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Divisions. This country is divided into East and West Florida; East Florida containing about 50,000, and West Florida about 6,500 square miles.
Population.—The present population does not exceed 12,000, exclusive of Indians. The inhabitants mostly reside in towns.
Chief towns.-St. Augustine and Pensacola are the only towns of much consideration.
St. Augustine, the capital of East Florida, is situated on the east coast, on the bay of St. Augustine, in latitude 30° north, and longitude 4° 25' west; containing 4000 inhabitants. It is a healthy place, having a high and dry situation, with the benefits of the seabreezes. The figure of the town is a parallelogram, laid out at the foot of an eminence on the beach; with four wide parallel streets, intersected by others of smaller dimensions, at right angles. The church of St. Augustine, with the monastery, are the most conspicuous edifices of the town. The town is well fortified; the castle St. Juan being built of stone, with four bastions, the curtains between which are 180 feet long, and 20 feet high. The buildings are fire proof, and partly casemated. St. Augustine has resisted successfully several formidable attacks.
Besides St. Augustine, there are several small villages in East Florida; the principal of which is St. Mark's, situated on the river St. Mark's, near the Apalachia bay.
Pensacola, the capital of West Florida, is situated on the west side of Pensacola bay,
having a fine harbour, safe from every wind, with plenty of water. Pensacola is in latitude 30° 28' north, and longitude 10° west, sixty miles east of Mobile. Its figure is a parallelogram one mile long, and a quarter of a mile wide; and it is accounted a healthy place. The entrance into the bay is fortified. The country north of the town, is watered by the Escambia, Conneuch, and Yellow rivers, rising in Alabama, and running into the bay of Pensacola.
The other villages of West Florida are St. Joseph, near cape St. Blaz in the gulf of Mexico; Wells, on the west side of St. Andrew's bay; and Cambeltown, seven miles northeast of Pensacola, and at the head of the same bay.
Rivers.-Apalachicola, the principal river of the Floridas, rises at the point where North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia, approach; and, running across the last, becomes the boundary, for some distance, between it and Alabama. Leaving Alabama, it becomes the boundary between West Florida and Georgia; and, at the mouth of Flint, flowing in from the northeast, it becomes the boundary between the two Floridas. It then proceeds towards the gulf of Mexico, and discharges itself into St. George's sound, near cape St. Blaz.
St. Mary's, rising in the Ekanfanoka swamp, runs to the Atlantic, between Georgia and East Florida.
St. John's, rises in the south of East Florida, and running north a short distance, forms Mayaco lake. This lake throws out several small streams running east into the Atlantic, and southwest into the gulf of Mexico; but the principal outlet proceeds directly north, forming in its way four other lakes, the chief of which is lake George. At Poppa or Piccolata, it changes its direction from north to northeast, and runs into the Atlantic, near Talbotisland, about midway between St. Augustine and St. Mary's. The source, situation, course, length, and outlet of this river lead to a number of reflections, in relation to the face of the country, and its internal communications. In the first place, it would appear that lake Mayaco occupies the highest point of land in East Florida; streams running from it, by various directions, into the Atlantic and gulf of Mexico. In the second place, it has formed a water communication between the northeast and southwest shores of East Florida. In the third place, there is only sixty miles distance between lake George and Espiritu-Santa bay, the rivers of the one interlocking with the waters of the other; making the communication by water from the Atlantic to the gulf of Mexico very
direct and short. In the fourth place, the river St. John's is a natural reservoir, to supply canals in every part of the territory, to shorten the conveyance of merchandize, between the Atlantic and gulf of Mexico. In the fifth place, a question is suggested, whence come the springs that supply lake Mayaco? It is higher than the level of the Atlantic and gulf of Mexico, as is proved by water falling in rapid currents from its basin into both. There are no lands on the peninsula, higher than the lake itself, at least below the 30° north Latitude, which is distant from the lake 250 miles.
