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men that followed him from Ga

O MERCIFUL God, who hasi lilee, stood afar off, beholding made all men, and hatest nothing these things.

that thou hast made, nor wouldest the death of a sinner, but rather

that he should be converted, and GOOD FRIDAY.

live; Have mercy upon all Jews,

Turks, Infidels, and Hereticks; The Collects.

and take from them all ignorance ALMIGHTY God, we beseech hardness of heart, and contempt thee graciously to behold this thy of thy Word ; and so fetch them family, for which our Lord Jesus home, blessed Lord, to thy flock, Christ was contented to be be- that they may be saved among trayed, and given up into the the remnant of the true Israelites, hands of wicked men, and to suf

and be made one fold under one fer death upon the cross; who shepherd, Jesus Christ our Lord, now liveth and reigneth with thee who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one

and the Holy Spirit, one God, God, world without end. Amen. world without end. Amen.

Almighty and everlasting God,

The Epistle. Heb. x. 1. (*) by whose Spirit the whole body The (y) law, having a (z) shaof the Church is governed and dow of good things to come and sanctified; Receive our supplica- not the very image of the things, tions and prayers which we offer can never with those sacrifices before thee for all estates of men which they offered year by year in thy holy Church, that every continually make the comers member of the same, in his voca- thereunto perfect.

For then tion and ministry, may truly and would they not have ceased to godly serve thee, through our be offered ? because that the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. worshippers once purged should Amen.

have had no more conscience of

0. I.

(x) Conclusion of the contrast between the atonement by Christ and that under the Mosaic dispensation (see ante p. 89 and 107.) with a warm exhortation to hold fast and avow the Christian profession without wavering

(y) “ The law,” i.e. the Mosaic dispensation : what is prescribed in Exodus and Leviticus.

(z) “ A shadow,” i. e. a very indistinet and imperfect resemblance : by no means such a resemblance as an image would give of the thing it represents, but rather such a one only as the shadow of a thing exhibits. In Gal. iii. 24. the law is called " a schoolmaster to bring them “ unto Christ ;” and there were many things in the law which would tend to

make them the more easily comprehend such a redemption as that by Jesus Christ. If he, by his one oblation of himself once offered," made a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, it would be the less difficult to them to understand it, because, under the Mosaic law, they were constantly making atonement and satisfaction for sins by sacrifices and ob. lations, and if he was to bear the sins of many, so that those sins should not be brought into account against them; they would remember that under the Levitical law all the sins of the people

were put upon the head of the scape goat, and he was considered as bearing them away. Levit. xvi. 21, 22.


3. sins. But in those sacrifices there “ in;" which are offered by the

is a remembrance again made of law(8); Then said he, “Lo, I 9. 4. sins every year.

For it is not “ come to do thy will, O God.” possible(a) that the blood of bulls He taketh away the (b) first, that

and of goats should take away he may establish the (i) second.
5. sins. Wherefore, when (6) he By the (k) which will we are sancti- 10.

cometh into the world, he (c) saith, fied, through the offering of the
“ Sacrifice (d) and offering thou body of Jesus Christ (1) once for

" wouldest not, but a (e) body all. And every priest standeth 11. 6. “ hast thou () prepared me: In daily ministering, and offering

“ burnt-offerings and sacrifices oftentimes the same sacrifices,

“ for sins thou hast had no plea- | which can (m) never take away 7. “ sure: Then said I, Lo, I come sins : But this man, after he had 12.

“ (in the volume of the book it is offered one sacrifice for sins, for

“ written of me) to do thy will, ever sat down on the right hand
8.“ O God.” Above, when he of God; from henceforth (n) ex. 13.

said, “ Sacrifice and offering and pecting till his enemies be made
“ burnt-offerings, and offering his footstool. For by one offer- 14.
“ for sin thou wouldest not, | ing he hath perfected () for ever
“ neither hadst pleasure there.

them that are sanctified. Where- 15.

