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to manage each a train of rein-deer with sledges. Each train be. longing to the whole caravan is called a kaid; and to the management of a raid, women and children are adequate. A Laplander, his wife, and children, even those whose ages do not exceed eight or nine years, have each their ruid to conduct, drawn by eight, twelve, or fifteen rein-deer, laden with merchandise. The richest Lapps let out their rein-deer, to work in these raids. The sledge is called Achia. In the first achia, drawn by one of the rein-deer, sits the driver of the raid; followed by a train of sledges, drawn by other rein-deer, one after another, all fastened in a line. As they travel with great rapidity, through forests and among rocks, it sometimes happens that one of the rein-deer falls; or a sledge, encountering some obstacle, is suddenly checked. in its progress: and when this occurs, a rein-deer is often strangled by the cord fastened to its neck, before the driver can go to his aid. In all such cases, where accidents have occasioned losses not chargeable to any negligence in the driver, his employer is obliged to make good the deficiency. The journeys with raids are, of course, liable to danger, and to the utmost degree of fatigue: yet women far advanced in pregnancy are often the drivers; and such is their easy labour, in parturition, that child-birth hardly occasions any interruption to the progress of the raid. When the child is born, it is packed up in a wooden trough, called Komsio, like a fiddle-case: this was before described: a little arch over its face prevents the infant from suffocation. The komsio, lined with fur, and coated with a kind of leather called Sissna, is well fenced again:t the cold; and it is very rare that any accident happens to children born during these journeys. The greatest vice among the Laplanders is their love of spirituous liquor. To their habitual use of brandy may be ascribed almost the only evils to which they are liable. This accursed practice is so general, that mothers pour the hellish dose down the throats of their infants at the breast. At all their christenings and funerals, intoxication prevails, the ceremonies of rejoicing or of mourning being made mere pretexts for dram-drinking. As soon as intoxication begins, both men and women commence the ferocious howl which they call Joicka; the only species of song, if it may bear the name of song, known among them. Swearing also, and gambling with cards, are pretty much in vogue; although quarrels seldom happen; and blood is rarely,
any brawls that may arise. All the agricultural colonists of Lapland, and almost all the Swedish inhabitants and peasants of the provinces surrounding the north of the Gulph of Bothnia, believe that the Lapps are witches: that, as magicians, they possess the power of committing injuries upon
persons of those whom they do not see, and even upon those whom they never have seen. This persuasion exists among the Swedes in more civilized parts of their country. Mr. Grape told us, that a merchant, south of Stockholm, was fully persuaded,
if it be ever,
that, as he had lived so long in Lapland, he had learned some of these wizard arts, and vehemently besought him to exhibit some proof of Lapland magic. Finding that the most solemn protestations had no power to banish this credulity from his friend's mind, and being tired with his repeated importunities, he at last resolved to make a dupe of him. Pretending, therefore, reluctantly to acquiesce, he said, that he had no longer any objection to accomplish the only thing it was in his power to perform, in order to satisfy such 'urgent curiosity: and knowing that his friend had lately lost a spouse to whom he was by no means attached, he added, “ If you have any matters you wish to settle with your late wife, which were left unfinished at her decease, I will introduce her to you for a few minutes.” The terrified merchant regarded him in silence for an instant; when perceiving that Mr. Grape was beginning to mutter some incantation, he seized him by both his arms, exclaiming, with the greatest eagerness and agitation,“ Raise the D-1, if you will; but, for God's sake, suffer my wife to rest in peace!”
ART. VIII.-Novelties of French Literature.
[From the Monthly Magazine. ] FEW historical works of the present century have met such ex:
tensive success as the History of Cromwell, by M. Villemain.* We learn that scarcely a single politician in Paris has neglected to peruse it, and that the substantial declaration of public approbation has been evinced in the sale of several thousand copies; thus demonstrating that fame is not always empty-handed. M. Villemain has been long known in France, and indeed in many other parts of Europe, as a man of sound talents and distinguished attainments; and the knowledge of his being employed in writing the history of Cromwell, was sufficient, long before he had completed half his undertaking, to excite a general desire for its appearance.
