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of his speech is, that though their false brethren hated them, and cast them out on account of God's name, saying, Let the Lord be glorified; (that is, Let God appear in his glory to shew favor to you, if we have not done well in casting you out ;) yet that the Lord should appear to their joy, who had been thus hated and cast out, and those their false brethren should be ashamed.
vv. 7, 8. The Prophet here sets forth the manner of the conversion of the Jews, which shall be "as the birth of a child, before the mother is in pain; as the birth of a nation at once:" which well may happen, since it is to be effected by the appearance of Christ in the clouds.
vv. 10-12. All nations must rejoice with Jerusalem, "because they shall suck the breasts of her consolations;" (that is, share in her comforts;) and "The Lord will extend peace to Jerusalem like a river; and the glory of the Gentiles, like a flowing stream." So that here we have again a glorious conjunction of Jews and Gentiles.
vv. 13-21. In these verses is set forth the sensible comforts of the Church, and the corporal destruction of their enemies. "As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you; 66 and ye shall be comforted in Jerusalem. And when ye see
this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like a herb; and the hand of the Lord shall be known towards his "servants, and his indignation towards his enemies. For be"hold the Lord will come with fire, &c. For by fire, and by "his sword will the Lord plead with all flesh, and the slain of "the Lord shall be many :" illustrated verse 24 as follows ;—
They shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men "that have transgressed against me; for their worm shall not "die, nor their fire be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring "to all flesh." And then is held forth to us again the congregating of all nations, both Jews and Gentiles, into union of
coming: “In which words (saith he) is το μυςηριον παλιν της γενέσεως ἡμων και άπλως παντων των τον Χριςον εν Ιερεσαλημ φανησεσθαι προς δοκωντων δι' εργων ευαρεσειν αυτῷ σπεδαζοντων· ὁ the mystery of our being again generated, or made new, at the resurrection; and absolutely of all, who expect Christ shall appear at Jerusalem, and by well doing study to please him.'"
* I say conversion: their settlement will cost longer time, as it seems in Dan. xii, the three last verses.
true religious worship, and beholding the glory of God; and that (as the Jewish doctors expound it) in his destruction of the enemies of the Church, in the days of the Messiah.
v. 22. But in this verse it is that we have the height and length of this glorious estate of the universal Church of Jews and Gentiles on earth. It is no lower than a new heaven and a new earth" state and it is to be perpetuated; it is to remain unalterable and continue (say our new Annotationists) for ever.
St. John in the Revelation, chapter xviii and three following chapters, applies these things to the glorious state of the Church on earth yet to come at the fall of Antichrist; but having so often made particular applications of them, I shall now only sum them up in brief. "Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen: how much she hath glorified herself, so much sorrow and torment "shall be given her. Her plagues come in one day, death, and "mourning, and famine, and she shall be utterly burnt with fire. Rejoice over her, thou heaven; and ye holy apostles and pro"phets, for God hath avenged you on her. And after these things I heard a great voice of much people, &c. saying, allelujah, salvation, and glory, and honor, and power unto the Lord our God, for true and righteous are thy judgements; for " he hath judged the great whore that hath corrupted the earth, " and hath avenged the blood of his saints, &c. And the beast "and the false prophet were taken and cast into the lake of "fire and the rest were slain with the sword. But the saints "reigned with Christ a thousand years, in the new heavens and new earth, to whom the kings of the earth, and nations of the world bring their honor."
Chapter xvi, 14, 15, compared with chapter xxiii, 3-9.
Next we come to the Prophet Jeremiah.
"Behold the days
come, saith the Lord, that it shall be no more said, the Lord
"liveth that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of
Egypt; but the Lord liveth that brought up the children of
Israel from the land of the north, and from all the lands whither he had driven them, and I will bring them again into "their land, that I gave unto their fathers." xvi, 14, 15.
