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the Gospel by Herod Agrippa.. they did not occur, but because hisAnd about the same time, Paul and torians, either despising the Jews, Barnabas, having travelled over Se- or laying too little emphasis on their leucia, Salamis, Cyprus, Paphos, conversion, have merged the word Pamphilia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Ico- Jew in that of Christian. In the nium, and other places of Asia, next century however we may inpreaching the Gospel ;-in which stance Ignatius, who was reputed Constantinople, being in the year For Moses, calling the nation of the 1528 converted to the Christian Jews “ a kingdom of priests,"u faith, was for that cause there mar- the Chaldee paraphrase extends it, tyred by the Turks ;r-Elias Levita and calls them both
they so spake, that a great multi- to be one of the little children tude both of the Jews and Greeks brought to Christ that he should believed;"—did meet with persecu touch them,j and therefore a Jew: tion for it.h About A. D. 49, a also Justyn Martyr, who tells us council (or synod, as they call it) is himself, he was of Samaria.k We held by the Apostles at Jerusalem; have also one Rabbi Arita, a Jew, after which, the Apostles dispersed martyred under Adrian, in A. D. themselves into the remoter parts of 120.1 Origen, who flourished about the world to preach the Gospel. Of A. D. 186, was reputed to have this voluntary dispersion, Origen been by blood an Egyptian Jew, and Eucherius Lugdunensis deliver who both suffered great persecutions to us this tradition :-" that the himself, m and his father Leonides several Apostles did prescribe to was an eminent martyr.n But about themselves several provinces, where- the year 434 the Jews of Crete were in they would chiefly preach the converted to the Christian faith ;0 Gospel : e.g. to Thomas and Bar- and, from among the now mixed Jewtholomew the east; to Simon and ish and Gentile Christian churches Matthew the south; to Philip and in that island, bishops or pastors Thaddeus the north; to Matthias were sent to the great synod at and James the Just the Mediterra. Sardis, A. D. 547. These gave nean regions ; to John and Andrew great testimony to the truth of the provinces of the Mediterranean Christ by their conversion and proSea; to Peter and James, the son fession: all we
can ascertain of of Zebedee, the west; to Paul, all their sufferings was, that a general the world alike; especially to the persecution arose about that time Gentiles.”i These, having all made against orthodox Christians throughvarious arduous journeys, and suf- out the world :-viz. by Genseric fered persecution during them in king of the Vandals, by Anastasius different ways, were finally crowned emperor of the Romans, by Cobades with martyrdom : unless we except king of Persia, Totilas king of the the apostle John, who by some is Goths, and Albin commander of the thought to have died a natural death; Longobards. But not to be too tethough by others he is stated to dious on this point, by mentioning have been put to death by Trajan. all that I might, it shall suffice only And in like manner we could pre- to name R. Mordecai Bar. Hillel, marsent you with a shoal of Jewish tyred in 1300, at Norimberg ;p— martyrs during the first centuries : Nicholaus de Lyra, whoin 1310 wrote though afterward it becomes more the Glossary in several great volumes difficult to trace them ; not because upon the Bible ;qea certain Jew of
8 Acts xii.
h Acts xviii. i Orig. in explicat. Gen. Vid. Alsted. Chron, convers. Populorum. j Niceph. lib. ii, c. 35. k Dial, cum Tryph. 1 Alst. Chron. Doct. Judæorum. m Epiph, Hær. 64. n Magdeburgenses. 0 Alst. Chron. Convers. populorum. p Alst. Chron. Doct. apud Judæos.
