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above five hundred brethren at once;. of whom the greater 7 part remain until now, but some are fallen asleep. After that, 8 he was seen by James; then by all the apostles. And, last

of all, he was seen by me also, as by one born out of due 9 time. For I am the least of the apostles, that am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of 10 God. But by the favour of God I am what I am and his

favour which was bestowed on me, was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all; yet not I, but the 11 favour of God which was with me. Whether therefore it be I or they, so we preach, and so ye have believed.


Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of 13 the dead'? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then 14 Christ is not risen. And if Christ be not risen, then is both 15 our preaching vain, and your faith [also] vain2. Yea, we are

found false witnesses also concerning God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ, whom he raised 16 not up, if the dead rise not. For if the dead rise not, then 17 Christ is not risen. And if Christ be not risen, your faith is 18 vain; ye are still in your sins. Then those also that are 19 fallen asleep in Christ, have perished *. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.


But indeed Christ hath been raised from the dead3, the 21 first-fruits of those who sleep. For since by man came 22 death, by man also cometh the resurrection of the dead. For as through Adam all die, so likewise through Christ all will 23 be made alive +. But every one in his own order: Christ

1 Or, "that the resurrection of the dead is an impossibility ?" Newcome's note. 2 then our preaching is vain, and your faith also is vain. N. 3 So Wakefield, "But now Christ is risen from the dead," N. 4 he is the first fruits, R. T. and N.

* Observe, if there is no resurrection Christ is not raised, and all his disciples are lost. This reasoning is utterly inconsistent with the supposition that the virtuous dead are in a state of felicity previous to their resurrection.

+ "Here," says Dr. Priestley in his note upon the text, "the apostle evidently considers Christ as a mere man as much as Adam was ; death being in

the first-fruits; afterward those that are Christ's at his ap24 pearance. (Then will be the end, when Christ shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down' all rule, and all authority, and power: 25 for he must reign, till he have put all enemies under his 26 feet. The last enemy shall be destroyed, even death*. For 27 "he hath subjected all things under his feet.” But when it

is said, “All things are subjected," it is manifest that He is 28 excepted who subjected all things to him. And when all things shall be subjected to him, then the Son himself also will be subjected to Him who subjected all things to him, 29 that God may be all among all.) Otherwise, what shall they do that are baptized in the place of those that are dead, if the dead rise not at all? why then are they baptized in their 30 place+? And why stand we also in danger every hour? I

1 done away, N.

troduced by one man, and eternal life by another." It is also to be observed, that all, without exception, who die in Adam, will participate in this glorious and happy resurrection by Christ. Not, indeed, all at the same time, but each in his own order. First, Christ; afterwards, all virtuous persons and true believers, at his second coming; lastly, cometh the end, the grand consummation of all things, when all his enemies shall be put under his feet, and all things shall be subdued to him: that is, when all natural and moral evil shall be exterminated, and death shall be swallowed up in victory. This is that glorious issue of the divine administration to which the gospel encourages us to look forward, and for which it is intended to qualify and prepare all who practically embrace it." Blessed and holy is he who hath part in the first resurrection; on such the second death hath no power." See Chancy on Universal Salvation, p. 197.

"The last enemy who will be done away is death." N. This translation, which agrees also with the common version, greatly enervates the apostle's meaning; which is to announce that this great enemy will be completely destroyed; not merely that he will be the last in order for destruction. See Doddridge, and Hallet's Notes and Obs. vol. i. p. 75.

in the place of the dead, R. T. "Le Clerc, on Hammond, says, 'To me their interpretation seems most probable, who suppose ¿☛g equivalent to avi, and the sense to be this: If there were no resurrection, what would become of those who every day, though they see christians put to death for their profes sion, yet cheerfully receive baptism, that they may supply the place of those that are dead in the christian church.'"-" Baptized for the dead; or, concerning the dead; that is, as a profession of their faith in the resurrection of the dead, or in the gospel which teaches that important doctrine. See Alexander in loc.

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31 protest by my glorying on your account' which I have in 32 Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. If, to speak according to the manner of men, I have fought with wild beasts at Ephesus*, what doth it profit me? If the dead rise not, 33 let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we diet. Be not de

ceived: "Evil conversations corrupt good manners." 34 Awake truly, and sin not: for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame.


