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a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to the called brethren who have been sanctified by God the Father +, and preserved in the faith of Jesus Christ‡: 2 mercy, and peace, and love, be multiplied unto you.


Beloved, while I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it became necessary for me to write unto you, and exhort you, that ye should earnestly contend 4 for the faith which was once delivered to the saints. For some men have crept in privily, who were before, of old, set forth' for this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the favour of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only 5 Sovereign, and our Lord Jesus Christ. Now I desire to

1 Or, described, or written of, N. m.

2 the only Sovereign God, R. T.

This epistle is one of those books the genuineness of which was disputed in the primitive ages, and which therefore, as Dr. Lardner well observes, 66 ought not to be alleged as affording alone sufficient proof of any doctrine." Grotius ascribes it to a bishop of Jerusalem in the reign of Adrian: but it is commonly believed to have been written by Judas, otherwise called Lebbeus, and Thaddeus, the son of Alpheus, the brother of James the less, and firstcousin to our Lord. The design of the epistle is to guard his readers against the errors and the crimes of the Gnostics. He is thought to have made quotations from the same apocryphal work which is referred to in the second epistle of Peter, which epistle Dr. Benson conjectures to have been consulted by him while he was writing his own. The epistle of Jude has as little evidence, either external or internal, in its favour, as any book of the New Testament. + sanctified, i. e. separated or set apart to God. Brethren that are sanctified in the knowledge of God the Father, N.

Or, by, Or, to Jesus Christ; i. e. who adhere to his doctrine notwithstanding the many corrupters of it. See Newcome's note.

remind you even1 [you,] who once knew this, that the Lord having saved his people out of the land of Egypt, afterward 6 destroyed those who believed not. And the angels who kept not their first state *, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in eternal chains, under darkness, to the judge7 ment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them which in like manner with them gave themselves over to uncleanness, and went after abo minable desires, are set forth for an example, suffering the 8 vengeance of everlasting fire t. In like manner also these dreamers defile the flesh, set at nought dominion, and blas9 pheme dignities. Yet Michael the archangel, when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a blaspheming accusation, 10 but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." But these blaspheme what they understand not: but what they know naturally, as brute creatures, in these things they corrupt themselves. 11 Alas for them! because they have gone in the way of Cain, and rushed after the error of Balaam for reward, and de12 stroyed themselves by gainsaying like Korah. These are blemishes in your love-feasts, when they banquet with you,


"you even" omitted by N. Or, followed unnatural passions, Gr. other flesh, N. m. 3 Or, suffered not himself to bring. Did not presume to bring. Wakefield.

*Or, "the messengers who watched not duly over their own principality, but deserted their proper habitation, he kept with perpetual chains under darkness (punished them with judicial blindness of mind) unto the judgement of a great day, i, e. when they were destroyed by a plague." Alluding to the falsehood and punishment of the spies. Numbers xiv. See Simpson's Essays, p. 210. This may be thought by some a far fetched interpretation. Perhaps the writer may refer to some fanciful account of a fall of angels contained in the apocryphal book which lay before him, without meaning to vouch for the fact. He might introduce it merely to illustrate his argument. At any rate, a fact so important is not to be admitted upon such precarious evidence.-Or, ་་ high state," N. m.

+"Everlasting in its effects; the cities having been finally destroyed."


"This was probably taken from the apocryphal book before mentioned. We may be instructed by the moral, without admitting the fact. Some sup◄ pose a reference to Zech. iii, 1-3." Newcome.

feeding themselves without restraint': clouds without water, carried aside3 by winds; trees whose fruit withereth, 13 barren, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom the blackness of darkness is reserved for ever. 14 Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied to these also, saying, "Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thou15 sands of his saints, to execute judgement upon all, and to convict all the ungodly [among them] of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed, and of all the hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him." 16 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own evil desires: and their mouth speaketh very swelling words, and they respect the persons of men for the sake of gain. 17 But, beloved, remember ye the words which have been

spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; 18 how they told you that there should be scoffers in the last 19 time, walking after their own ungodly desires. These are they who separate [themselves], animal, not having the spirit.


But ye, beloved, building up yourselves in your most 21 holy faith, praying through the holy spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Je22 sus Christ to everlasting life. And on some have pity, 23 making a difference: and save others [with fear], snatching them out of the fire; hating even the vest' defiled by the flesh.


Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling 8, 8 and to present you spotless before his glory with exceeding joy,

1 N. m. fear: N.

2 they are as clouds-as trees-as waves-as stars. N. 3 carried about, R. T. 4 Gr. with his holy myriads, N. m. 5 Or, But as for you, beloved, remember the words. See S. 31. N. m. 6 Or, And some rebuke, making &c. Mss. N. m. 7 Or, garment. 8 free from falling, N.

* This is another quotation from some ancient apocryphal book, for the authenticity of which, however, the writer is not to be supposed to vouch. See Dr. Benson in loc.

25 to the only God, our Saviour', through Jesus Christ our Lord *, be glory [and] majesty, dominion and power, as before all time†, so now, and throughout all ages. Amen.

1 1 Or, to God alone, our Saviour. To the only wise God, R.T.

* The words "through Jesus Christ our Lord" are omitted in the received text and by Newcome. They are introduced in Griesbach, 2d edit., upon the authority of the Alexandrine, Vatican, and Ephrem Mss. and many ancient


+ The words "before all time" are wanting in R. T. and N., but intreduced by Griesbach, 2d. edit., upon the same authorities as in the preceding note. q. d. "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be."



1 THE Revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave him, that he might show to his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel' 2 to his servant John: who hath thus testified of the word of God, and of the testimony given to Jesus Christ, even what3 ever things he saw. Happy is he that readeth, and those that hear, the words of this prophecy, and keep3 the things written in it: for the time is near.



John to the seven churches which are in Asia: favour be of St. John the Divine, R.T. 2 Or, messenger. 3 Or, observe: or, perform, N.m.

The Apocalypse or Revelation of St. John, is one of those books, the genuineness and authority of which, as Eusebius informs us, was, by some, called in question. It has, however, been almost universally received in modern times. As a book of prophecy, the evidence of its divine authority must chiefly rest upon the perceived accomplishment of the predictions which it contains: so that it may be regarded as in a considerable degree independent of external evidence. In this, however, in the estimation of many learned men, it is far from being deficient. Sir Isaac Newton says, (Observ. on Apoc. p. 249.) "1 do not find any other book of the New Testament so strongly attested, or commented upon so early as this " Dr. Priestley (Notes, vol. iv. p. 573,) says, he thinks it impossible for any intelligent and candid person to peruse it without being convinced that, “considering the age in which it appeared, none but a person divinely inspired could have written it." See also Mr. Towers's observations and extracts respecting the authenticity of the Apocalypse, in his learned Illustrations of Prophecy, vol. i. ch. iii. Mr. Evanson has even endeavoured to prove that the apostle Paul alludes and thus bears testimony to the authenticity of this book in some of his epistles. See Evanson's Reflections upon the State of Religion, p.39-42. Some learned men, however, who have even admitted the divine authority of the Apocalypse, have expressed a doubt whether this book was written by John the apostle and evangelist. The arguments of Dionysius, a disciple of Origen, and an eminently learned and pious bishop of Alexandria, in the third century, are contained in a large extract from a treatise of Dionysius in the seventh book of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History. They are thus abridged by Dr, Lardner: "Dionysius's objections are five in number.

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