This sketch not being designed to discuss, at length, physical questions, arising out of the phenomena that appear on the face of the territory, more is not intended here, than barely to excite the investigation of naturalists and philosophers. It is deemed sufficient, for the present, barely to intimate that lake Mayaco is supplied by a subterraneous channel, leading from a fountain situated in the upper regions of Georgia, perhaps in the Allegany mountains. Calculating this covert channel of the St. John's, it is perhaps the longest river running into the Atlantic.
Suwanny, another river rising in the Ekanfanoka swamp, pursuing a winding course of 200 miles, falls into the Apalachia bay. This is said to be the purest river in America, receiving in its course no tributary streams or creeks; but is supplied entirely by springs along its banks. It is 200 yards wide, and twenty feet deep, at Talaho-sochete in East Florida.
In addition to those already mentioned, of East Florida, there are, running into the Atlantic, Naussa, India, Greenouille, St. Sebastian, St. Lucia; running into the gulf of Mexico, North-river, Delaware, Caxinba, Colonsa, Charlotte, New, kocky-river, Haley's, Amajura; running into Espiritu Santa bay, Tampa, Hellsborough, Manette; and running into the Apalachian bay, St. Mark's, and Oke-tock-onne.
The rivers of West Florida are the Perdido, so called because it loses itself a short distance under ground-Perdido-rio, signifying lost river, is the boundary between Mobile county, in Alabama, and West Florida; Escambia, Conneuch, Yellow, St. Andrews, Sweet-water, &c.
Swamps.-The great Ekanfanoka, called by the natives, Ouaquaphenogau, lies between Georgia and East Florida, and is divided between them by an imaginary line. It is estimated 300 miles in circumference, and, in a wet season, has the appearance of a vast lake, studded with islands. The soil of the islands, or firm land, in this immense morass, is indescribably rich; as is most of the marshy ground in both the Floridas. To clear, and put them into successful culture, will require immense labour.
Lakes. The principal of these have already been mentioned in tracing the great river St. John's of the south.
Islands.-- Amelia, Talbot, St. Anastatia, Biscaino, Ball, Newcastle, Bradshaw, Tortugas, St. George's, Corn-island, Roebuck, Santa Rosa.
Bays. St. Augustine, Smyrna, Chatham, Charlotte, Espiritu. Santa, St. Joseph, Apalachia, Pensacola, St. Andrew's, Perdido, St. Mary's, Carlos Capes, Carneveral, Florida, Sable, Roman, St. Blaz, &c.
Soil. The major part is sandy, covered with long-leaf-pine. On the rivers, creeks, lakes, and swamps, the soil is of the first quality, and produce sugar, cotton, corn, indigo, rice, &c., equal to the best lands of Georgia. Some of the islands are valuable on account of their fertility.
Produce.-In addition to those mentioned above, are, potatoes, melons, ground-peas, lemons, oranges, olives, figs, cocoa-nuts, plums, and cochineal. Natural growth.
Immense white and red oak, the splendid and beautiful magniola, cypress, red and white cedar, crab-oak, mulberry, hiccory, sassafras, palms, walnuts, cabbage tree, &c., grow in masses, and form in summer the most delightful shades for man and beast. The flowering shrubbery and plants of Florida, are indi. cated by the name of the country; and do not owe their existence to fancy. Here the busy bee and the singing birds sport in ecstasies.
Animals.-Horses, flocks of sheep, goats, herds of cattle, and droves of swine, are reared in Florida. In desart places, wild animals, such as otters, hares, rabbits, racoons, foxes, opossums, squirrels, salamanders, gophers, alligators, and various reptiles abound. The alligators are frightfully large, but generally harmless; fewer accidents arising from their voracity or ferocity, notwithstanding their numbers, than from the viciousness of many of the domestic animals.
Government.—The Floridas, lately provinces of Spain, were under the capitania-general of the Havanna, with military govern. ors at St. Augustine and Pensacola, and commandants at the smaller posts. Since the treaty ceding them to the United States, 1819,
congress passed an act, authorising the president to take possession, in the event of the ratification of the treaty by the Spanish monarch, and to establish a provisional government for the territory.
