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must also of necessity be the death are by the law purged with blood 17. of the testator. For a testament and without shedding of blood i

is of force after men are dead : no remission. It was therefor

otherwise it is of no strength at all necessary that the patterns (y)o 18. while the testator liveth. Where- things in the heavens should b

upon neither the first testament purified with (z.) these ; but the was dedicated without blood.

heavenly (a) things themselve 19. For when (x) Moses had spoken with better sacrifices than these

every precept to all the people For Christ is not entered into the according to the law, he took the holy places made (6) with hands blood of calves and of goats, with which are the figures of the true water, and scarlet wool, and hys- but into heaven itself, now to ap sop, and sprinkled both the book

pear in the presence of God for 20. and all the people, saying, “ This us: Nor yet that he should offer

66 is the blood of the testament himself often, as the high priest en. is which God hath enjoined unto tereth (c) into the holy place every

you.” Moreover, he sprinkled year with blood of others; (for likewise with blood both the ta. then must he often have suffered

bernacle and all the vessels of the since the foundation of the world:) 22. ministry. And almost all things but now once, in the end of the

21.

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v. 19.

men are dead," is in the original

671 vixgors ;” and it, with a dative case after it, may signify " on account of; so that the translation will be, “ on account “ of the deaths, or the dead bodies.” In Ps. 1. 5. mention is made of those who had made a covenant with God, “ with 6 sacrifice," ni Jupiliç.

(x) " When Moses,” &c. After Moses had received from God the ten command. ments, and divers other laws, he “ told “ the people all the words of the Lord, “ and all the judgments: and all the “ people answered with one voice, and 6 said, All the words which the Lord “ hath said will we do. And Moses “ wrote all the words of the Lord, and “ built an altar, and twelve pillars, ac“ cording to the twelve tribes of Israel. “ And he sent young men of the Children “ of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, “ and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen “ unto the Lord. And Moses took half “ of the blood, and put it in basons : “ and half of the blood he sprinkled on “ the altar. And he took the Book of “ the Covenant, and read in the audience " of the people : and they said, All that “ the Lord hath said will we do, and be « obedient. And Moses took the people, " and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “ Behold the blood of the covenant which “ the Lord hath made with you concern

() “ Patterns of things in the heavens," i. e. the tabernacle, &c. which Moses made according to the pattern of what God shewed him in the Mount, (Exod. xxv. 9.-Heb. viii. 5.), and which were considered as corresponding with what was in heaven. “ The holy places « made with hands," in verse 24. are called “ the figures of the true.”

(z) “ These,” i.e. the blood of bulls and goats.

(a) “The heavenly things themselves," i. e. heaven itself. The meaning of the verse seems to be this; that it was necessary the blood of bulls and of goats should be shed to purify those who should enter into the tabernacle, and that to purify for an entrance into heaven itself, much more valuable blood, even that of Christ him. self, was shed.

(6) “ Made with hands," i.e. of hu. man workmanship,-here on earth, which are only the figures or representations of what is in heaven.

(c) “ Entereth," &c. Once every year, on the tenth day of the seventh month, the high priest was to make an atonement in the holy place for the sanctuary, for the tabernacle of the congregation, for the altar, for the priests, and for all the congregation. See Lev. xvi. 11 to 34.

world hath he appeared, to put him unto them in the absence of away sin by the sacrifice of him- the multitude. Then came the 7. } self. And as it is appointed unto day(b) of unleavened bread, when men once to die, but after this the

passover must be killed. And: 8. & the judgement; so (d) Christ was he sent Peter and John, saying, ence offered to bear the sins of

" Go and prepare us the passmany (e); and unto them that over, that we may eat.” And 9. look' for him shall he appear the they said unto him, “ Where wilt second time, without () sin, unto “ thou that we prepare ?” And 10. salvation.

he said unto them, “ Behold,

“ when ye are entered into the The Gospel. Luke xxii. 1.

