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of ,ימם ; Brother ,אח of ,אחה ; Mother ,אם
rèal roots, by being unpointed, in Buxtorf, Castell, &c.—And their amount is considerable: such as Onk, the supposed root of
, ; , , ; ', D', Sea ; &c. although the biliteral nouns themselves are as well entitled to the rank of roots as the foregoing, which are admitted to be such.
6. Several of the real verbs, supposed to be roots, may more naturally be derived from their offspring, thus, 708 to regard or respect, naturally flows from 2x, Father ; nja, to build, from ya, Son; and accordingly, the verb is used in the sense of begetting children, Deut. xxv. 9. “ So shall it be done “ unto the man, that will not build up his 66 brother's house.” The verb 758, To swear, curse, or devote to destruction, naturally flows from 5 God, who was appealed to in these solemn acts, as supreme arbiter. And this, even Michaelis himself, who adopts the received hypothesis, inconsistently admits : “ Potius hoc ipsum 77b8, juravit, denomina“ tivum putem esse ab 5: quasi dicas, per * Deum aliquid affirmavit.” In like manner, the B, C. in question, although he derives
the divine name from a triliteral verb, 1788; “ to be lovely, fairs or admirable,” following Cocceius and Vitringu, yet admits that “ it
may be taken as a root by itself.” p. 151.
II. Having thus shewn, that the received hypothesis, or Masoretic scheme of derivation, is untenable in both its branches, from the genius and history of language; and that the elementary terms of all languages are naturally nouns, or names of the most obvious and striking sensible objects; and necessarily monosyllables, as being easiest of pronunciation : we may safely conclude, from analogy, that the simplest of the divine names, SX ÆL, and ' JAH, are the most ancient of all; the venerable parents (ÆL) of myba, (ÆL-oh); and of its' plural D'mbx, (AL-ÕH-Im: And 7° (Jah), of 17179 (JAH-on), formed from their respective roots, by additional syllables, or by composition; according to the usual progress of language : and, indeed, that they cannot be derivatives, formed either by contraction or elision, from terms more compounded, I shall next endeavour to prove; by shewing the insufficiency of all the roots hitherto assigned to them.
N. B. In adapting the foregoing primitive names of God to English pronunciation, I have departed from the Masoretic punctuation; and also from the orthography of the British Critic: 1. Because x, the first letter of x ÆL and its componnds, is not a vowel but a consonant ; the softest of the aspirates, Aleph, He, Hheth, (Arabic Hha,) and Ain: As in the proper name Aaron, which is
pronounced Haroun by the Arabs. And 2. I have rejected the Pathah furtivum of the Masorites, Tip A LOAH, which is no vowel point; Schultens, Instit. p. 72-118, and seems to have “ crept in” unnecessarily, if not mischievously, to confound the etymology; and, perhaps, to assimilate it to 3. the Masoretic punctuation of TNT? IEHOVA II ; which should rather be pronounced IA HOH: according to the most ancient Greek
pronunciation, Ian, fortunately preserved in the fragments of Orpheus, and the Clarian Oracle, and Diodorus Siculus; and approved of by Origen and Jerom, the most learned of the Fathers: though long since lost among the Jews; not daring, out of superstition, to pronounce this glorious and awful name,
Deut. xxvii. 58, as their ancestors evidently did, 1 Kings xviii. 39.
I. SUPPOSED DERIVATIONS OF 58, ÆL and 158, ÆLOH.–1. Some Jewish grammarians, Cocceius and the Hutchinsonian school, derive both from okx, “ to swear”. which is justly rejected by Michaelis (as we have seen) and the B.C. p. 141-152.
2. Michaelis adopts the verb 758 as the root, in the sense of benefacere alicui, or benevolus fuit, from the Arabic noun Ali, signifying “ good :" as intimating the goodness or beneficence of the Deity; this is certainly a more honourable derivation than the former, which represents him “ as an
object of mere terror”-and more consonant to Scripture and the first philosophy: "Why callest thou me good?” said our blessed SAVIOUR himself—" there is none GOOD “ but ONE, that is God"—None, in whom goodness is an inherent, underived principle of conduct, Matt. xix. 17. And in the sacred commentary of the Persian rites, ascribed to Zoroaster, among several magnificent titles of THE DEITY, we meet Agabwe Αγαθοτατος, , “ BEST OF THE Good.”-Newton's Chronology, p. 353.
Whence Plato probably derived his “
deifying principle," t'Agæbov, “ THE GOOD” supreme; noticed by the B. C. p. 141-149. And also the earliest Latin writers, their—" OPTIMUS
MAXIMUS"--his superlative goodness taking the lead of his greatness : And from the Greek ræb-os, the contraction of Agab-os, might easily have been derived, the German Gott, and our Saxon or English term God; and perhaps all those, ultimately, from the Syriac 79, Hhad, the contraction of the Hebrew 778, Ahhad, signifying “ One”—by an easy transmutation of kindred consonants;—for this ingenious etymological series, we are indebted to Hallenberg, a Danish critic, cited by the Monthly Review, vol. xxxiv. Append. p. 483, which happily illustrates the peculiar force and beauty of our Lord's foregoing argument.
Still, however, Michaelis's derivation appears to be inadmissible, as it is not drawn from the pure source of the Hebrew language; and especially as Michaelis himself, p. 82, admits, that the primitive root 58, ÆL, is wanting (or obsolete) both in the Arabic