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IF F and an may be used mutually and indifferently to

fupply each other's place. ,

Besides having Skinner's authority for if, I suppose that the meaning and derivation of this principal supporter of the Tripod of Truth *, are so very clear, simple and univer

* See Plutarch Περι του ΕΙ του εν Δελφους,

Εν δε Διαλεκτικη δη, σε μεγισης εχει δυναμιν και συναπτικG- κτoσι συνδεσμG, ατε δη το λοβικώλαιον σχηματιζων αξιωμα.-Το γαρ τεκνικον και λογικoν, ώσπερ

οθεν και καν ειρήθαι, γνωσις ακολαθιας, την δε προσληψιν η αισθησις τω λοβω διδωσιν. αισχρον ειπαν, εκ αποθρεψομαι τείο αναι τον της αληθειας τριποδα τον λοίον, ον την τα λεγονος προς το προηγεμενον ακολεθιαν θεμενος, αλα προσλαβων την υπαρξιν, επαγα το συμπερασμα της αποδειξεως. Τον 8ν Πυθιον και δη μεσικη τε ηδείαι, και κυκνων φωναις και κιθαρας ψοφοις, τι θαυμασον εσι Διαλεκζικης φιλια τε1ο ασπαζεσθαι τε λογα το μερος και αγαπαν, ω μαλισα και πλασω προσχρωμενες δρα σας φιλο6οφες


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sally allowed, as to need no farther discourse about them.

Skinner says" IF (in agro Linc. Gif) ab As. Lif. Si. “ Hoc a verbo Crican, dare, q. d. Dato.

Lye, in his edition of Junius, says—“ Haud inscitè 6 Skinnerus, qui deduxit ab A. s Lifan, dare, q. d. Dato."


Gif is to be found not only, as Skinner says, in Lincolnshire, but in all our old writers. G. Douglas almost always uses Gif: once or twice only he has used if; once he uses GEWE, and once Giffis, and sometimes IN CASE and IN CAIS for GIF.

« Gif luf be vertew, than is it leful thing;
“ Gif it be vice, it is your undoing.”

Douglas. Prol. to 4th boke. Pag. 95.

« Thocht sum wald swere, that I the text haue waryit,
« Or that I haue this volume quite myfcaryit,
" Or threpe planelie, I come neuer nere hand it,
« Or that the werk is werft that euer I fand it,
" Or zit cewe Virgil ftude wele before,
" As now war tyme to schift the werft ouer skore.”

Douglas Preface, Pagi nr.

" Be

“ Be not ouer studyous to spy ane more in myn E,
“ That in your awin ane ferrye bot can not se,
“ And do to me, as ze wald be done to;
" Now hark schirris, thare is na mare ado:
Quha list attend, GYFfis audience and draw nere."

Douglas Preface, Pag. 12.

Chaucer commonly uses iF; but sometimes YEUE, YEF and YF.

« Lo here the letters felid of thys thyng
« That I mote beare in all the hafte I

may ;
“ Yeue ye woll ought unto your sonne the kyng,
“ I am your seruaunt bothe nyght and day.”

Chaucer. Man of Lawes tale. Fol. 22. Pag. 1. Col. 2.

" And therfore he of full auisement
« Nolde neuer write in non of his sermons
« Of suche unkynde abhominacions
“ Ne I ne wol non reherce, yer that I

Chaucer. Man of Lawes prologue. Fol. 18. Pag. 2. Col. 1.


" She was so charytable and so pytous
“ She wolde wepe yg that she sawe a mous
Caught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde.”

Prol. to Canterbury tales. Prioreje.

And it is to be observed that in Chaucer and in other old writers, the verb to give suffers the same variations in the manner of writing and pronouncing it, whether used conjunetively or otherwise : as does also the Noun derived from it.

" And after on the daunce went

Largeffe, that set al her entent
" For to ben honorable and free,
« Of Alexanders kynne was she,
" Her most joye was ywis
“ Whan that she yafe, and sayd: Have this.
“ Not Auarice the foule caytyfe
“ Was halfe to grype so ententyfe
“ As Largesfe is to reve and spende,
And god alway ynowe her fende,
" So that the more she YAUE awaye
“ The more ywis she had alwaye :
“ Great loos hath Largesfe, and great prise,
“ For both wyse folke and unwyse

Were wholy to her bandon brought
« So wel with yeftes hath she wrought.”

Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. Fol. 125, P. 2. C. 1,

“ A wyfe is goddes YeFTE verely
* Al other maner YEFTES hardely
“ As londes, rentes, pasture, or commune
« Or mouables, all ben YEFTES of fortune

That passen, as a shadowe on a wall
“ But dred nat, yf playnly speke I shall
“ A wyfe wol laste and in thyn house endure
* Wel lenger than the lyst parauenture.”

Chaucer. Marchauntes tale. Fol. 28. Pag. 2. Col. 2.

** FORGiff me, Virgill, Gif I thee offend.”

Douglas. Preface. Pag. 11.

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~ Gif us thy ansueir, quharon we sal depend.”

Douglas, 3d booke, Pag. 70.

“ And suffir Tyrianis, and all Liby land
“ Be gif in dowry to thy son in hand.”

Douglas, 4th booke, Pag. 103.

« In the mene tyme, of the nycht wache the cure
« We gif Meffapus.”

Douglas, 9th booke, Pag. 280.

In Henry the viith’s will, dated 1509, you will also find yEVE used where we now employ GIVE: and in the time of Queen Elizabeth it was written in the fame manner.

“ YEOVEN under our signet."
Lodge's Illustrations. The Queen to Sir W. Cecil and

Dr. Wotton, Vol. 1. Pag. 343.

“ Yeven under our seale of our order, the first day of April 1566, the " eight year of our reign.”

Lodge's Illustrations. Quene Elizabeth to the Erle

of Sherowsbury, Vol. 1. Pag. 362.

GIN * is often used in our Northern counties and by the Scotch, as we use if or AN: which they do with equal

* Ray says—“ Gin, Gif, in the old Saxon is Gif; from whence the word If is made per aphærefin literæ G. Gif, from the verb Gifan, dare ; « and is as much as Dato.


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