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he dwelt among us: and we beheld his glory*, the glory 16 as of the only sont who came from the Father. For of
his fulness we have all received; and favour for favour. 17 For the law was given by Moses; but favour and truth were 18 by Jesus Christ. No man hath seen God at any time; § the
1 And, R. T. and N.
appropriated to Christ here, and in other places. 1 Tim. iii. 16; Rom. i. 3; ix. 5; 1 Pet. iii. 18; iv. 1. 'O Aoyos ragg syiviro, the Word was flesh, not became flesh, which is Newcome's translation, or, was made flesh, which is the com. mon version. The most usual meaning of you is to be. In this sense tyinro is used in this chapter, ver. 6; also in Luke xxiv. 19. "The things concerning Jesus of Nazareth, is syturo, who was," not who became, "a prophet." See Cappe, p. 86; and Socinus in loc.
* we beheld his glory.] we were witnesses to his miracles, his resurrection, the descent of the holy spirit, &c. John xvii. 1, 4, 5; xii. 16; xvi. 14; Acts iii. 12, 13. Compare 1 John i. 1.
+ as of the only son.] "only begotten," N. This expression does not refer to any peculiar mode of derivation of existence, but is used to express merely a higher degree of affection. It is applied to Isaac, Heb. xi. 17, though Abraham had other sons. The same word in the Hebrew is translated indifferently povoyons and ayuntos. This word is applied to Christ by the evangelist John four times in the gospel, and once in his epistle: and by no other writer of the New Testament. In the epistle to the Hebrews it unquestionably signifies be loved or most beloved: and in this sense it is used by John, ch. i. 14, 18; iii. 16, 18; 1 John iv. 9. "He seems to adopt it," says Mr. Lindsey, (Seq. p. 139) “on all occasions where the other sacred writers would have said ayanтes." Compare Matt. iii. 17; xvii. 5; Mark i. 11; ix. 7; xii. 6; Luke iii. 22; ix. 35. See Cappe, ibid. p. 94, and Grotius in loc. Mr. Lindsey observes, that only begotten is most gross and improper language to be used in English, especially with respect to Deity." List of Wrong Translations, p. 46.
and favour for favour.] xagis avri xagiros, the free gift of the gospel in the place of that of the law, as the evangelist himself explains it in the following verse. The law came by Moses, but favour and truth, that is, true favour, the best and most excellent gift, came by Jesus Christ. Compare ver, 9. See Beza and Castalio on the text, and Theolog. Repos. vol. i. p. 51. Abp. Newcome, with the generality of interpreters, renders the passage "favour upon favour;" explaining it of abundant graciousness, or benignity. But he justly adds, that a clear instance of a in this sense is wanted.
the only Son.]" only begotten Son," N. See above ver. 14. Mr. Lindsey observes (Sequel, p. 139,) that it has been conjectured by interpreters of great note, that our apostle made choice of this word voytvns to confute the strange chimerical notions which some mystic christians fell into very early. They pretended to be acquainted with a variety of emanations or intelligences issuing from the Supreme: of these Monogenes, or only begotten, was one, and Monogenes produced Logos, the Word (Christ) and Life, which were the parents of all things produced after them.
only Son that is in the bosom of the Father *, he hath declared him t.
John bare witness of him and cried, saying, "This is he
* that is in the bosom of the Father.]" who is his beloved Son," Matt. iii. 17; Col. i. 13. Newcome. Rather, who was in the beginning with God, ver. 1, 2; to derive instruction, and to receive authority from him. Who has now finished his mission and ministry, and is returned to God, John xiii. 1; and “is admitted to such communion with the Father, and honoured with such tokens of his favour, as have never been enjoyed by any of the sons of men." Cappe, p. 116. There is an allusion to the situation of the most honoured guests at an entertainment, according to the ancient custom of reclining at table. See John xiii. 23. The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus: and Lazarus is represented as in Abraham's bosom, Luke xvi. 22, 23.
+ Many very eminent interpreters have given a different turn to this whole paragraph. The following is Mr. Lindsey's version, as it appears in his List of False Readings and Mistranslations, p. 40.
"In the beginning was Wisdom, and Wisdom was with God, and God was Wisdom. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by it, and without it was nothing made. In it was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not.
"There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a witness to bear witness of the light, that all men through him might believe. He was not that light, but was sent to bear witness of that light. That was the true light which came into the world, and enlighteneth every man.
"It (divine Wisdom) was in the world, and the world was made by it, and the world knew it not. It came to its own land, and its own people received it not. But as many as received it, to them it gave power to become the sons of God, even to them who believe on its name. Who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
"And Wisdom became man, and dwelt among us, and we beheld its glory, the glory as of the well-beloved of the Father, full of grace and truth. "John bare witness of him, saying, This is he of whom I spake. He that cometh after me is preferred before me, for he was greater than me (I).”
This sense of the passage is approved by Dr. Lardner, Dr. Priestley, Mr. Wakefield, and others. It is supposed to be countenanced by Solomon's description, Prov. viii. by the custom of the Chaldee paraphrasts in using the word of God for God himself. See Isa, xlv. 12; xlviii. 13; Gen. i. 27; iii. 8. Lindsey's Seq. p. 380; and by the use of the word Aeyes by Philo and other philosophers in or near the apostolic age, to personify the wisdom and the power of God. Aoyos 1519 11xwv O18, di' è ovμxas i xocpos ednuwsgyuro. Phil. Jud. p. 823. ed. Lut. See Wakefield's notes on John i. and his Enquiry into Early Opinions, p. 102, &c. See also Simpson's Essays, No. vii.