“ city, there shall a (i) man meet Now the feast (g) of unleavened you, bearing a pitcher of water: bread drew nigh, which is called 66 follow him into the house where “ The Passover.” And the chief “ he entereth in. And ye shall 11. priests and scribes sought how say unto the good man of the they might kill him ; for they “ house, “ The Master saith un· feared the people. Then entered " to thee, Where is the guestSatan into Judas surnamed Isca- “ chamber, where I shall eat the riot, being of the number of the

passover with my disciples ?" • twelve. And he went his way, “ And he shall shew you a large 12. and communed with the chief upper room furnished : there priests and captains, how he might “ make ready.” And they went, 13. 5. betray him unto them. And they and found as he had said unto were glad, and covenanted to give them: and they made ready the

And he promised, passover. And when the hour 14. and sought opportunity to betray was come, he (k) sat down, and

6. him money.

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" for salvation.”

28. 1“ So Christ,” &c. The meaning

E, as it is with man, that he dieth once only, and after that comes judgment, so bit with Christ; he was to be offered once cely

, and his second appearance will be to judge the world. The literal, and perhaps the better translation of this Ferse seems to be, "So Christ, having " been once offered to bear the sins of many, shall the second time be seen " without sin to those who look to him

19" Of many," not indiscriminately of all; but of such as feel their own insufficiency, and the advantages of the atonement he has made, and humbly look up to him, and endeavour to walk'in his

commandments. 28. 6) “Without sin,” i.e. probably,

in a fár different state from that in which he was, when he was taking upon

himself the sins of the world ; not in a state of

as one who had sins upon him, but in a state of glory, as one who was

without sin, as the great Judge, to give
salvation to those that look for him, and
to punish those who do not.

(8) “ The feast,” &c. " the passover.” v. I. See note on Mark xiv. 1. ante 99.

(b) “ The day,” &c. i.e. the evening v.7. which began that day at the end of which the paschal lamb was to be slain : they reckoned their days from evening to evening: according to Gen. i. 5. the evening and the morning were the first day; and according to Gen. xii. 18. on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, they were to eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month,

(i) A man meet you,” &c. See v. 10. note on Mark xiv. 13. ante 100.

(k) “ He sat down," &c. Q. To what? v. 14. He was crucified on the day of the preparation; the day before the Sabbath ; the day before the passover was to be eaten. St. Mark xv. 42. says it was the preparation, the “ day before the Sab.

at even.

humility,

66 shed for you.

passover with

not

110 Luke xxii.
Wednesday before Easter.

Luke xxi the twelve apostles with him. “ This cup is the new () test: 15. And he said unto them, “ With “ ment in my blood, which < desire I have desired to eat this

But, behold you

before I suf- " the hand of him that (v) be 16. “ fer : for I say unto you, I will “ trayeth me is with me on th

any more eat thereof, un- “ table. And truly the Son " til (1) it be fulfilled in the king- “ man goeth as it was (9) detei 17.

66 dom of God.” And he took 66 mined: but (r) woe unto tha the cup, and gave thanks, and “ man by whom he is betrayed!

said, “ Take this, and divide it And they began to inquire amon 18.-“ among yourselves : for I say themselves, which of them it wa

unto you, I will not drink of that should do this thing: (s) An “ the (m) fruit of the vine, until there was also a strife among

" the kingdom of God shall them, which of them should be 19. “ come.” And he took bread, accounted the greatest. And ht

and gave thanks, and brake it, said unto them, “ The kings ol and gave unto them, saying, " the Gentiles exercise lordship “ This (n) is my body which is “ over them; and they that ex:

“ given for you: this do in re- “ ercise authority upon them are 20. “ membrance of me." Likewise o called Benefactors. But(t)ye also the

cup
after

supper, saying, 66 shall not be so : but he that is

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“ bath ;” Matt. xxvii. 62. implies the
same thing ; Luke xxiii. 54. says, “ that
“ day was the preparation, and the Sab-
“ bath drew on;" and John xix. 31. as-
signs as a reason for beseeching Pilate
that their legs might be broken, &c.
“ because it was the preparation, that the
" bodies should not remain on the cross
“ on the Sabbath day, for that Sabbath
" day was a high day.” According to
John xviii. 28. “they,” (i.e. the chief
priest and elders) “ went not into the
“ judgment hall, lest they should be de-
“ filed, but that they might eat the pass-
over,” which implies that it was not
then eaten. And according to John xix.
14. whilst Jesus was before Pilate, “ it

was the preparation of the passover, and
“ about the sixth hour.” The paschal
lamb was to be eaten on the fourteenth
day of the first month at even, and no-
thing was to remain of it unto the morn-
ing. Exod. xii. 6. 10. Lev. xxiii. 5.