The History of Cromwell, undertaken by a Frenchman, was evidently less intended to supply any chasm in our own information of the events of the time, in which that great and singular character flourished, than to enable the French to apply to their views and situation, the conclusions which were to be adduced from the relation of facts, so analogous to the recent,' and, in a slight degree, still existing, circumstances and events of their own nation. With every disposition to speak well o M. Villemain's Cromwell, we beg it to be understood, that we review it as a French book, and not as an English one. Many of the facts contained in it would appear stale or unprofitable to the English; but there is scarcely a line of the historical part of the work, which is not new to the French, and it would therefore be an act of considerable injustice, to rob M. Villemain of the credit which belongs to him,
* Two volumes, octavo.
for having collected, from authentic sources, a variety of useful and interesting information, as it respects his own countrymen. We may even go farther, and assert, that there are some parts of his book which would be interesting to the English reader, both for the facts that they contain, and the plain, nervous style, in which those facts are related.
M. Villemain follows Cromwell through all the various incidents of his public life, and lays before the reader a picture, full of the astonishment and wonder excited by this extraordinary character. If the disposition of a man, so closely shut up within himself, and whose conduct was seldom influenced by those general rules which govern society, can be ascertained by an investigation of the motives of his actions, we are ready to give M. Villemain credit for the talent of having unmasked the hypocrite; but the life of Cromwell was such a mixture of vice and virtue, baseness and magnanimity, and the ultimate display of each, was under such extraordinary circumstances, that it is difficult to say whether his virtue was produced by policy, or his vice by the deviations which too frequently detract from the reputation of the most virtuous. The ungovernable ambition of Cromwell, appears to have led him into many wanton acts of cruelty; but, on the other hand, he was far from being destitute of the softer feelings of humanity: his conduct towards his mother, for instance, was highly praiseworthy, and his attentions, in her last illness, were really more than might have been expected from a man surrounded by the business of the state, and ever watchful to preserve his ill-gained power. Indeed, the mother of Cromwell appears to have deserved all the attentions that could be shown to her, and the Protector, whether he acted from motives of true filial piety, or a desire to appear virtuous to the multitude, could not have taken a more effectual step towards public favour.
A valuable Comment on the Constitutions of the French Nation, with an historical and political Essay on the Charter, &c. has appeared, by count Lanjuinais, peer of France, &c. &c. a name illustrious in the annals of freedom and rational liberty:--Count Lanjuinais hailed the French revolution with joy,--that revolution which has been so much calumniated, and to which Louis XVI. declared " he and the queen were infinitely attached;' (Moniteur, December 24, 1790.) The crimes that resistance to principles produced, are only imputable to the authors of that resistance; unfor. tunately, vengeance superseded a legitimate defence, when M. Lanjuinais was one of the first to rise against the perversion of the real principles of the revolution; the consequence was, his being denounced, when, to save his life, he was obliged to pass a rigorous winter in a hay-loft, sleeping on straw, with a scanty supply of food, only once in two or three days; the wind and rain beating in upon him in all directions. Robespierre fell, and Lanjuianais was re-called; he has, since that period, acted a distinguished but uniform part in the political theatre. He
against Bonaparte's elevation to the empire; yet Napoleon knew him to be as honest as he was enlightened, and he created him a senator, in which character he steadily opposed every measure of ambition and aggression. In 1815, on Napoleon's return, he was chosen president of the chamber of representatives, contrary to the wishes of Napoleon, who sent for him, and, in his haughty manner, said, 'Well, sir, you have been chosen president; now answer me, without tergiversation, the questions I shall put?'— Sir, I will do it, with the rapidity of lightning: I never have to compromise with my conscience.'— Are you for me? Are you mine?'— No, sire; I am for France: be yourself for her, and I am then for you. Napoleon turned on his heel.
