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us, that we should be called children of God: the world therefore knoweth us not, because it knew him not. 2 Beloved, now we are the children of God, and it hath not yet been manifested what we shall be: [but] we know that, when he shall be manifested, we shall be like him; 3 for we shall see him as he is. And every man who placeth this hope in him, purifieth himself, even as Christ is pure. 4 Whosoever committeth sin, transgresseth the law also: 5 for sin is a transgression of the law. And ye know that Christ was manifested to take away [our] sins: and in him 6 is no sin. Whosoever abideth in him, sinneth not: who7 soever sinneth, hath not seen him, nor known him. My children, let no man deceive you. He that doeth righte8 ousness is righteous, as Christ is righteous: he who committeth sin, is of the devil *; for the devil hath sinned from the beginning: for this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. 9 Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin; for his seed abideth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born 10 of God. In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness, 11 is not of God; nor he who loveth not his brother. For this is the charge' which ye heard from the beginning, that 12 we love one another. Not as Cain, who was of that evil One, and slew his brother. And why did he slay him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righte13 ous. Wonder not, [my] brethren, if the world hate you. 14 We know that we have passed over from death to life, because we love the brethren. He who loveth not his bro15 ther abideth in death. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murtherer and ye know that no murtherer hath everlast

Or, commandment.

Or, of the evil, i, e. a son of wickedness. Sn.

not a real, but a hypothetical and fictitious being: the principle of evil personified: the supposed cause of evil. Hence called the evil One. Ch. ii. 13, 14. See Simpson's Essays, p. 152.

16 ing life abiding in him. Hereby we know love', because Christ laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down 17 our lives for the brethren. But whosoever hath the good things of the world, and seeth his brother in need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how abideth 18 the love of God in him? [My] children, let us not love in 19 word, and in tongue, but in deed and in truth. And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure 3 our 20 hearts before him. For if our heart condemn us, God is 21 greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. Beloved,

if our heart condemn us not, then we have confidence to22 ward God: and whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things 23 which are pleasing in his sight. And this is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and should love one another, as he hath given us 24 commandment. And he that keepeth his commandments abideth in Him, and He in him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the spirit which he hath given us. CH. IV. Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they be of God: because many false prophets are 2 gone out into the world. Hereby ye know the spirit of God: every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ is 3 come in the flesh *, is of God. And every spirit which confesseth not Jesus, is not of God. And this is that spirit of antichrist, of which ye have heard that it should come; and 4 it is in the world now already. Ye are of God, my chil dren, and have overcome them: for he that is in you is 5 greater than he that is in the world. They are of the world therefore they speak of the world, and the world


Or, Hereby we have understood what love is. 2 Gr. having need. 3 Or, persuade, N. m. that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, R. T.

* That is, that Jesus Christ was a real man, in opposition to the Gnostics and Docetæ, who taught that Christ was a man only in appearance. See Di. Priestley in loc.

6 heareth them. We are of God. He that knoweth God, heareth us: he that is not of God, heareth us not. Hereby we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.


Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God: and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth 8 God. He that loveth not, hath not known God; for God 9 is love. Herein the love of God was manifested toward


us; that God sent his only Son into the world, that we 10 might live through him. Herein is love; not that we loved God, but that He loved us, and sent his Son to be a propi11 tiation for our sins*. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also 12 ought to love one another. No man hath seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abideth in us, and the 13 love of him is perfected in us.

Hereby we know that we abide in him, and He in us, because he hath given us of 14 his spirit. And we have seen, and we bear witness, that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world. 15 Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, 16 God abideth in him, and he in God. And we have known

and believed the love which God hath to us. God is love: and he that abideth in love, abideth in God, and God in 17 him. Hereby love is perfected among us to the end that we may have confidence in the day of judgement: because 18 as He is, so are we in this world. There is no fear in love: but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment: wherefore he that feareth is not made perfect in 19 love. We love [Him,] because He first loved us. If a 20 man say, "I love God," and hate his brother, he speaketh falsely for how can he who loveth not his brother, whom 21 he hath seen, love God, whom he hath not seen? And we

'Gr. only-begotten. See John i. 16. 18. 2 for he who loveth not his brother, whom he hath seen, how can he love God, N.

i. e. to be the medium of the reconciliation of sinners by his gospel, See ch. ii. 2.

have this commandment from Him, that he who loveth God, love his brother also.