Numb. ix. 3. And see verse 12.
v. 16. (1) “ Until it be fulfilled,” &c. May

not this mean, until that great sacrifice
in God's dispensation as to the Messiah,
of which this is a figure, until that true

Paschal Lamb, shall be offered up?
v. 18. (m) The fruit." In Matt. xxvi. 29.

it is “ this fruit,” which might mean this
cup of the passover.

(n) “ This,” &c. See note on Mark xiv. 22. ante lor.

(o) “ Testament," « covenant." See ante 107, note on Heb. ix. 16.

(p)“ Betrayeth me." See note on Mark xiv. 18. ante 100.

(9) “ Determined,” i. e. in God's : counsels. His sufferings and death were fully foretold in that remarkable chapter, Isaiah lüïi. The seventh verse is," he

was oppressed, and he was afflicted, “ yet he opened not his mouth : he is

brought as a lamb to the slaughter," &c. (-) “Woe.” According to Matt. xxvii.

repented, when he saw what was done, and went and hanged him" self.”

This prophetic declaration, therefore, of our Saviour, had so far a very speedy accomplishment.

(s) " And,” &c. According to Matt. 1 xx. 25. 29. and Mark x. 42. 46. this happened at an earlier period : before they reached Jericho, on their way to Jerusalem.

(t) “ Ye shall not be so," i. e. you a shall exercise, no lordship shall have no temporal power : he shall be

greatest among you who has the most complete controul over himself; who subdues his own pride, his own appetites and passions, and makes the greatest sacrifices for the benefit of others.

4, 5. he “

over others;

greatest among you, let him be said unto them, “ When I sent “ as the younger; and he that you without purse, and scrip, “ is chief, as he that doth serve.

" and shoes, lacked ye any 3." For whether is greater, he that “ thing ?” And they said, “No“ sitteth at meat, or he that ser- thing.”

Then said he unto 36. u veth ? is not he that sitteth at them, “ But (y) now, he that

meat ? but I am among you as “ hath a purse, let him take it, “ he (u) that serveth.

Ye are

" and likewise his scrip: and he they which have continued with " that hath no sword, let him “ me in my temptations : And I " sell his garment and buy one. “ appoint unto you a kingdom, “ For I say unto you, That this 37.

as my Father hath appointed " that is (2) written must yet be

unto me; that ye may eat and accomplished in me, “ And he “ drink at my table in my king- was reckoned among the trans6 dom, and sit on thrones, judg- gressors :" for the things con6 ing the twelve tribes of Israel.' “ cerning me have an end." And 38. And the Lord said, “ Simon, Si- they said, “ Lord, behold, here “ mon, behold, Satan hath de. are two swords." And he said “ sired to have you, that he may

unto them, “It is enough.” And 39. 32. “ sift you as wheat: but I have he came out, and went, as he was

prayed for thee, that thy faith wont, to the mount of Olives; “ fail not: and when thou art and his disciples also followed s converted (x), strengthen thy

him. And when he was at the 40. 33. “ brethren." And he said unto place, he said unto them, “Pray

him, “ Lord, I am ready to go “ that (a) ye enter not into “ with thee, both into prison and “ temptation.”

And he was 41. 34" to death.” And he said, “I withdrawn from them about a “ tell thee, Peter, the cock shall stone's cast, and kneeled down,

not crow this day before that and prayed, saying, “Father, if 42. " thou shalt thrice deny that “ thou be willing, remove this 35. " thou knowest me.” And he cup (6) from me: nevertheless

6.27. (a) * As he that serveth.” Not in

worldly pomp, but benefiting mankind :

not courting homage, but doing good. 6. 32. ()“ Converted?” May not this mean,

when thou shalt turn again, after having

denied me, as I know thou wilt. 3.36

6) “ But now,” &c. This was probably to forewarn them that they would have to encounter much greater dangers and difficulties in preaching the Gospel than when he bad sent them out before : that they would be in want of food, in danger of bodily harm, and should therefore provide for all emergencies.

