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which things some are hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unsteadfast wrest, as they do the other scrip17 tures also, to their own destruction. Since, therefore, beloved, ye know these things before, beware lest ye be led away with the error of the wicked', and fall from your own 18 steadfastness. But grow in the favour and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory, both now and for ever2. Amen.

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1 CONCERNING* the Word of Life +, him, who was from the beginning ‡, whom we have heard, whom we have seen with our eyes, whom we have looked upon, and 2 our hands have handled'; (for the Life § was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare unto you that Everlasting Life which was with the Father, and was 3 manifested unto us ;) him whom we have seen and heard,


1 The Primate's version is: "That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen'with our eyes, which we have looked on, and our hands have handled, as concerning the Word of life." 2 that which,

Gr. and Newcome.

This version of the three first verses of this chapter was proposed by the venerable Theophilus Lindsey, in his Second Address to the Students at Oxford and Cambridge, p. 302. It is to the unwearied and successful labours of this pious and learned person, whose life and doctrine have exhibited the most perfect model in modern times of the purity and simplicity of apostolical christianity, in conjunction with those of his able coadjutors, Jebb, Priestley, Wakefield, and others, that the christian world is indebted for that clear and discriminating light which has of late years been diffused over the obscurities of the sacred scriptures, and which promises, at no very distant period, to purify the Christian religion from those numerous and enormous corruptions which have so long disfigured its doctrines and impeded its progress.

+ The Word of Life, i. e. Jesus Christ, who is called the Word, Luke i. 2; John i. 1; and the Word of God, Rev. xix. 13. He was the divinely inspired teacher of the doctrine of a future life. The attentive reader will observe the resemblance between the introduction to the Epistle and that to the Gospel of John, which mutually illustrate and explain each other, and are a presumptive proof that both were written by the same author.

Not from the beginning of time, but from the beginning of our Saviour's ministry. Lindsey, ibid. p. 303. See John i. 1,2, and the notes there.

§ Life, and in the next clause, Everlasting Life.-Christ is so called as the great Teacher of everlasting life.

we declare unto you', that ye also may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and 4 with his son Jesus Christ. And these things we write unto you, that your joy may be completed 2.



Now this is the declaration which we have heard from him, and make known unto you; that God is light, and in 6 him is no darkness at all. If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we speak falsely, and con7 form not to the truth: but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, God and we have fellowship with each other, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all 8 sin*. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, 9 and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse 10 us from all unrighteousness. If we say that we have not sinned, we make him false, and his word is not in us. CH. II. My children, I write these things unto you, that ye may not sin. Yet if any man sin, we have an advocate with 2 the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous +: and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world .



And we hereby know that we know him, if we keep his 4 commandments. He who saith, "I know him," and keep

The following is Mr. Wakefield's version: "What was at first, what we heard, what we saw with our eyes, what we observed, and our hands handled, concerning the doctrine of life: (for this Life showed itself, and we saw it, and bear testimony, and declare unto you this Eternal Life, which was with the Father, and showed itself unto us) what we saw and heard we declare unto you." 2 may be full. N. 3 promise, Mss. 4 Gr, do not the truth. & God is so faithful and just as to forgive, N.

* The blood, that is, the doctrine of Jesus confirmed by his death. See John vi. 53-56.

+ Or, a righteous advocate with the Father, even Jesus Christ. Wakefield. The word waganλnros, advocate, is of very general import: q. d. Christ is the medium of reconciliation. See Schleusner. A guide to the Father. Sn.

for the sins of, &c. N. inasuos, the act of pacifying an offended party. Schleusner. Christ is a propitiation, as by his gospel he brings sinners to repentance, and thus averts the divine displeasure.

eth not his commandments, speaketh falsely, and the truth 5 is not in him. But whosoever keepeth his word, of a truth the love of God is perfected in him: hereby we know that 6 we are in him. He who saith that he abideth in him, ought himself so to walk as He walked.


Beloved', I write not a new commandment unto you, but an old commandment which ye had from the beginning: the old commandment is the word which ye have heard 8 [from the beginning]. Again, a new commandment I write unto you which thing is true in Him and in you also: for the darkness is passed away, and the true light now 9 shineth. "He who saith that he is in the light, and hateth 10 his brother, is in darkness until now. He who loveth his

brother, abideth in the light, and he hath no cause of stum11 bling. But he who hateth his brother, is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because darkness hath blinded his eyes.".

12 I write unto you, my children, because your sins are 13 forgiven you on account of his name. [I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that was from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the evil *. I write unto you, my children, be14 cause ye have known the Father.] I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that was from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome 15 the evil. Love not the world, nor the things which are in

the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Fa16 ther is not in him. For all that is in the world, (the desire of the flesh, and the desire of the eyes, and the pride

1 Brethren, R. T.

2 Or, is passing away.

3 through his name. N.

q. d. you have subdued vicious habits and inclinations. Or, you have triumphed over persecution. Newcome adds the evil One: but Mr. Simpson observes that there is no need to suppose a personification.

17 of life,) is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away, and the desire of it: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.


My children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist will come, so even now there are many an19 tichrists; by which we know that it is the last time. They went out from us, but they were not of us: for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us: but this hath come to pass to make it manifest that all are not of us'. 20 But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and know 21 all things. I write not unto you because ye know not the


truth: but because ye know it, and that no falsehood is 22 from the truth. Who speaketh falsely, but he who denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denieth the 23 Father and the Son. Whosoever denieth the Son, hath not the Father: but he that acknowledgeth the Son, hath 24 the Father also3. Let that [therefore] abide in you, which ye have heard from the beginning. If that which ye have heard from the beginning shall abide in you, ye also will 25 abide in the Son, and in the Father. And this is the pro26 mise which he promised us, even everlasting life. These

things I write unto you concerning those who would deceive 27 you. But the unction which ye have received from him

abideth in you, and ye need not that any one teach you: but as that unction teacheth you of all things, and is true, and is not falsehood, even as it hath taught you, abide in 28 him. And now, my children, abide in him; that, when he shall be manifested, we may have confidence, and may not 29 be ashamed before him at his appearance. If ye know that he is righteous, be assured that every one who doeth righte ousness is born of him.

CH. III. Behold what great love the Father hath bestowed on

Or, they are made manifest; for all are not of us. Or, they went out, that they might be manifested, that all are not of us. 2 Or, anointing. his unction, Mss. 3" he that acknowledgeth &c." wanting in R.T. 4 which the Son hath promised us, N.

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