But some man will say,

"How are the dead raised up? 36 and with what body do they come?" Thou inconsiderate man, 37 that which thou sowest is not made alive, unless it die. And

as to that which thou sowest, thou sowest not the body which will be, but bare grain; perhaps of wheat, or of some other 38 grain. But God giveth it a body, as it hath pleased him; 39 and to every seed its own body. All flesh is not the same flesh but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of 40 beasts, and another of fishes, and another of birds. There are also heavenly bodies, and earthly bodies; but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is an41 other. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of

the moon, and another glory of the stars: (for one star dif42 fereth from another star in glory:) so is the resurrection of

the dead also. The body is sown in corruption ‡, it is raised 43 in incorruption: it is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glo44 ry: it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: it is sown an animal body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is an

"Seeing there is an animal body, there


by our glorying which, &c. Mss.

is also," &c. Mss.

"If, to borrow an image from human affairs, Gal. iii. 15, I have contend

ed with men as fierce as beasts at Ephesus, and thus,
demned to fight with wild beasts, &c. See ch. iv. 9.
Pearce as saying, απο Συριας μεχρι Ῥώμης θηριομαχω.”

as it were, have been con-
Ignatius is quoted by Bp.

The Archbishop

This is the punctuation of Wakefield and Griesbach. adopts that of the common version.

The comparison here is not between the body which is put into the grave and that which will be raised at the last day, but between the state of man in the present frail and mortal life, and that in which he will be placed after his resurrection from the grave, when he will be made glorious, happy, and immortal.

45 animal body, and there is a spiritual body. And so it is writ

ten, The first "man,” Adam, “became a living animal :" 46 but the last Adam is a life-giving spirit. However, that was

not first which is spiritual, but that which is animal: and 47 afterward came that which is spiritual. The first man was

from the ground, earthy: the second man will be from hea48 ven [heavenly *]. As was the earthy, such are they also that

are earthy; and as is the heavenly, such will they also be 49 that are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall bear the image of the heavenly also.

But this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor doth corruption inherit in51 corruption. Behold, I show you a mystery: we shall not 52 all sleep, but we shall all be changed †, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and 53 we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on in54 corruption; and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then will come to pass the words which are written: "Death is swallowed 55 up in victory." "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, 56 where is thy victory?" Now the sting of death is sin; and 57 the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who

giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. 58 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, immoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord; knowing that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.


* The second man will be [the Lord] from heaven. N. and Griesbach. The word Kugios (Lord) is wanting in the Vatican, Ephr. Clermont, and many other manuscripts, and in the most ancient versions, and is marked by Griesbach as probably an interpolation. The word ugavis (heavenly) is found in some good Mss., and in the Ethiopic and Vulgate versions. By introducing it, the latter clause of the verse better corresponds with the former. See Wakefield. Marcion is accused by Tertullian of inserting the word Kugios.

"we shall all sleep, but we shall not all be changed." Mss. This is the reading of the Ephrem manuscript: but it seems hardly intelligible. The copies vary; but the received text is supported by the Vatican manuscript and the Syriac version, and is probably the true reading.

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CH. XVI. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I

have appointed to the churches of Galatia, so do ye likewise. 2 Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay somewhat by him, treasuring up according as he prospereth; that 3 there be no collections when I come. And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve, them I will send with letters 4 to take your gift to Jerusalem. But if it be worthy of my 5 going also, they shall go with me. Now I will come to you, when I shall pass through Macedonia: (for I mean to pass 6 through Macedonia :) and perhaps I shall remain, yea, and

winter with you, that ye may conduct me on my way whi7thersoever I go. For I do not desire to see you, at this time,

on the way only; but I hope to remain a while with you, if 8 the Lord permit. But I shall remain at Ephesus until Pen9 tecost. For a great and laborious door1 is opened to me : and I have many adversaries.

Now if Timothy come, see that he be with you without fear: for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do. 11 Let no man therefore despise him: but conduct him on his way in peace: that he may come to me: for I expect him 12 with the brethren. And concerning our brother Apollos, I greatly entreated him to come unto you with the brethren: yet he was by no means willing to come now; but he will come when he shall have a convenient time.



Watch, stand firmly in the faith, show yourselves men, 14 be strong. Let all things among you be done with love.


Now I entreat you, brethren, whereas ye know that the household of Stephanas is the first-fruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted themselves to the service of the saints, 16 that ye also submit yourselves to such, and to every one that 17 helpeth with me and laboureth. I rejoice at the coming of

Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus: for what remain18 ed to be done on your part, they have supplied. For they

1 Or, opportunity, N. m.

2 E

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