I from sin, and practising true righteous “ die, I have a hope after death, that

To give the Psalm the greater " God will raise and receive me." He

importance, God is himself introduced. probably alludes to the same hope, Ps. xvii. 16. “ As for me, I will" (or

(7) « From the rising,"'&c. i.e. from shall) “ behold thy presence in righte

east to west, from one end of the earth

to the other. So Mal. i. 11.—Isaiah lis. ousness, and when I awake up after

19. and Ps, cxiii. 3. This is one instance, “ thy likeness, I shall be satisfied with among many, of the figurative language




of the eastern poetry.


2 Out (u) of Sion hath God causeofthy sacrifices, or for thy ppeared : in perfect beauty. ““ burnt-offerings ; because they

3 Our God shall come, and “ were not alway before me (z). aall not keep silence (x) : there 9

" I will take no bullock out hall go before him a consuming

“ of thine house : nor he-goat re, and a mighty tempest shall “ out of thy folds. e stirred up round about him. 10 “ For all the beasts of the

4 He shall call the heaven " forest are mine : and so are the rom above : and the earth, that “ cattle upon a thousand hills. le may judge his people.

11 “I know all the fowls upon 5 Ġather my saints (y) to. 6 the mountains : and the wild gether unto me : those that

“ beasts of the fieldare in my sight. have made a covenant with me I? “ If I be hungry I will not k with sacrifice."

" tell thee: for the whole world is 6 And the heavens shall de- “ mine, and all that is therein. clare his righteousness : for God 13 “ Thinkest thou (a) that I is judge himself.

66 will eat bull's flesh : and drink 7 “ Hear, O my people, and I

- the blood of goats ? “ will speak : I myself will testify 14 “ Offer (6) unto God “ against thee, O Israel ; for Í thanksgiving and pay thy “ am God, even thy God.

vows unto the most Highest ; 8 “ I will not reprove thee, be- 15 “ And call upon me in the

(u) Read (as it is in B.T.) « Out of “ Sion the perfe&tion of beauty, hath God “ appeared.” God's appearing“ in “ beauty” falls greatly below the majesty of the succeeding verse, and “the * perfection of beauty" was one of the names or characters of Sion. In Ps. xlviii. 2. “ The hill of Sion is described as a fair place, the joy of the whole earth;' and in Lament. ii. 15. Jeremiah says,

They hiss and wag their heads at the “ daughter of Jerusalem, saying, Is this " the city which men call the perfection

of beauty, the joy of the whole earth?" (*) For, “ keep silence” read “ delay."

(y) “ My saints." There are evi. dently two addresses, one to those who have the appellation given them of “my “ saints," from verse 7. to the end of verse 15.; and the other to those who are stiled “ the ungodly,” from verse 16. The former may apply to those who are well disposed, and entertain a proper reverence for God, and mean to do their duty, but lay too great a stress upon ceremonial performances, and too little upon internal devotion, the religion of the heart ; and the latter to those who, though they profess the true religion, are

perfect reprobates in their conduct, and
practise all kinds of iniquity.

(z) “ Alway before me,” i.e. regu- v. 8.
larly offered : a defect in this respe&
shall not be the ground of my reproof.

(a) “ Thinkest thou," &c. The in- v.13. efficacy of sacrifice alone is well pointed out, Isaiah i. 11 to 16. “ To what pur.

pose is the multitude of your sacrifices “ unto me saith the Lord: I am full of “ the burnt offerings of rams, and the “ fat of fed beasts: and I delight not « in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats : wash you,


“ clean ; put away the evil of your do.
“ ings from before mine eyes : cease to
“ do evil, learn to do well : seek judge
“ ment, relieve the oppressed, judge the
“ fatherless, plead for the widow. And
upon another occasion the question is
put, “ Hath the Lord as great delight
“ in burnt-offerings and sacrifices, as in
“ obeying the voice of the Lord? Be-
“ hold to obey is better than sacri-
“ fice, and to hearken, than the fat of
« lambs." i Sam. xv. 22.

(6) “ Offer," &c. So Psiv. 5. v. 14.
« Offer the sacrifice of righteousness ;'
and see Ps. li. 16, 17,



6 deliver you.

e time of trouble : so (c) will I as thyself : but I will reprov “ hear thee, and thou shalt praise " thee, and set before thee thi

" things that thou hast done.” 16 But unto the ungodly said co o consider this, ye thi God : “Why dost thou preach “ forget God : lest I pluck yo

my laws, and takest my cove- away, and there be none
nant in thy mouth;
17 “ Whereas thou hatest to 23

Whoso offereth m 66 be reformed : and hast cast “ thanks (g) and praise, he he “ my words (d) behind thee? ( noureth me : and to him, th 18

66 When thou sawest a " ordereth his conversation righ " thief, thou consentedst unto

“ will I shew the salvation « him : and hast been parta

“ God (b).
“ ker (e) with the adulterers.
19 “ Thou hast let thy mouth

Psalm li. (i)
speak wickedness : and with thy Have mercy upon me, O God
“ tongue thou hast set forth deceit. after thy great goodness : ad

20 “ Thou satest, and spakest cording to the multitude of th “ against thy brother : yea, and mercies do away mine offences. " hast slandered thine own mo- 2 Wash me throughly frod " ther's son.

my wickedness : and cleanse m 21 “ These things hast thou from


sin, " done, and I held my tongue; 3 For I acknowledge my faults « and thou thoughtest (f) wick- and


sin is ever before me. edly, that I am even such a one 4 Against (k) thee only have

way to

i. e.