The Prophet, calling these of whom he speaks by the name of Israel, and in relation to their return out of the land of the north, and out of "all lands whither they had been driven," must needs comprehend the twelve tribes. And the more clearly to intimate, that his meaning is, not only concerning their return to their own land, but of their conversion to God,-and that it is not of a few of them but of the generality of them all, -he subjoins the bringing in of "the fulness of the Gentiles," verse 19: "The Gentiles shall come unto the Lord from the "ends of the earth and shall say, Surely our fathers have inher"ited lies, &c." At which time of the coming in of the fulness of the Gentiles, (as their coming from the ends of the earth fully expresses,) "All Israel (saith the Apostle) shall be saved."a
Now let us see chapter xxiii, wherein we have the same expressions, with further illustrations and explanations to confirm them. 'I will gather the remnant of my flock out of all "countries whither I have driven them, and will bring them
again to their folds, and they shall be fruitful and increase. "And I will set up shepherds that shall feed them. And they I shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall they be lacking, saith the Lord. Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David A RIGHTEOUS BRANCH, and
A KING shall reign and prosper, and shall execute justice and 'judgement upon the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved,
and Israel shall dwell safely. And this is his name whereby "he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. "Therefore behold the days come, saith the Lord, that they "shall no more say the Lord liveth, which brought up the
children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but the Lord liveth which brought up, and which led the seed of the house "of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries "whither I had driven them, and they shall dwell in their own land."
Mark now, what the Hebrew doctors and Jewish rabbins, opposite as they be to Christ, say in their writings; and that
a Rom. xi, 25, 26.
since the return of the two tribes from Babylon. "It is written "in the book Berochoth,-Benzuma saith, it shall come to pass "that Israel shall not remember their departure out of the land of Egypt, in the world to come (speaking just as the Apostle “ Heb. ii, 5, την οικουμενην την μελλουσαν) in the days of Messiah. And how doth this appear? That which is written "in Jer. xxiii, will prove it: Behold the days come, that they "shall say no more the Lord liveth, &c. This wise men inter"pret thus: not as if the name of Egypt should be blotted 'out; but because the wonders which shall be effected in the days of the Kingdom of the Messiah shall be principal, and the "Egyptian less."
Observe next the phrases and circumstances of the place; as first, that here is mention not only of Judah's return and conversion, but of Israel's also. Secondly, that they shall return not only from the land of the north, but from all countries whither they were driven. Thirdly, that, at the time the Prophet intends, there must be a sweet compliance between Jews and Gentiles in matters of religion. And lastly, that these things must be when Christ, the RIGHTEOUS BRANCH, springing from David, shall be King, and reign and prosper and execute justice and judgement in the earth.”
Chapters xxx, xxxi,
These two chapters are both one continued discourse as the connexion in verse 1 of chapter xxxi plainly shews. In them are many things, which, upon bare reading only, shew themselves never to have been fulfilled to this day. For example, mark well the following in chapter xxx: "Lo the days come, saith the Lord, that I will bring again the captivity of
my people Israel and Judah and cause them to return to their
own land." (v. 3.) "In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, "I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy
bonds, and strangers shall no more serve themselves of him, but
they shall serve the Lord their God, and DAVID their King,*
* The Chaldee is very remarkable, "They shall obey the Messiah, or Christ (the son of David) their king."
whom I will raise up unto them." (v. 8.) Fear thou not, "O my servant Jacob, saith the Lord, nor be dismayed, O Israel;
for lo I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land
of their captivity, and Jacob shall return, and shall be in rest " and quiet, and none shall make him afraid:" repeated again in chapter xlvi, 27.
None of the things in chapter xxxi, were ever yet fulfilled; especially verses 1 to 15, which concern their literal restitution to their own country, and their visible peace and glory.*
Chapter xxxii, 37-44.
"Behold I will gather them out of all countries whither I have driven them in mine anger, &c. And I will bring them "into this place, and I will cause them to dwell safely. And they shall be my people, and I will be their God. And I will
give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear me for "ever, &c. And I will make an everlasting covenant with them,
that I will not turn away from them to do them good, &c. Yea "I will rejoice over them to do them good, and will plant them "in this land ASSUREDLY, with my whole heart, and with my "" whole soul. For thus saith the Lord: like as I have brought "all this great evil upon this people, so will I bring upon them "all the good that I have promised them, &c."
I have sufficiently noticed before most things in this passage as unfulfilled note only in addition the following;-that Israel has not yet all had one way to fear God for ever with one heart.
Chapter 1, 17-20.
Israel is a scattered sheep, the lions have driven him away: first, the king of Assyria hath devoured him; and last, this "Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones.
*That this chapter has been alleged before Jerome's time, for the glorious state of all things in the thousand years, of which we speak, is evident from his comment on the place : "Omnes hujusmodi repromissiones juxta Judæos et nostros Judaizantes, in mille annorum regno putantur esse complendæ, &c."