kings and Ascenaz, who in 1547 (a time of priests." St. Peter, in like manner persecution under Antichrist) de- writing to the Jews, calls them parted out of this life; having a Baridelov, that is royal, or kingly. little before given up his name to And more plainly St, John, writing Christ, and bringing with him thirty his Revelation principally for the other Jews to partake of baptism ;s Jews, (as before stated) saith, “ He
-Emmanuel Tremellius, who ended hath made us (taking in himself) his life in 1580, being the son of a kings and priests unto God :” which Jew, but converted to Christianity latter title confirms his meaning to by Peter Martyr. He was in Eng- be chiefly of the Jews; since the land in the time of king Edward New Testament calls the ministers VI; but after his death, by reason of the gospel not priests, but by of persecution presently following other names. So again we have under queen Mary, and an edict the same thing, in the very same for strangers to depart, he was terms, Rev. v, 10; adding, that they obliged to quit England, and went are kings in relation to a future to Heidelberg, where he was pro- reigning on earth. Now it is generfessor of the Hebrew tongue.t rally supposed, that the calling of But it may seem a great obstacle
the Jews shall be at the appearance to the Jews bearing any part of the of Christ; which seems to be too two Witnesses, in that the crisis, or late a time for them to give any tesmark of time, when the Spirit of timony. To this we answer,—there life enters into the Jews, is from is a differenee between the general their rising to oppose the Turks; call of the Jews, (that is, of the “ when the sixth angel poureth whole nation and stock of them,) out his vial upon the great river which call, it is justly thought, shall Euphrates, drying it up, to prepare be by some appearance of Christ ; a way for the kings of the east to after the example of Paul,w who fight the battle of the great day of therein was the type and first fruits God Almighty, against the army of such a kind of call;
there of the whole earth, that shall be is a difference between this general gathered together by the unclean call, and a particular call of some spirits of the dragon, the beast, persons and parcels of them from and the false prophet."* These generation to generation, as just kings of the east are the Jews ; as shown. And, secondly, we must the word east intimates, and the carefully note, that“ the appearance word kings, in the plural signifies. of Christ and his kingdom," (men
* There are some who will undertake to tell you the date and duration of these intervals and periods ; (see Clavis Apocalyptica recusa ;) whom, because they seem to be learned men,
I leave to defend themselves : but I stand expecting to see the rising of the Jews in a considerable body to grapple with the Turks, before I can undertake to compute matters of this sort with any certainty.
r Fox, Mart. Vol. 2. s Alst. Chron. Doctor. apud Judæos. of Eccl. Hist. u Exod. xix, 6. v 1 Pet. i, 1; ii, 9. * See 1 Eim. i, 16.
t M. S. Clark Mar.
w Acts ix, 3.
tioned 2 Tim. iv, 1; when it will witness to the truth, given in by indeed be too late to give testimony,) the christian Jews, before the beginand the appearance of Christ without ning of that interval of the 1260 and previous to the appearance of years, runs out in length to the end that kingdom, (according to Zech, xii, thereof: for as it is not to be ima10, 11. Matt. xxiv, 30. Rev. i, 7, gined, that every person or parcel of which is a time of the Jews' repent- the witnesses should live just the ance,) are quite distinct things. For space of 1260 years; so it must this latter, being a time of repent- needs be most consentaneous to reaance, is utterly inconsistent with a son, that the witness for the space time of happiness and glory; but of that time is by a succession of most suitable to an effectual general witnesses, (though possibly somecall of the Jews.
times with some short interval be. There is yet another difficulty, tween,) whose testimony lives when (and I confess to me it has seemed they are dead. the greatest;) viz. to keep the due Secondly, we answer, that very account of thetwo Witnesses prophe- many testimonies of Christian Jews, sying in sackcloth 1260 days (that witnessing to the truth of Christ
, is, years) right and consistent. For have been given in precisely within unless the Jewish witnessing comes the space of the 1260 years, (as within the compass of that time, ye have heard ;) even though we how (it may be asked) can it be cut the foot of the account far accounted a part of the testimony shorter than most have done. of the two Witnesses. To this we Finally, having seen that the give first this general answer; that converted christian Jews shall be a testimony to the truth of Christ, the principal party in the glorious once given in as a testimony, is from restauration ;y &c. and that they thenceforward a testimony for ever, shall most certainly give their tęslet it begin when ever it will. For timony to Christ at the last, before example; By faith Abel offered the beginning of that glory aforeunto God a more excellent sacrifice, said;z therefore, whoever cannot yet by which he obtained witness that see, are yet by Scripture bound to he was righteous; and by it his blood believe, that the Jews, being con(shed in his martyrdom by Cain) verted to Christianity, shall yet yet speaketh ;"—it is still a witness have a due time and place for their to the truth of Christ, after so many testimony, thousands of years. So that all the
y Rom. xi.
z Dan, xii.
OF SUNDRY TRANSLATIONS OF SCRIPTURES, WITH ELUCIDATIONS
OF THEIR OBSCURITY.
The following Emendations have not all of them a reference to prophetical Scriptures; but are added, as likely to prove generally useful and interesting, to inquirers after divine truth.
Genesis ii, 4, 5.