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(a) “ Not possible," i. e. (probably) not absolutely impossible, if God chose to accept such an atonement; but so highly improbable as to be almost an impossibility, not having any such tendency in the reason of the thing, but only by God's appointment.

(6)“ When he cometh,"i.e. probably with a view to his, our Saviour's, coming,

looking forward to that event.”

(c) “ He saith," i. e. it is said pro. phetically in his person.

(d) “ Sacrifice,” &c. This is from

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. .

Ps. xl. 8, 9.


(e) “ A body," &c. The passage in Ps. xl. 8. is, “ mine ears hast thou opens ed,” alluding to the practice of a master's boring his bondman's ear through with an awl, when the bondman declined his freedom, and preferred perpetual bondage with his master. See Exod. xxi. I to 6. and Deutr. xv, 12 to 17. and ante 104. note on Is. l. 5.; and implying, therefore, that the Messiah had in like manner dedicated himself forever to God's service. This reading, however,“ a body," &c. is in the Septuagint, and it requires nothing to warrant it but the variation of a small part of three Hebrew letters.

(8)A body hast thou prepared “ me," i. e. probably, “ I am to take “ upon myself the human nature.

(8) “ The law," i. e. the Mosaic dis- 0. 8.

(b) “ The first,” i.e. “ the sacrifice,
" and offerings, and burnt-offerings,
“ which are offered by the law.”

(i) “ The second," i. e. “ his coming v.9.
to do God's will."

(k) By the which will," i. e. by the v. 10.
performance of which will by Jesus

(1) “ Once for all," not yearly, as was v. 10.
the case with the high priest's offering
at the feast of expiation, on the tenth day
of the seventh month (see Levit. xvi. 29
to 34.) nor daily, as the ordinary priests
offered, but once only.

(m) “ Can never take away." (See v. 11.
the note on v. 4.)

(n)“ Expecting," &c. This prob- 9. 13.
ably refers to the beginning of the pro-
phetic Psalm cx. “ The Lord said unto

my Lord, sit thou on my right hand,
“ until I make thine enemies thy foot-
“ stool;" and the writer might mean to
call their attention to that Psalm, to inti-
mate the certainty of Christ's success
against his adversaries, and the heavy
vengeance that would be executed upon

() “ Perfected for ever,” so that v. 14.
no further sacrifice is necessary for


of(p) the Holy Ghost also is a wit- the blood of Jesus, by a new and

ness (9) to us: For after that he living (t) way which he hath con16. had said before, (“ This(r) is the secrated for us, through (u) the covenant that I will make with

veil, that is to say, his flesh; and " them after those days, saith the having an high priest over the " Lord; I will put my laws into house (x) of God; let us draw

" their hearts, and in their minds near with a true heart, in full as17. " will I write them ;') “ and surance of faith, having our hearts

6 their sins and iniquities will I sprinkled (y) from an evil con18. « remember no more.Now science, and our bodies washed

where remission of these is, there with pure water. Let us hold 19. is no more offering for sin. Hav- fast the profession of our faith

ing therefore, brethren, boldness without wavering ; (for he is to enter into the (s) holiest by faithful (2) that promised ;) and

24, 26.

v. 16.

v. 15.

(0) "Whereof," i. e. of their being perfected for ever. The argument is this : the inspired passage in Jeremiah proves that they are perfected for ever, for it says, “their sins and iniquities will “ I remember no more," and where remission of sins is, there is no occasion for

any further offering for sin. v. 15.

(9) “ The Holy Ghost," i.e. the Holy Spirit which dictated to Jeremiah the following passage, which is Jer.xxxi. 33•

(r) This verse should be read in a parenthesis, and at the end should be added, are these words.” It is evidently for the sake of the seventeenth verse only that the passage in Jer. xxxi.

is referred to. v. 19.

