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10 and true God; and to look for his son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, who delivereth' us from the punishment which is to come.



CH. 11. For yourselves, brethren, know that our entering in 2 among you was not in vain: but after we had before suffered, and had been shamefully treated, as ye know, at Philippi; we had freedom of speech through our God to preach unto you the gospel of God with much earnestness. 3 For our exhortation was not of error, nor of uncleanness, 4 nor in guile but as we were approved of God to be entrusted with the gospel, we so speak, not as pleasing men, 5 but God, who proveth our hearts. For neither at any time used we flattering words, as ye know, nor a pretence of 6 covetousness: (God is witness :) nor from men sought we glory, either from you or from others; when we might have 7 used authority, as apostles of Christ: but we were gentle among you, as a nursing-mother' cherisheth her children. 8 Being thus affectionately desirous of you, we are willing to bestow on you, not the gospel of God only, but our own 9 lives also, because ye are become dear to us. For ye remember, brethren, our labour and toil: how working night and day, that we might not be burthensome to any of you, 10 we preached to you the gospel of God. Ye are witnesses,


and God also, how holily, and righteously, and unblameably 11 we behaved ourselves among you that believe: as ye khow how we exhorted, and comforted, and charged every one of 12 you, as a father doth his children, that ye should walk in a manner worthy of God, who calleth you to his glorious kingdom".

For this cause we thank God also without ceasing, that, when ye received the word of God which ye heard from us, ye embraced it, not as the word of men, but (as it is in truth)


2 Gr. anger. 3 even, R. T. and N.
5 So Wakefield. " nurse," N.

Or, will deliver, N. m.
covetous pretence, N. m.
R. T. 7 Gr, kingdom and glory.

4 Or, a

6 for working,

the word of God', which powerfully worketh also in you 14 that believe. For ye, brethren, are become imitators of the churches of God in Judæa, which are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things from your own country. 15 men, even as they have from the Jews; who both killed the Lord Jesus, and the prophets, and have persecuted us, and 16 please not God, and are against all men: forbidding us to speak to the gentiles, that they may be saved: so that the Jews fill up the measure of their sins always: for anger hath overtaken them to utter destruction.


Now we, brethren, having been bereaved of you for a short time, in presence, not in heart, have abundantly en18 deavoured with great desire to see your face. Wherefore

we have been willing to come unto you (even I Paul) both 19 once and again; but Satan* hath hindered us. For what



is our hope, or joy, or crown of glorying? are not even

ye in the presence of our Lord Jesus [Christ] at his com20 ing? for ye are indeed our glory and our joy. CH. 111. Wherefore, being no longer able to bear our solici 2 tude, we thought it good to be left at Athens alone; and

sent Timothy our brother', and fellow-worker together with God in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to 3 comfort you concerning your faith; that no man should be

moved by these mine afflictions: for yourselves know that 4 we are appointed to this. For, when we were with you,

we told you beforehand that we should suffer affliction; 5 even as it hath come to pass, and ye know. For this cause, also, being no longer able to bear my solicitude, I sent to know your faith; fearing lest by some means the tempter

1 Or, 66 not as a word of men, but (as it truly is) a word of God." See Chandler. their own prophets, R. T. 3 Symonds. 5. ♦ Or, at a moment's warning, Wakefield. 5 will be, N. 6 will, N. 7 our brother, and minister of God, and our fellow-labourer in the gospel, R. T.

* "wicked men, the instruments of Satan,” N. Or, in general, any other obstruction.

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6 had tempted you*, and our labour might be in vain. But now, when Timothy came from you to us, and brought us glad tidings of your faith and love, and that ye have a good remembrance of us always, longing to see us, as we also do 7 to see you; for this cause, brethren, we were comforted con

cerning you in all our affliction and distress, even by your 8 faith: for now we live indeed, if ye stand firmly in the Lord. 9 For what thanks can we return to God because of you, for

all the joy with which we rejoice for your sakes before our 10 God; night and day praying very exceedingly, that we

might see your face, and might perfect that which remain11 eth behind of your faith? Now may our God and Father

himself, and our Lord Jesus Christ †, direct our way to you. 12 And may the Lord make you to increase and abound in love

one toward another, and toward all men, even as we do to13 ward you that he may establish your hearts unblameable in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus [Christ] with all his saints.