(z) “ Written.” This passage is in Isaiah lin. 12. “ He was numbered with " the transgressors, and he bare the sin " of many, and made intercession with

" (or for) the transgressors. See note
on Mark xv. 28. ante 106.

(a) “ Pray that," &c. This may v.40.
either mean that they were to pray against
temptation, that this was to be the sub-
ject of their prayer, or generally, that
they were to pray, leaving the subject to
them, and that strength against tempta-
tion would be the consequeuce.

(6) “ Cup," i.e. of affliction, the suf- v.42. ferings I am about to undergo. In Mark x.

38. our Saviour said to James and John, “ Can ye drink of the cup that “ I drink of, and be baptized with the “ baptism that I am baptized with ?” meaning to put the question, whether they could bear whatever he could. And when he checked Peter for having smitten

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66 Be

“ not my will, but thine, be " the sword?” And (d) one of 43. done." And there appeared

them smote the servant of the an angel unto him from heaven, || high priest, and cut off his right 44. strenghtening him. And being ear. And Jesus answered and said, in an agony, he (c) prayed more “ Suffer ye thus far."

thus far." And he earnestly; and his sweat was as touched his ear, and healed him.

it were great drops of blood fall- Then Jesus said unto the chief 45. ing down to the ground. And priests, and captains of the temple, when he rose up from prayer,

and the elders, which were come and was come to his disciples, he to him,

ye

come out, as found them sleeping for sorrow, “ against a thief, with swords · 46. and said unto them, “Why sleep

" and staves ? When I was daily yei rise and pray, lest ye enter

66 with

you

in (e) the temple ye 47 “ into temptation.

And while “ stretched forth no hands against he yet spake, behold a multitude, me: but this is your hour, and and he that was called Judas, one " the power of darkness." Then of the twelve, went before them, took they him, and led him, and

and drew near unto Jesus to kiss brought him into the high priest's 48. him. But Jesus said unto him; base and when they had kindled

house. And Peter followed afar Judas, “ Betrayest thou the Son 49. “ of man with a kiss?” When a fire in the midst of the hall, and

they which were about him saw were set down together, Peter sat what would follow, they said unto down among them. But a cerhim, “Lord, shall we smite with tain maid beheld him as he sat

0.44

6 O time was,

the high priest's servant, he said, (John
xviii. 11.) The cup which' my Father
“ hath given me, shall I not drink it ?”

(c) “ Prayed,” &c. It is to this, pro-
bably, that the author of the Epistle to
the Hebrews refers, when in speaking of
our Saviour, Heb. v. 7. he says, “ who
“ in the days of his flesh, offered up
“ prayers and supplications, with strong
crying

and tears, unto him that was “ able to save him from death." According to Matt. xxvi. 42. his prayer the second

my

Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done.” The greatness of our Saviour's sufferings shews the greatness of God's abhorrence of sin, (for otherwise he might have dispensed with the sacrifice), and the greatness of our obligation to Jesus Christ. As our Saviour was to take upon himself the sins of the whole world, and by his sufferings to make an atonement for them, his sufferings might at this time be so great, as to be almost more than could, in a state of human nature, be born: and the fact may be recorded to

shew that God's abhorrence of sin was 80 great, that it was as much as his own Son could do to bear the punishment. Should not man's thankfulness to our Saviour be in proportion to his sufferings?

(d) “ One of them,” i. e. Peter. See e note on Mark xiv. 47. ante 102.

(c) “ In the temple." He might possibly wish to bring to their recollection the prophecies that the Messiah should come to that temple. In Hag. ii. 7. 9. as an encouragement to go on with the temple they were then building, God said unto them, The desire of all nations shall come, and I will fill this “ house with glory, saith the Lord of “ hosts : the glory of this latter house “ shall be greater than of the former," (i. e. Solomon's, which had been destroyed), " saith the Lord of hosts : ~ and in this house will I give peace, 6 saith the Lord of hosts." Mal. iii. 1. is this prophecy: “ The Lord “ whom ye seek, shall suddenly come “ to his temple; even the Messenger of " the Covenant, whom ye delight

And in

66 in."

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