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HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE LAND OP PROMISE.
from that time called the 'kingdom of Juu*ah.* After the defection of the ten tribes from under Rehoboain, the two kingdoms maintained their freedom for many yean, amidst the continual wan '■■• which they were harassed; but Hazael, king of Syria, at last subdued Israel, and for a long tune kept it in subjection. The king of Assyria nest invaded them, and having besieged their city Samana for three years, reduced it to ashes.—See Samaria.
Such of the inhabitants as survived the dreadful carnage which ensued, were carried away captive into Assyria, B.C. 719; and the kingdom of Israel, which had stood divided from that of Judah for more than 250 years, was now at an end. After this, Judah also was attacked by the Babylonians, and subsequently by the Egyptians, the latter of whom reduced it to subjection; but upon the defeat of the Egyptians by the Babylonians, Nebuchadneizar seized upon Jerusalem, and, after having tyrannised over the people for some years, at last levelled the city and the temple with the ground, and carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and thus put an end to the kingdom of Judah, about B. C. 688, or 47ti years from the time that David began to reign over it.—See 2 Chr. xxxvi. Seventy years after, when Cyrus was king of Persia, a remnant of the Jews returned, and built again their city and temple. around which tbey settled; and the southern part of 1 Palestine was henceforth called Ivdma. To the N. of them, in the former inheritance of Ephraim and the half tribe of Manasseh, sate a mixed race of people, among whom may have been some families casually left behind in the great captivity. More certain are we, that colonies of idolatrous heathen were £ laced there by the Assyrian monarch, 2 Ki. xvii. 24— I; and that these were subsequently joined by some Jews, such as Joiada, mentioned Neb. xiii. 28. They were called Samaritans, from their dwelling round the old capital of the kingdom of Israel; and were looked npon by the Jews as Mo impure, that they had no dealing* with them Alexander the Grant subdued Palestine, and at his death its possession was disputed by An tig-onus and the Egyptians, until Autiochus the Great, king of Syria, united it to his dominions. The Jews, under Judas Maccabeus, revolted, and established their freedom. They over-ran Samaria, and planted colonies In the northern part of the country, which assumed henceforward the name of G*i,n.i>:; and raised up a king about B.C. 107- Bis successors called in the Romans to settle their disputes; and the Roman general, Pompey, irritated by the little respect shewn to him, marched against Jerusalem and reduced it, B.C. 63, and soon after completed the subjugation of the whole country. In the time of Hare Antony, Herod was made king of Judaea: and it was during his reign that our Saviour was born. Judasa remained subject to the Romans till A.D. 66, when a contest arose between the Jews and Syrians respecting the possession of Cesarea: the case being referred to Nero, he decided in favour of the latter; upon which the Jews took up arms, and, after committing some dreadful massacres, succeeded in driving all the Romans and Syrians from Judsra. Vespasian was sent against them with a powerful army, and would soon have brought them to subjection, but, on his march to Jerusalem, he received the intelligence of his having been chosen emperor: he accordingly left the command of the army to his son Titos, who, A.D. 70, reduced the city to ashes, and pnt an end to the Jewish nation, as had been prophesied for ages beforehand.
