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other evidence wanting, shows, on how precarious a footing, stands, the reputation, and the life, of a warrior.


My dear Howard," said Morgan, cordially pressing his hand, as he spoke," you have given me victory, and I love and honour you; but, had you failed in your charge, which you risked without orders, I would have shot you."

'Previously to this, colonel Howard had distinguished himself among those, who, by their gallantry and good conduct, had sustained the character of the American arms, and prevented the utter destruction of the forces, in the battle near Cambden, where Gates was defeated.

'Nor was he entitled to less applause, for the spirit and judgment, which he afterwards displayed, at Guilford, Hobkirk's hill, and the Eutaw springs; at the latter of which, he was severely wounded.

'But a letter, from general Greene, dated November 14th, 1781, to a friend, in Maryland, is conclusive, as to the military reputation of colonel Howard.

"This will be handed to you, says the general, by colonel Howard, as good an officer, as the world affords. He has great ability, and the best disposition, to promote the service. My own obligations to him are great-the public's still more so. He deserves a statue of gold, no less than the Roman and Grecian heroes. He has been wounded, but has happily recovered, and now goes home, to pay a little attention to his private affairs, and to take charge of the fifth Maryland regiment, recruiting in your state. "With great respect, and esteem,

66 I am, dear sir, yours,


'Colonel Howard was born, June 4th, 1752, on his ancestral estate, near the city of Baltimore. His paternal ancestors were from England, his maternal, from Ireland. The descendant of a gentleman, easy in circumstances, his education was such as, his rank and fortune entitled him to receive.

'On the conclusion of the war, he married miss Chew, daughter of the honourable Benjamin Chew, of Philadelphia.

'Contented and happy, in domestic life, and much occupied, with his private affairs, he has never sought political honours, but left to others to govern the country, which he, by his valour, had contributed to set free.

'He still resides on his patrimonial estate, surrounded by a large and respectable family, pre-eminent in affluence, and passing the evening of his life, in that dignified and felicitous retirement, which high and unsullied reputation, a peaceful conscience, a cultivated intellect, and polished manners, alone can bestow.

'A fourth officer, uniting, in himself, all that gives dignity and worth to the private citizen, and excellence to the commander, was colonel Otho H. Williams, also a native of the state of Maryland.

"This gentleman was formed for eminence in any station. His talents were of a high order, and his attainments, various and extensive. Possessing a person of uncommon symmetry, and peculiarly distinguished, by the elegance of his manners, he would have graced, alike, a court or a camp.

'Rich in that species of military science, which is acquired by experience, and a correct, systematic, and severe disciplinarian, general Greene confided to him the important trust, of adjutant general to the southern army. The services, which in this, and other capacities, he rendered to that division of the American forces, in the course of their toilsome and perilous operations, were beyond all praise.

He was born, in the county of Prince George, in the year 1748, and received, during his youth, but a slender education. This, he so much improved, by subsequent study, that few men had a finer taste, or a more cultivated intellect.

He commenced his military career, as lieutenant of a rifle company, in 1775; and, in the course of the following year, was promoted to the rank of major, in a rifle regiment.

In this corps, he very honourably distinguished himself, in the defence of fort Washington, on York Island, when assaulted by sir William Howe; and, on the surrender of that post, became a pri


'Having suffered much, by close confinement, during his captivity, he was exchanged, for major Ackland, after the capture of Burgoyne, and immediately rejoined the standard of his country.

'Being now promoted to the rank of colonel of a regiment of infantry, he was detached, under the baron De Kalb, to the army of the south.

General Gates having been appointed to the command of this division of the American forces, he was present with that officer, at his defeat, before Cambden; and, during the action, manifested great valour, and skill, in directing, and leading the operations against the enemy, while resistance was practicable; and, an equal degree of self-possession and address, in conducting the troops from the field, when compelled to retreat.

But, as an officer, his valour and skill, in battle, were among the lowest of his qualifications. His penetration and sagacity, united to a profound judgment, and a capacious mind, rendered him, in the cabinet, particularly valuable.

'Hence, he was one of general Greene's favourite counsellors, during the whole of his southern campaigns. Nor did any thing ever occur, either through neglect, or mistake, to impair the confidence, thus reposed in him. In no inconsiderable degree, he was to Greene, what that officer had been to general Washington, his strongest hope, in all emergencies, where great policy and address were required.

'This was clearly manifested, by the post assigned to him, by general Greene, during his celebrated retreat, through North Caro


In that great and memorable movement, on which the fate of the south was staked, to Williams was confided the command of the rear guard, which was literally the shield and rampart of the army. Had he relaxed, but for a moment, in his vigilance and exertion, or been guilty of a single imprudent act, ruin must have ensued.

'Nor was his command much less momentous, when, recrossing the Dan, Greene again advanced on the enemy. Still in the post of danger and honour, he now, in the van of the army, commanded the same corps, with which he had previously moved in the rear. But of these operations, it will be our business to speak more particularly hereafter.

'A military friend, who knew him well, has given us the following summary of his character.

"He possessed that range of mind, although self-educated, which entitled him to the highest military station, and was actuated by true courage, which can refuse, as well as give battle. Soaring far above the reach of vulgar praise, he singly aimed at promoting the common weal, satisfied with the consciousness of doing right, and desiring only that share of applause, which was justly his own.