This sketch of the author will serve as a criticism on the work, and offers a guarantee of the constitutional doctrines that abound in it. A brief analysis of the contents only requires to be added. The work contains the whole of the laws not abrogated, and some of those which have been abrogated improperly, since the revolution. On looking over them, we find rich materials for a constitutional charter; and when the abbe Montesquieu composed the present one, we wish he had paid a little more attention to what had already been done. The historical Essay on the Charter, is a master-piece; he exposes its excellencies and its defects, and, if the French legislators would only consult the volumes before us, France might soon possess the best constitution in the world.
An Historical and Critical Essay on the French Revolution, its causes and results, augmented by a review of the consulate, and the reign of Napoleon, has appeared from the pen of M. Paganel.The work of Madame de Stael owes more of its charms to the enchanting style of the author, than to any real information which it contains; it is a monument raised by filial piety to the memory of a parent, whom she might be permitted to consider the greatest of men;' while others, not bound by similar ties, regard him as a mere political schemer, whose first object was his own aggrandizement. M. Necker offered to become minister of finance without a salary; his generosity was admired, and it was forgotten that M. Necker was a banker and stock-jobber; and by thus being at the head of the finances, he could, in one day, realize on the Stock Exchange, more than any minister's salary would produce in many years. This we say was possible; but did he execute it? Did room permit, we could give what might be regarded as conclusive evidence, that M. Necker, while minister, made use of the influence and knowledge he possessed, in speculating on the exchanges of Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Hamburg; hence that colossal fortune which no one could account for his having made, it being very clear that he had it not before he became minister, and that he did not make it by peculation.*
* There is a curious anecdote on this subject. The abbe St. Pierre had stated in his writings, that he never knew a colossal fortune honestly obtained. The
Madame de Stael tells us, her father would have prevented the revolution; but we think, with M. Paganel, that he was one of the causes which accelerated it. And to those who have only read the work of Madame de Stael, the work before us is necessary, in order to give them a correct idea of that revolution, which is, perhaps, not yet terminated. Mr. Paganel excels rather in the correctness of his details, and the impartiality of his statements, than in the style and dignity of the historian; but, after all, this sober use of the powers of the imagination, is a quality most precious in a writer of history; yet he does not want either energy or dignity, when the occasion commands it; we shall select, as a specimen of his manner, the portraits of Bailly and Mirabeau.
Bailly was celebrated in learned Europe, long before the French revolution declared itself by terrific symptoms; and his fellow-citizens, in calling him to the states-general, rendered a brilliant homage to the philosopher who had enriched the museum of history by learned discoveries, and traced the first steps of man in the vast empire that nature had submitted to him.
A profound observer, Bailly had explored the origin of times and their revolutions: a pure, ingenious, and eloquent writer, uniting taste with genius, he had adorned the sciences with all the charms of literature, and rendered their study more attractive and easy, at the same time that he aggrandized their domain.
This philosopher, who, aided by the history of the heavens, had thrown so much light on the history of man, seemed also destined to reform the political and religious abuses which had accumulated in France. Bailly appeared at the assembly of the nation as the envoy of the human race.
What a contrast is offered, in the history of the revolution, between Bailly presiding over the members of the Tiers-etat, and proclaiming them the representatives of the nation, and accounting it the proudest day of his life, that in which the nobles and the clergy joined the National Assembly; and Bailly dragged to the scaffold with humiliations and outrage.
* Amongst the most illustrious victims of the prejudices of revolutions and tyranny, is there one who has sustained a more perilous combat for virtue, or a longer or more severe trial of courage?
Socrates was not more generous, nor Jesus more resigned. • What titles to immortality decorate the name and memory of Bailly! The nation, under his presidence, repaired in an instant, ages of oppression; it did more-it acquitted towards the philosopher, the debt of the universe. What sublime harmony in the sittings, when the Tiers-etat said, We are the French nation.
countess de Geplis went to him, and said she could cite an instance,' and named M. Necker. “My dear countess,' replied the abbe, “what would you say, if I told you that I had precisely Mr. Necker in my eye when I wrote the para