CH. IV. FINALLY then we beseech you, brethren, and exhort you by the Lord Jesus, that, as ye have received of us how ye ought to walk, and to please God, ye would abound 2 more and more. For ye know what commandments we gave 3 you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. For this is the will of God, even your sanctification; that ye abstain from for4 nication; that every one of you know how to keep his body' 5 in sanctification and honour; (not in the passion of desire, 6 even as the gentiles who know not God;) so as not to go beyond and overreach his brother in this matter: because the Lord is an avenger of all such, as we have formerly also 7 told you, and testified. For God hath not called us to un

1 Gr. vessel.

* i. e. lest you had suffered some grievous persecution. Or, “lest you should be shaken by the persecutions which I suffer." Newcome.

+ The apostle in his missionary labours was under the immediate direction of Christ, who occasionally appeared to him for his guidance and encouragement. See Acts xxii. 17; 2 Cor. xii. 8,9.

8 cleanness, but to sanctification. He therefore who despiseth, despiseth not man, but God; who hath also given to us his holy spirit'.


Now as concerning brotherly kindness, ye need not that I write unto you: for ye yourselves are taught of God to 10 love one another: and indeed ye do this toward all the

brethren that are in all Macedonia. But we beseech you, 11 brethren, that ye abound in love still more; and that ye

earnestly strive to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your [own] hands, as we formerly com 12 manded you; that ye may walk becomingly toward those that are without, and that ye may have need of nothing. Now we would not have you ignorant, brethren, concerning those that are fallen asleep; that ye grieve not, 14 even as others that have no hope. For if we believe that

Jesus died, and rose again; so also that * God, through Jesus, will bring with him those also that are fallen asleep. 15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we who shall be alivet, and who shall remain to the appear ance of the Lord, shall not be before those that are fallen 16 asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel", and with the 17 trumpet of God: and the dead in Christ will rise first: after.



1 Or, who hath given his holy spirit for our (or, as some copies read, for your) benefit. So Wakefield. 2 we need not write, Mss. 3 Gr. ambitiously, 5 Or, go before, N.m. Or, an archangel, N. m.


I would not, &c. R. T.

"Even so," N. The sense of this verse is: "If we believe, as we do, the death and resurrection of Christ; we have equally just reason to believe that God has power to raise the dead at the last day." N.

+ "We Christians, who may be considered as one body, church, or people, in whatever age we live." See Deut. xxvi. 6-9. Ps. lxvi. 6. Matt, xxiii, 35, 'ye slew.'" Newcome. This is true; but it is not certain that the apostle might not expect to live till the second appearance of Christ. It appears from the second epistle, that he knew that the day of Christ was not immediately ap• proaching, and that great events would antecedently take place. But he might not know how long a period these events would occupy. The times and seasons were reserved by the Father in his own power, Acts i. 7. and Jesus himself was not informed of the exact period when his second advent was to be introduced. Mark xiii. 32.

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ward, we who shall be alive, and who shall remain, shall be caught up together with them into the clouds *, to meet the Lord in the air: and then we shall ever be with the 18 Lord. Wherefore comfort ye one another with these words t.

CH. V. But concerning the times and the seasons', brethren, 2 ye have no need that I write unto you. For yourselves well know that the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the 3 night. When men shall say, "Peace and safety;" then sudden destruction will come upon them, as pangs upon a 4 woman with child: and they shall not escape. But ye, bre thren, are not in darkness, that the last day should overtake 5 you as a thief. For all ye are sons of light, and sons of the 6 day; we are not of the night and of darkness. So then let us

not sleep, even as others; but let us watch, and be sober. 7 For those that sleep, sleep by night; and those that are 8 drunken, are drunken by night. But let us, that are of the

day, be sober; and put on the breast-plate of faith and love, 9 and, for an helmet, the hope of salvation. For God hath

not appointed us to anger, but to the obtaining of salvation 10 by our Lord Jesus Christ; who died for us, that, whether we are waking or sleeping at that day, we may live toge11 ther with him. Wherefore comfort each other, and edify one another, even as ye do.



Now we beseech you, brethren, to acknowledge those who labour among you, and preside over you in the Lord,

1" the time and the season of this," N.
omit the connecting particle "For."
the last day," N. "whether we be alive
in death." Ch. iv. 15. 17. Newcome.

2 For when, R.T. 3 R. T. and N. 4" whether we wake or sleep at at the last day, or whether we sleep

* "in clouds," as in triumphal chariots, Chandler. Comp. Acts. i. 9.

+ Observe here, that all the consolation which the apostle administers to the bereaved and mourning Thessalonians is derived from the Christian hope of a resurrection, and from what would happen at that awful and glorious period. He takes no notice of an intervening state of perception and felicity of which their deceased friends were even then in possession. A circumstance which the apostle could hardly have omitted had the existence of such a state been revealed to him.

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