"There was a loftiness and liberality, in his character, which forbade resort to intrigue and hypocrisy, in the accomplishment of his views, and rejected the comtemptible practice, of disparaging others to exalt himself.

"In the field of battle, he was self-possessed, intelligent, and ardent; in camp, circumspect, attentive, and systematic; in council, sincere, deep, and perspicuous. During the campaigns of general Greene, he was uniformly one of his few advisers, and held his unchanged confidence. Nor was he less esteemed by his bro ther officers, or less respected by his soldiery."

We conclude our extracts with the following note, taken from the appendix.

Mecklenburgh Declaration of Independence.

'The present work purporting to develop somewhat of the spirit and character of the people of the south, during the war of the revolution, the publication of the following curious and interesting document is so far relevant to its design.

'On the authenticity of the article, it is believed that a perfect reliance may be placed.

"With the chairman and secretary (clerk, as the latter is there denominated) as well as with colonel Thomas Polk, a very spirited and leading member of the association, the writer of these Memoirs was intimately acquainted; and knows them to have been capable of all that is virtuous, patriotic, and daring.

'Their proceedings clearly show, that while Virginia and Massachusetts are contending for the honour of having given birth to

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the revolutionary spirit of our country, the state of North Carolina took the lead of both, in a formal manifestation of the spirit of independence.

We need not indicate to the reader the identity of the language, which closes the third resolution of the Mecklenburgh declaration, with that closing the last section of our national declaration, which was prepared and adopted more than a year afterwards.

North Carolina, Mecklenburgh County, May 20th, 1775. "In the spring of 1775, the leading characters of Mecklenburgh county, stimulated by the enthusiastic patriotism which elevates the mind above considerations of individual aggrandisement, and scorning to shelter themselves from the impending storm, by submission to lawless power, &c. &c. held several detached meetings, in each of which the individual sentiments were, that the cause of Boston was the cause of all; and their destinies were indissolubly connected with those of their eastern fellow-citizens—and that they must either submit to all the impositions which an unprincipled, and to them an unrepresented parliament might impose-or support their brethren who were doomed to sustain the first shock of that power, which, if successful there, would ultimately overwhelm all in the common calamity. Conformably to these principles, colonel Adam Alexander, through solicitation, issued an order to each captain's company in the county of Mecklenburgh (then comprising the present county of Cabarrus) directing each militia company to elect two persons, and delegate to them ample power to devise ways and means to aid and assist their suffering brethren in Boston, and also generally to adopt measures to extricate themselves from the impending storm, and to secure, unimpaired, their inalienable rights, privileges and liberties from the dominant grasp of British imposition and tyranny.

In conforming to said order, on the 19th of May, 1775, the said delegation met in Charlotte, vested with unlimited powers; at which time official news, by express, arrived of the battle of Lexington on that day of the preceding month. Every delegate felt the value and importance of the prize, and the awful and solemn crisis which had arrived-every bosom swelled with indignation at the malice, inveteracy, and insatiable revenge developed in the late attack at Lexington. The universal sentiment was let us not flatter ourselves that popular harangues, or resolves; that popular vapour will avert the storm, or vanquish our common enemy-let us deliberate-let us calculate the issue-the probable result; and then let us act with energy as brethren leagued to preserve our property-our lives-and what is still...ore endearing, the liberties of America.-Abraham Alexander was then elected chairman, and John M'Knitt Alexander, clerk. After a free and full discussion of the various objects for which the delegation had been convened, it was unanimously ordained

"1. Resolved, That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted, or in any way, form, or manner, countenanced the unchartered and

dangerous invasion of our rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy to his country-to America-and to the inherent and unalienable rights of man.

"2. Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburgh county, do hereby dissolve the political bands which have connected us to the mother country, and hereby dissolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British crown, and abjure all political connexion, contract, or association with that nation, who have wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties-and inhumanly shed the innocent blood of American patriots at Lexington.

"3. Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people; are, and of right ought to be, a sovereign and self governing association, under the control of no power other than that of our God and the general government of the congress: to the maintenance of which independence, we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual co-operation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honour.

"4. Resolved, That, as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or legal officer, civil or military, within this county, we do hereby ordain and adopt, as a rule of life, all, each, and every of our former laws-wherein, nevertheless, the crown of Great Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority therein.

"5. Resolved, That it is also further decreed, that all, each, and every military officer in this county is hereby reinstated to his former command and authority, he acting conformably to these regulations. And that every member present of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz. a justice of the peace, in the character of a committee man,' to issue process, hear and determine all matters of controversy, according to said adopted laws, and to preserve peace, and union, and harmony, in said county; and to use every exertion to spread the love of country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a more general and organized government be established in this province."

ART. III.-Geographical Description of Florida.

[The anticipated annexation of Florida, to our territory, renders an accurate knowledge of its geography very desirable. It is, however, but little understood. The following description is inserted to meet the public curiosity upon the subject.]"








N. Lat.

378 length Sq. miles, 228 breadth 3° 30' 10° 20′ W. Long. 56,500. Boundaries. On the north by Georgia and Alabama; on the south by the gulf of Mexico; on the east by the Atlantic, and gulf of Florida; and on the west by the gulf of Mexico, and part of Alabama.

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