(s)“The holiest,” or “ holy of holies,” was a type of Heaven, the place where the ark was kept, and was separated from the holy place by a veil of blue,' and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen; see Exod. xxvi. 31 to 33. No one ever went beyond this veil, i.e. into the holy of holies, but the high priest, and lie only once a year, and that not without blood; see Hebr.ix. 7. This was the veil which, upon our Saviour's crucifixion was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, Matt. xxvii

. 51.; as if Heaven, which had been so long closed against mankind, should thenceforth, and in consequence of his death and passion be open to all

(t) " Living," i.e. “having life in it : “ leading to and giving life.”

(u) “ Through the veil," &c. As the way into the holy of holies was through the veil, so the way now into Heaven is

through the flesh of Christ, which in this respect answers to the veil of the temple.

“ The house of God," i.e. probably “all Christians," not over the Israelites only, as was the case with the Mosaic high priest.

()“ Sprinkled" and “ washed;" al. luding to the sprinklings and washings re. quired by the Mosaic law on the day of expiation. See Levit. xvi. 14, 15, 19,

“ That promised." This probably alludes to our Saviour's assurance in his famous prophecy as to the destruction of Jerusalem. Our Saviour had foretold that before that great erent “ many should be offended,” (that is, should fall off from professing his religion) “ that because iniquity should « abound,” (or have the upper hand) “ the love of many should wax cold, but " that he that should endure to the end 6 should be saved,” Matt. xxiv. 10. 12, 13.; and does not this passage in the Hebrews, from v. 23 to 25. afford strong internal evidence that it was written with a full knowledge of that prophecy, and to persons also who were well acquainted with it, that it was written whilst those circumstances our Saviour foresaw were occurring, viz.when iniquity was abounding or prevailing, and the love of many waxing cold, and when therefore the strongest exhortations to patience and perseverance were peculiarly proper, and that it was written before the destru&ion of Jerusalem (which is so often noticed as the day or coming of the Lord. ante 25. note on Rom. xiii. 12.) but whilst that great event was looked for as near


V. 20.


9. 20.

let us consider one another, to

provoke unto love and to good Pilate saith unto them, “ Take 25. works: not forsaking the assem- ye him and crucify him; for I

bling of ourselves together, as “ find no fault in him.” The 7.
the manner of some is; but ex- Jews answered him, “ We have
horting one another; and so “ a (d) law, and by our law he
much the more
as ye see the

“ ought to die, because he made day (a) approaching.

“ himself the Son of God.”

When Pilate therefore heard that 8. The Gospel. John xix. 1.

saying, he was the more afraid; Pilate therefore took Jesus, and and went again into the judge- 9. 2. scourged (6) him. And the sol- ment-hall, and saith unto Jesus,

diers platted a (c)crown of thorns, " Whence art thou ?” But Jeand put it on his head, and they

sus gave

him no answer. Then 10. put on him a purple robe, and saith Pilate unto him, " Speakest 3. said, “ Hail, King of the Jews!” " thou not unto me ? knowest And they smote him with their " thou not that I have power to

Pilate therefore went crucify thee, and have power forth again, and saith unto them, to release thee?" Jesus an- II.

Behold, I bring him forth to swered, “ Thou couldest have no
ye may know that I

power at all against me, except 5. 66 find no fault in him.” Then

“ it were given thee from above: came Jesus forth, wearing the

" therefore he that delivered me crown of thorns, and the purple “ unto thee hath the greater

robe. And Pilate saith unto them, - sin.” And from thenceforth 12. 6. “ Behold the man!” When the Pilațe sought to release him: but

chief priests therefore and officers the Jews cried out, saying, “ If saw him, they cried out, saying, 6 thou let this man go, thou art

4. hands.

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approaching? The epistle to the He-
brews is supposed to have been written
A.D. 63. about seven years

before Jeru.
salem was destroyed.
0. 25.