This is he of whom I said.] “This was he of whom I spake," N. "He who cometh after me in point of time, goeth before me, taketh precedency of me as the more honourable." Newcome. "For he is my principal." The great object of my ministry, to prepare whose way I have been sent forth," Cappe, ibid. p. 13. The word wgwros is used in the sense of a chief or principal. Mark
of whom I said, He who cometh' after me, is before me, for he is my principal.'"*
And this is the witness of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem, to ask him, "Who 20 art thou?" and he confessed, and denied not, but confessed, 21"I am not the Christ." And they asked him, "What then?
Art thou Elijah?" and he saith, "I am not." "Art thou 22 the prophet?" and he answered, "No." Then they said unto him, "Who art thou? that we may give an answer to 23 those who sent us. What sayest thou of thyself?" He said,
"I am the voice of one crying in the desert, 'Make straight 24 the way of the Lord:' as said the prophet Isaiah." Now 25 those who had been sent were of the Pharisees. Then they
asked him, and said unto him, "Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?" 26 John answered them, saying, “I baptize with water: but 27 there standeth one amidst you, whom ye know not; even he who cometh after me3; the latchet of whose sandal I am 28 not worthy to unloose." These things passed in Bethany* beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.
The next day he beholdeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, "See, the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of 30 the world. This is he of whom I said, 'After me cometh 31 a man, who is before me; for he is my principal'.' And I knew him not: but I therefore came baptizing with water, 32 that he might be made manifest to Israel." John also bare
1 N. m. goeth, N. t. 2a prophet? N. 3 He it is who coming after me is preferred before me, R. T. 4 Bethabara, R. T. and N. See Griesbach, and Newcome's note. 5 John beholdeth, R. T. and N. 6 N. m. goeth, N. t. 7" be was before me." N. See ver. 15.
vi. 21; Luke xix. 47; 1 Tim. i. 15, 16. Compare Matt. iii. 11; Mark i. 3; Luke iii. 16. "He that cometh after me is mightier than I." The common version of this clause, which Abp. Newcome adopts, is, "for he was before me,” that is, as usually interpreted, he existed before me.
* The connection requires that the fifteenth verse should be placed between the eighteenth and nineteenth, See Bowyer's Conjectures, and Wakefield in loc.
witness, saying, "I saw the spirit coming down from hea33 ven as a dove; and it abode upon him. And I knew him
not then: but he who sent me to baptize with water had said unto me, 'Upon whom thou shalt see the spirit coming down and abiding, this is he who baptizeth with the holy 34 spirit.' And I saw, and bare witness that this is the Son of God."
On the next day, John was again standing, and two of 36 his disciples: and he looked on Jesus who was walking, and 37 saith, "Behold the Lamb of God." And the two disciples 38 heard him speak, and followed Jesus. Then Jesus turned,
and saw them following, and saith unto them, "What seek ye?" And they said unto him, "Rabbi, (which signifieth, 39 being interpreted, Teacher') where dwellest thou?" He saith unto them, "Come and see." They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: (now it was 40 about the tenth hour.) One of the two that heard John
speak, and followed Jesus, was Andrew, Simon Peter's bro41 ther. He meeteth with his own brother Simon first of any, and saith to him, "We have found the Messiah:" (which 42 is, being interpreted, the Christ3.) And Andrew brought him to Jesus. But Jesus looked on him, and said, "Thou art Simon the son of Jonah: thou shalt be called Cephas:" (which being interpreted is, a rock.)
The day following, Jesus purposed to go into Galilee ; and meeteth with Philip, and saith unto him, "Follow me." 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip meeteth with Nathanael, and saith unto him, " We
have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets 46 also, wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." Then Nathanael said unto him, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip saith unto him, "Come and see.” 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, "BeCome and you shall see, Mss. 3 Or, the anointed. And
1 Master, N.
48 hold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." Nathanael saith unto him, "Whence knowest thou me?" Jesus answered and said unto him, "Before Philip called thee, 49 when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee." Nathanael answered and saith unto him, "Rabbi', thou art the Son 50 of God; thou art the king of Israel." Jesus answered and Isaid unto him, "Because I said unto thee, 'I saw thee under the fig-tree,' believest thou? thou shalt see greater 51 things than these." Then Jesus saith unto him, "Verily verily I say unto you, [Hereafter] ye shall see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of man*.'
CH. II. AND the third day there was a marriage-feast in Cana 2 of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: And Jesus and his disciples also were invited to the marriage-feast. 3 And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus saith unto 4 him, “They have no wine." Jesus saith unto her, “Wo-` man, what have I to do with thee?? mine hour is not yet 5 come." His mother saith to his servants, "Whatsoever 6 he saith unto you, do it." Now six water-pots of stone were placed there, according to the manner of cleansing among 7 the Jews, containing two or three baths + apiece. Jesus saith unto them, "Fill the water-pots with water." And 8 they filled them to the brim. Then he saith unto them, "Draw out now, and bear to the governor of the feast." And when the governor of the feast had which was made wine, and knew not
9 And they bare it.
tasted the water
whence it was;
(but the servants who drew the water knew ;) the governor of the feast calleth the bridegroom,
2 Or, what hast thou to do with me?
1 Master, or, My master, N. An allusion to Jacob's vision, Gen. xxviii, 12. They should witness divine communications to Jesus, ch. xii. 28. Sn.
+"The LXX use the word in the original for the bath, which contained about seven gallons; and for the seah, which contained one third of the bath, 2 Chron. iv. 5; 1 Kings xviii. 32. The Syrian metretes, according to bishop Cumberland, contained seven pints and one eighth." N.