The name of the Holt Lano is applied to It by Christians in nearly all the languages of Europe i chiefly and eminently from its having been the scene
of our Blessed Lord's life, death, and resi
In the time of the events recorded in the history of the New Testament, Palestine was divided Into five principal parts. These were Galilee, Samaria, Judas*, properly so called, Batansea, and Perasa; the three first of which were on this side Jordan, and the two last beyond it: over all of which Herod, surnamed ' the Great,' was king.-See Less. v. 'Herod.* 0 s it i,"-—Was the northernmost province of Palestine, and was exceedingly fertile and populous, having 201 towns and villages, containing, upon an average, IJ.OOW souls, maklngin all above 3,000,000 inhabitants. It touched to the W. on Phomice, to the N. on CaHoSyria, to the E. on Batatusa. and to the 8. on Samana. It contained 930 square miles. It was subdivided
into Upper and Lower, so named with respect to the river Jordan, the former being also called 'Galilee uf the Gentile*,' from lis being Inhabited not only by Jews, but by Syrians, Greeks, Phoenicians, an.I Egyptians. This province was, above all, honoured with our Saviour's presence. It was here that be was conceived; and here, in an obscure village, he lived with his reputed parents until he began to be about thirty years of age, and was baptised of John. And though he visited the other provinces and Judssaat the stated feasts, when the male Israelites »m« commanded to go up to worship in Jerusalem, yet, in fulfilment of prophecy, (see § 16,) he fixed upon Capernaum to dwell In: and after his resurrection tin- di-dples went away into Galilee, into a mountain, where they saw and worshipped him: the same probably on which he had been seen by Peter, James, and John, in glory, along with Moses and Ellas.* Aud they were 'men of Galilee * whom he commissioned. saying,' Go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.'—Urr* R Gam Lei belonged formerly to the tribe of Naphtalf. It bordered on Tyre and Sidon, and extended E. of the river Jordan. In its northern part, close to the W. source of the Jordan, stood Dan, which was formerly Lalsh, until it was wrested by conquest from the Siaomant, when it received the name of the tribe which took it. It was the northernmost town occupied by the children of Israel, in the same way that Beersheba was the southernmost: hence the frequent definition of the land of Israel — 'from Dan to Beersheba.'* Lowui Galilki lay between take Gennetaret and the Mediterranean sea. The northern part belonged to the tribe of Zebulun, and the southern part to the tribe of Issacbar,
Samaria. —Touched to the W. on the Mediterranean, to the N. on Phoenlce and Galilee, to the E. on Per.vs. and to the 8. on Judssa; It contained 1.330 square miles. It occupied the whole country between the Jordan and the sea; and therefore such as travelled from Judssa into Galilee 'must Deeds go through Samaria.'
Samaria derived Its name from its metropolis Samaria, which was so called after one Shemer, of whom Omri, king of Israel, bought the ground, for the building of the city; and from the circumstance of this city having become the subsequent capital of the kingdom of Israel, the name of Samaria Is frequently used by the sacred writers of the Old Testament, to denote the whole of that kingdom. Samaria Is intersected by a range of mountains connected with Mnt. Hermon of Galilee; where this range enters the provinces it is called GUboa. Mount Gilboa, celebrated for the death of Saul and Jonathan, aud for the defeat of the Israelites by the Philistines, was in the northern part of Samaria, and formed part of that range of stilus which traverses the whole province from north to south; towards the city of Samaria, it is known by the names at Phinehas, Ebal, and Gerizltn, and upon the borders of Judssa as the mountains of Ephraim,
Upon the division of the tribes into the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel, Jeroboam, king of the latter, built Sichem, or Shschem, in mount Ephraim, about the centre of Samaria, and made it the capital of his dominions.—See Sect. 13.
Samaria, the subsequent metropolis of the kingdom of Israel till the time of the Assyrian captivity, was ouly a few miles to the north of Sichem; it was nearly destroyed by the Assyrians, but was restored by the colonists, whom they sent into the country; and who, from this city, first assumed the name of Samaritan*. It was very flourishing under the Maccabees, but being once more destroyed, it was again rebuilt and beautified by Herod, who named it Sebaste, in honour of Augustus; it is still called Sebatte, or Kalaat Sanour.
Judjra, properly so called.—Was bounded on the N. by Samaria, on the E. by the Dead sea, on the S, by Arabia Petreaa, and on the W. by the Mediterranean sea. It contained 3,135 square miles, and constituted the inheritance of four out of the twelve tribes, viz. of Benjamin, Dan, Judah, and Simeon, the two last being in the southern part of the province. The frontier between Judaa and Arabia Propria is formed by a range of mountains, connected with mount Seir, and known by the names of Haiak and Maaleh Acrabbin t this 'latter gives the adjacent district the
* See Sections 1. & xcvL t Page viii. first paragraph, et teq.
Judab was bis sanctuary, and Israel bis dominion.—Psalm cxiv.
Comprehending the space of 31 years; viz.—From the prediction of the birth of John the Baptist, B.C. 6, to the commencement of his public ministry, A.D. 26.*