(a) “ The day," i.e. the destruction of Jerusalem. See ante 25. note on

Rom. xii. II. v. I. (b) “ Scourged.” The prophecy al.

ready referred to, Isaiah 1. 6. intimated plainly, that the Messiah was to undergo the greatest indignities : “I gave my “ back to the smiters, and my cheeks to “ them that plucked off the hair : I hid “ not my face from shame and spitting.” See ante 104. And this also fulfilled part of what was foretold in the prophetic chapter, Isaiah liii. 3. “ He is despised " and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, " and acquainted with grief: and we " hid as it were our faces from him : he

was despised, and we esteemed him

“ not." 0.2. (c) “A crown of thorns,” “ a pure

“ ple robe," in derision, treating him as a mock king:

(d) “ A law.” They probably al- v. 7. luded to Lev. xxiv, 16. - He that blas

phemeth the name of the Lord, he shall “ surely be put to death, and the con

gregation shall certainly stone him.” According to John X. 31. 33, the Jews took up stones to stone our Saviour, because he said that he and his Father (viz. God) were one: and they told him that they stoned him for blasphemy, and “ because that thou, being a man, makest “ thyself God.” And when he asserted to them, Matt. xxvi. 64. and Mark xiv. 62. that he was the Son of God, the observation of the high priest upon it was, “ Ye have heard the blasphemy.“ And " they” (the Jewish council)“ all con. “ demned him to be guilty of death,” treating the assertion, that he was the Son of God, as constituting the crime of blasphemy.

“6 not Cesar's friend : whosoever and
“ a

said the chief priests of the Jews 13 against Cesar.”

When Pilate to Pilate, “ Write not, The King therefore heard that saying, he “ of the Jews ; but that he said, brought Jesus forth, and sat down ““I am King of the Jews.” in the judgement-seat, in a place Pilate answered, “What I have that is called “ the Pavement,' " written, I have written." Then

but in the Hebrew, “Gabbatha." the soldiers, when they had cru. 14. And it was the (e) preparation of cified Jesus, took his garments,

the passover, and about the sixth and made four parts, to every sol.

hour: and he saith unto the Jews, dier a part; and also his coat: 15.

“ Behold your king!” But they now the coat was without seam, cried out, “Away with him, away woven from the top through. " with him ; crucify him !” Pi- out: They said therefore among late saith unto them, “Shall I themselves, “ Let us not rend it

, crucify your King ?” The chief " but cast lots for it, whose it

priests answered, " We have no - shall be:” that (f ) the Scrip16. « king but Cesar.” Then de- ture might be fulfilled, which

livered he him therefore unto them saith, “ They parted my raiment

to be crucified. And they took among them, and for my ves17. Jesus, and led him away. And ture they did cast lots." These

he, bearing his cross, went forth things therefore the soldiers did. into a place, called “ The place of Now there stood by the cross of

" a scull,” which is called in the Jesus his mother, and his mother's 18. Hebrew, “ Golgotha ;" where sister, Mary the wife of Cleopas,

they crucified him, and two others and Mary Magdalene. When

with him, on either side one, and Jesus therefore saw his mother, 19. Jesus in the midst. And Pilate and the (g) disciple standing by wrote a title, and put

it on the whom he loved, he saith unto And the writing was, his mother, “ Woman, behold 2 JESUS OF NAZARETH THE thy son!” Then saith he 20. KING OF THE JEWS. This to the disciple,

« Behold thy title then read many of the Jews :

56 mother !” And from that for the place where Jesus was hour that disciple took her unto crucified was nigh to the city: || his own home.

his own home. After this, Jesus 1 and it was written in Hebrew, knowing that all things were now


v. 14.


(e) “ The preparation.” This was, therefore, before the time for eating the passover: and according to John xviii. 28. they (i. e. the Jews) went “not into the

judgment hall, lest they should be de. “ filed, but that they might eat the “ passover.”

(f) “ That the Scripture," &c. Not that they had any intention that it should, or had any thought of it: but this is strong instance of stating as the object what was merely a consequence. See note

on Matt. ii. 15. ante 44.

The is in Ps. xxii. 17, 18. “They pierced my “ hands and my feet: I may tell all my “ bones: they stand staring and looking

upon me: they part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my

vesture." Was this true of our Saviour? We have the testimony of witnesses who were present that it was. Is it true of any other person?

(8) “ The disciple whom he loved,” v i. e. St. John the Evangelist.


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