We might have cast out the y
(and) in verse 5 as redundant (a Our Bibles have it " These are common thing in the Hebrew ;) ' the generations of the heavens and but, we have preserved it to signify of the earth when they were cre- • and that,' or 'whilst ;' it being
ated, in the day that the Lord God capable of either expression. As for i made the earth and the heavens, rendering every by any, he that and
every plant of the field before can but turn in any Hebrew Lexit was in the earth, and every icon to 3 in 53 will presently be · herb of the field before it grew : satisfied : and as for changing the
for the Lord God had not caused word before, into not yet, he that ' it to rain upon the earth, and there doubts will likewise equally be satwas not a man to till the ground.” isfied by turning to 76
But read~" These are the gen«erations of the heavens and the
Genesis iv, 26. earth, when they were created ; in the day that the Lord God made Our Bibles have it, “ Then began · the earth and the heavens : and men to call upon the name of the
that before any plant of the field Lord;" but the right reading is,. was in the earth and before any Then began men profanely to call *herb of the field grew.” Or verse 5 upon the name of the Lord,” or may be read thus :
" Whilst any “Then began profaneness, in call• plant of the field was not yet in ing (or, instead of calling) on the the earth, nor any herb of the name of the Lord.” • field yet grew.”
My reasons for thus translating The plants were not created out are, (1) because the word 3207, of the earth or before they were in (the root of 57717) when applied the earth, &c; and the scope of the to sacred things, more commonly text is to show, what was the state signifies to profane, pollute or corof the earth in regard to plants and rupt. When it is applied to other herbs, before God sent rain and things, it signifies to begin. (2.) planted Paradise. *
Before this men
began to call
* Mr. Sharon Turner, in his learned and scientific“ History of the World from the Creation to the Deluge," recently published, adopts a similar reading to Dr. Homes, and argues very conclusively from it. En,
upon the name of the Lord” in their midwives, whose name nobyon, as families, as may fairly be implied well as their sex, is feminine. Thus from Heb. xi, 4. (3.) This was a the main intent of the story is disorrowful time of corrupting reli- rectly carried on ; viz. to shew, not gion; as the name signifies which the multiplying of the Egyptians, Seth gave' at
time to his son : but how Jacob's family, that went calling him Enos,—that is, sorrow- down into Egypt, came to be a ful, grieved, &c. For in those times mighty nation, maugre the malice they prophetically gave names to of the tyrant. their children, suitable to times and occasions, present or future. Agree
2 Chronicles xvi, 1. able to this intimation of the sor
Instead of “ In the six and thirrowfulness of these times, the order tieth year of the reign of Asa, Ba. of divine history adds another : for sha king of Israel came up against as, before this text, we have the pro- Judah, &c.” read—" of the kingdom faneness of Lamech ; (Gen. iv, 23;) of Asa” &c. : meaning the date of 80, in the next chapter, Enoch only the separation of the kingdom of is singled out from all the rest to
Judah from Israel. For if Baasha be a man that walked with God.
warred in the 36th year of the reign And chap. vi, which by natural succession is to be linked on to this had been dead and buried ten years.
of Asa, he warred after he (Baasha) chap. 4, (the yth chapter being in- (Compare 1 Kings xv, 33.) But serted, saith Junius, by the figure the time of his invasion was really hyperbaton) shews us the coming the sixteenth year of Asa's reign, and cause of the flood,--viz. for the which was now just thirty-six years wickedness of those times. And
after the revolt of the ten tribes. therefore the learned Jews do in their Chaldee Paraphrase translate this text, -“. Then in his days the
2 Chronicles xxii, 1, 2. sons of men left off from praying The common reading is,—" So (or became profane, so that they Ahazia, the son of Jehoram reignprayed not) in the name of the Lord.” ed. Forty and two years old was
• Ahazia when he began to reign, Exodus i, 21.
• and he reigned one year in Jeri
• salem : his mother's name also was Read~" And it was because the Athaliah, the daughter of Omri," midwives feared God, that he made But a more proper reading is,them (the sons of Israel) families.” « So Ahazia the son of Jehoram
That is, by means of the midwives • king of Judah reigned ; (v. 2) fearing God, and so sparing the whose mother's name was Athaliah lives of the male children of the • the daughter of Omri, which Omri Hebrews, God nourished and pre- was forty-two years when Abaziah served them unto the just stature of reigned, who reigned one year in manhood, and to multiply into • Jerusalem.” Thus there is here families. By this translation the a rhetorical trajection, frequent in true grammar of the Hebrew text Scripture; as i Sam. xx, 16, &c. is preserved : in which anh, them, Ahaziah is a son of forty-two years is in the masculine gender, and old, (as in relation to the date of therefore well agrees with Digby his kingdom of Judah, since it was men-children, v. 18; but ill with the divided from that of Israel,) though