V. 18.

0.15 (c) “ So," &c. i.e. this is the

make me hear. V. 17. (d) Words,

command. 16 ments."

(e) “ Partaker," i.e. “ associate,” giving them countenance, making common cause with them : the same as in Prov. i.

14. “casting in thy lot among them."
V. 21. (f) “ Thoughtest,”' &c. God's for-

bearance, in not punishing as soon as a
sin is committed, may have a tendency to
make sinners think less of the con-
sequences of their sins and persist in
eviỉ: “ Because sentence against an evil
“ work is not executed speedily, there-

fore the heart of the sons of men is
“ fully set in them to do evil.” Eccl. viii.

And it is chiefly “ when God's judgments are in the earth, that the “ inhabitants of the world will learn “ righteousness.” Isaiah xxvi. 9. But

may learn from the parable of the Tares (Mart. xiii. 29.) that God thinks right to leave man to the workings of his own conscience, and not too strikingly to interfere with his free will. God's

forbearance and long-suffering is intended to lead sinners to repentance, but to those who despise it, it will bring wrath in the day of wrath. Rom. ii. 4, 5

(8) “Thanks and praise." Perluape in opposition to sacrifice and ceremonies of form; to imply that the former, when sincere, was more acceptable and efica cious than the latter.

(b) · The salvation of God," i.e. (probably) what transcendant preserva. tion he can afford.

(i) This Psalm is supposed to have been written by David, after Nathan the prophet had reproached him for his sins with regard to Bathsheba and Uriah. See 2 Sam. xii.

He probably intended it as a public acknowledgment of his crimes, as a proof of the bitter anguish they had occasioned him, and as a memorial of the earnestness with which he had importuned God for forgiveness.

(6) For “ against” the reading should perhaps be “before," and the meaning may be, “ It was before thee only

, in ihy sight only that I committed these




sinned, and done this evil in thy | thy help again : and stablish me
sight : that thou mightest be jus- with thy free Spirit.
tified in thy saying, and clear 13 Then (r) shall I teach thy
when thou art judged.

ways unto the wicked : and sin5 Behold, I was shapen in ners shall be converted unto thee. wickedness : and in sin hath my

Deliver me from blood. mother conceived me.

guiltiness (s), O God, thou that 6 But lo, thou requirest truth art the God of my health : and in the inward parts(1): and shalt my tongue shall sing of thy make (m) me to understand wis- righteousness. dom secretly,

15 Thou shalt open my lips, 7 Thou shalt purge me with O Lord : and my mouth shall hyssop (n), and I shall be clean :

shew thy praise. thou shalt wash me, and I shall 16 For thou desirestno sacrifice, be whiter than snow.

else would I give it thee: but thou 8 Thou shalt make me hear delightest not in burnt-offerings. of joy and gladness : that the 17 The sacrifice(t) of God is bones (O), which thou hast bro- a troubled spirit : a broken and ken, may rejoice.

contrite heart, O God, shalt thou 9 Turn thy face from my sins : not despise. and put out all my misdeeds.

18 O be favourable and gra10 Make me a clean heart (P), cious unto Sion (u) : build thou O God : and renew (9) a right the walls of Jerusalem. spirit within me.

19 Then shalt thou be pleased(x) 11 Cast me not away

from thy

with the sacrifice of righteousness, presence : and take not thy Holy with the burnt-offerings and obSpirit from me.

lations : then shall they offer 12 O give me the comfort of young bullocks upon thine altar.

misery may be ended, that I may again
be able to enjoy delights.

6) “Clean heart," i. e. right within; v. to.
not externally only.

“ Renew." See ante 161. note on v. 10.

John iii. 3:

“ sins,” (for according to 2 Sam. xii. 12. God says of them to David, “ Thou didst “it secretly")" so that thou art right " in imputing them to me, and just in

u condemning me." v. 6. (1) “ Inward parts.” It is truly re

marked of our religion, that it puts the restraint where it ought to be, not upon the actions only, but upon the thoughts. If wicked thoughts are indulged, how much must the difficulty of abstaining

from wicked actions be increased ? v. 6. (m) “ Shalt make," &c. Query, if

the meaning be not,'s expectest wisdom” (i. e. righteousness) “ in our secret “ thoughts ?"

(n) « With hyssop.” According to Numb. xix. 18. where persons were defiled, hyssop was to be dipped in water, and they were to be sprinkled with it, to

purify them, and make them clean. 0.8.

(6) “ The bones," &c. This is a figurative expression: the meaning is, that my

(r) " Then,” &c. i. e. then shall I v. 13, have additional grounds for teaching sinners : what is exemplified in me may infuence them; and the comforts I receive from repentance, will induce other sinners to repent also.

(s) “ Blood-guiltiness," i, e. bringing v. 14. about Uriah's death.

(1) “ The sacrifice,” &c. See Ps. 1. v. 17. 13, 14. ante 303. and note there.

(u) “ Unto Sion,” &c. that his v.18. country might not suffer for his sins.

Be pleased,” &c. i. e. there v. 19. shall be the sacrifice of the heart, and a great number of other offerings, to express our gratitude, &c.

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