Índians.-The Indians of Florida reside mostly in the neighbourhood of Apalachia bay; but, they are a vagrant people, wandering to and from the towns. They are called Seminoles; and, as the name imports, are runaways from the Creeks, and other nations to the north of Florida. Their habits are mean, little of the magnanimity of the Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, &c. remaining with them.' Their vagabond habits have been encouraged by an association with the vilest swindlers and cut-throats Americans, Englishmen, and Spaniards—who have either fled hither from the justice of the law; or resorted to this scene for the sake of traf. fic with the Indians. This horrible band, augmented by runaway negroes, have been exceedingly troublesome to the peace and safety of the inhabitants of the south-west counties of Georgia-stealing, robbing, and murdering until they were completely overthrown by general Jackson, in the short, but vigorous campaign of 1818.
Xistory. This country was discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1497. It has frequently changed masters, belonging alternately to the French and Spaniards. The French first formed a small establishment in Florida in 1564, from which they were driven in the following year, by the Spaniards, who then began to form settlements themselves. At the peace of 1763 Florida was ceded to England, in exchange for the Havanna, which had been taken from the Spaniards. While it was in possession of the English, it was divided into East and West Florida, separated by the Apalachicola. During the American war, in the year 1781, both the Floridas were reduced by the Spaniards, to whom they were confirmed by the peace of 1783. It remained in quiet possession of Spain, until the late war between the United States and Great Britain, when Pensacola was entered by general Jackson, in pursuit of the British forces, who were there sheltered and provisioned. In 1818, a war having broken out between the United States and the Seminole Indians, residing in East and West Florida, the Indians were pursued to the Spanish posts, St. Mark’s, Pensacola, &c., where it being discovered that the Spanish commandants had not acquitted their neutrality, nor exerted their influence to preserve the peace, as required by the treaty relations, between the United States and Spain, general Jackson demolished the towns on Shuwanny, captured the post of St. Mark's, the town of Pensacola, and fort Bar. ancas, and transported the governor and troops to Havanna. Pensacola was immediately restored by the president to the Spanish authority.
ART. IV.- The Hermit in London, or Sketches of English Man
[From the Journal of Belles Lettres.]
Thy nags—the leanest things alive
It cost thee more in whips than bay.'
observe a constant succession and change of servants in the houses of the great,—when I regret to behold the unanswered pe. titions of the necessitous almost thrown at them, and remark that I never noticed a pauper relieved at a neighbour's door,- I am convinced that grinding economy, the slave of pride, is the cause of all this havoc to man and beast.
Where economy, however, is only the representative of honest poverty, or is more properly mere self-denial for some laudable purpose,-for instance, to pay a parent's debts, to disencumber an estate for a son, or to provide for indigent relatives, and those who have natural ties upon us,--I honour those who are reduced to these abnegations, and I respect the motive which occasions them.
But how few instances do we behold of self-denial, in order to rescue the name of a father or of a husband, whose ashes now repose in the tomb, from the infamy and the charge of injustice? How few fathers, like the virtuous Cremorne, consider the honour of a departed son identified with their own, and will allow no one to name him with a claim or with a reproach in his mouth! How few instances of parental, of conjugal, and of filial piety, exist in this respect! Nay, we rarely find people resort to self-denials in order to pay their own personal debts; whilst a title, or a senatorial privilege, saves them from arrest. Yet every day we see acts of barbarous, contemptible, and pinching penury, in order to pamper pride, to gild nothingness, to obtain transitory respect, which never can survive a perfect knowledge of the character, or rather, that kind of homage, of consideration, or deference which little minds pay to fine dress, fine furniture, to the skeletons of halfstarved cattle, and to pining and hungry livery men just hired, or just wearing out their month of warning.
Here we behold a haughty old maid, perhaps with honourable Miss tacked to her name, whose slender pittance would keep herself and waiting-woman in comfort, leaving a crust for the poor, or the tithe of her reverence for the noblest duties of humanity; but, in order that she may give a couple of routs, and be followed daily. by half-fed footmen of six feet high, the waiting-maid and livery., man must keep lent all the year round, and the poor must be driven trembling from her door.
In another quarter of the town we have the widow of high life, whose late husband's debts and difficulties scarcely leave her enough with which to keep house; yet must her establishment be maintained the same number of domestics, of horses, and of car.