CH. V. Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God: and whosoever loveth the Father, loveth the Son 2 also. Hereby we know that we love the children of God, 3 when we love God, and keep his commandments. For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: 4 and his commandments are not burthensome. For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world: and this is the victory which overcometh the world, even our faith. 5 Who is he that overcometh the world, but he who believ 6 eth that Jesus is the Son of God? This is he who came with water and blood, even Jesus Christ: not with water 7 only, but with water and blood. And it is the spirit which 8 beareth testimony; for the spirit is truth *. For there are

1 and whosoever loveth him that begat, loveth him also that is begotten by him. N. and Gr. grievous. N. 3 Or, whosoever, N. m.3

The received text reads, "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth." N. B. 1, This text concerning the heavenly witnesses is not contained in any Greek manuscript which was written earlier than the fifteenth century. 2. Nor in any Latin manuscript earlier than the ninth century. 3. It is not found in any of the ancient ver• sions. 4. It is not cited by any of the Greek ecclesiastical writers, though to prove the doctrine of the Trinity they have cited the words both before and after this text. 5. It is not cited by any of the early Latin fathers, even when the subjects upon which they treat would naturally have led them to appeal to its authority. 6. It is first cited by Vigilius Tapsensis, a Latin writer of no credit, in the latter end of the fifth century, and by him it is sus pected to have been forged. 7. It has been omitted as spurious in many editions of the New Testament since the Reformation:-in the two first of Erasmus, in those of Aldus, Colinæus, Zwinglius, and lately of Griesbach. 8. It was omitted by Luther in his German version. In the old English Bibles of Henry VIII. Edward VI. and Elizabeth, it was printed in small types, or included in brackets: but between the years 1566 and 1580 it began to be printed as it now stands; by whose authority, is not known. See Tra vis's Letters to Gibbon, and Porson's to Travis. Also, Griesbach's excellent Dissertation on the Text at the end of his second volume. Abp. Newcome omits the text, and the Bishop of Lincoln expresses his conviction that it is spurious. Elem, of Theol. vol. ii. p. 90, note.

three who bear testimony, the spirit, and the water, and 9 the blood; and these three agree in one. If we receive the

testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater for this is the testimony of God, which he hath testified of his Son, 10 He who believeth on the Son of God, hath the testimony in himself: he who believeth not God, maketh him false', because he believeth not the testimony which God hath 11 testified of his Son. And this is the testimony, that God

hath given to us everlasting life; and this life is through 12 his Son. He that hath the Son, hath life; and he that hath 13 not the Son of God, hath not life. These things I write unto you, that ye may know that ye have everlasting life, who believe in the name of the Son of God.


And this is the confidence which we have in him; that if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us. 15 And if we know that he heareth us, whatsoever we ask,

we know that we have the petitions which we ask of him. 16 If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto


death, he shall ask, and shall obtain life for him3: for them, I say, who sin not unto death*. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall request for it *: 17 all unrighteousness is sin and there is a sin not unto 18 death. We know that whosoever is born of God sinneth not but he that is born of God keepeth himself, and 19 evil toucheth him not. We know that we are of God; 20 and the whole world lieth in evil. And we know that


1 Or, a liar. 2 These things I write unto you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe in the name of the Son of God, R.T, 3 Or, and God will give him life: N. m. 4 Or, petition concerning this. evil One, N.

5 guardeth, S, 74, the

* Sin and disease were considered as so inseparably connected according to the Jewish philosophy, that, perhaps, the apostle might mean nothing more by the advice which he here gives, than to recommend prayer for the sick where the disease was curable, and to dissuade from unbecoming importunity where the malady was evidently incurable, and fatal. See John ix, 2, 34; Mati, ix. 1-8. See Dr. Priestley in loc.

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